"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)


Per Alstrom
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Jon Fjeldsa
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NAMES >> Index >>Shorebirds & allies

IOC English NameScientific NameRangeComments
Buttonquail (17)
Family Turnicidae
  PHY : The buttonquails (Turnicidae) belong in the Charadriiformes, not the Gruiformes (Hackett et al. 2008)
Common Buttonquail Turnix sylvaticus  (Desfontaines, 1789) AF, OR : widespread ENG : Change English name of Turnix sylvaticus, a widespread species, from Kurrichane Buttonquail to Common Buttonquail, as in HBW and Dickinson (2003)
        T. s. sylvaticus  (Desfontaines, 1789) s Iberian Pen., nw Africa  
        T. s. lepurana  (Smith, A, 1836) Africa south of the Sahara  
        T. s. dussumier  (Temminck, 1828) e Iran to Burma  
        T. s. davidi  Delacour & Jabouille, 1930 c Thailand to s China, n Indochina and Taiwan  
        T. s. bartelsorum  Neumann, 1929 Java, Bali  
        T. s. whiteheadi  Ogilvie-Grant, 1897 Luzon (n Philippines)  
        T. s. celestinoi  McGregor, 1907 Bohol and Mindanao (s Philippines)  
        T. s. nigrorum  duPont, 1976 Negros I. (c Philippines)  
        T. s. suluensis  Mearns, 1905 Sulu Arch. (sw Philippines)  
Red-backed Buttonquail Turnix maculosus  (Temminck, 1815) AU : Sulawesi and New Guinea to n Australia  
        T. m. kinneari  Neumann, 1939 Peleng I. (e of Sulawesi)  
        T. m. beccarii  Salvadori, 1875 Sulawesi, Muna and Tomia Is. (Tukangbesi Is.)  
        T. m. obiensis  Sutter, 1955 Kai Is., Babar I.  
        T. m. sumbanus  Sutter, 1955 Sumba I. (Lesser Sundas)  
        T. m. floresianus  Sutter, 1955 Sumbawa, Komodo, Padar, Flores and Alor (Lesser Sundas)  
        T. m. maculosus  (Temminck, 1815) Roti, Semau, Timor, Wetar, Moa and Kisar (Lesser Sundas)  
        T. m. savuensis  Sutter, 1955 Sawu I. (Lesser Sundas)  
        T. m. saturatus  Forbes, WA, 1882 New Britain, Duke of York I. (Bismarck Arch.)  
        T. m. furvus  Parkes, 1949 Huon Pen. (ne New Guinea  
        T. m. giluwensis  Sims, 1954 c New Guinea  
        T. m. horsbrughi  Ingram, W, 1909 s New Guinea  
        T. m. mayri  Sutter, 1955 Louisiade Arch. (New Guinea)  
        T. m. salomonis  Mayr, 1938 Guadalcanal (Solomon Is.)  
        T. m. melanotus  (Gould, 1837) n and e Australia  
Hottentot Buttonquail Turnix hottentottus  Temminck, 1815 AF : South Africa ENG : Change English name of Turnix hottentatus from Black-rumped Buttonquail to Hottentot Buttonquail with split of H.nanus
Black-rumped Buttonquail Turnix nanus  (Sundevall, 1850) AF : widespread AS, ENG : The widespread H. nanus is split from T. hottentatus now restricted to South Africa; English name of Black-rumped Buttonquail transfers to H.nanus
Yellow-legged Buttonquail Turnix tanki  Blyth, 1843 OR : widespread  
        T. t. tanki  Blyth, 1843 c Pakistan, India, Nicobar and Andaman Is.  
        T. t. blanfordii  Blyth, 1863 se Siberia, Korea and ne China to Burma, Thailand and Indochina  
Spotted Buttonquail Turnix ocellatus  (Scopoli, 1786) OR : Philippines  
        T. o. benguetensis  Parkes, 1968 n Luzon  
        T. o. ocellatus  (Scopoli, 1786) s and c Luzon  
Barred Buttonquail Turnix suscitator  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : widespread  
        T. s. plumbipes  (Hodgson, 1837) Nepal to ne India and n Burma  
        T. s. bengalensis  Blyth, 1852 c and s of West Bengal (ne India)  
        T. s. taigoor  (Sykes, 1832) India (except above)  
        T. s. leggei  Baker, ECS, 1920 Sri Lanka  
        T. s. okinavensis  Phillips, AR, 1947 s Kyushu I. to Ryukyu Is. (Japan)  
        T. s. rostratus  Swinhoe, 1865 Taiwan  
        T. s. blakistoni  (Swinhoe, 1871) e Burma to s China and n Indochina  
        T. s. pallescens  Robinson & Baker, ECS, 1928 sc Burma  
        T. s. thai  Deignan, 1946 nw and c Thailand  
        T. s. interrumpens  Robinson & Baker, ECS, 1928 s Burma and Thailand  
        T. s. atrogularis  (Eyton, 1839) Malay Pen.  
        T. s. suscitator  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Sumatra, Java, Bawean, Belitung, Bangka and Bali  
        T. s. powelli  Guillemard, 1885 Lombok to Alor (Lesser Sundas)  
        T. s. rufilatus  Wallace, 1865 Sulawesi  
        T. s. haynaldi  Blasius, W, 1888 Palawan and nearby islands (w Philippines)  
        T. s. fasciatus  (Temminck, 1815) Luzon, Mindoro, Masbate, Sibuyan (n Philippines)  
        T. s. nigrescens  Tweeddale, 1878 Cebu, Guimaras, Negros, Panay (Philippines)  
Madagascan Buttonquail Turnix nigricollis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : Madagascar  
Black-breasted Buttonquail Turnix melanogaster  (Gould, 1837) AU : e Australia  
Chestnut-backed Buttonquail Turnix castanotus  (Gould, 1840) AU : n Australia  
Buff-breasted Buttonquail Turnix olivii  Robinson, 1900 AU : n Australia  
Painted Buttonquail Turnix varius  (Latham, 1802) AU : sw, se e Australia  
        T. v. novaecaledoniae † Ogilvie-Grant, 1889 New Caledonia  
        T. v. scintillans  (Gould, 1845) Houtman Abrolhos Is. (sw of Australia)  
        T. v. varius  (Latham, 1802) sw, se and e Australia  
Worcester's Buttonquail Turnix worcesteri  McGregor, 1904 OR : Philippines  
Sumba Buttonquail Turnix everetti  Hartert, 1898 AU : Lesser Sundas  
Red-chested Buttonquail Turnix pyrrhothorax  (Gould, 1841) AU : n, e, se Australia  
Little Buttonquail Turnix velox  (Gould, 1841) AU : Australia  
Quail-plover Ortyxelos meiffrenii  (Vieillot, 1819) AF : Mauritania and Senegal to Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya PHY : Relationships of Quail-plover uncertain; possibly related to coursers
Stone-curlews, Thick-knees (10)
Family Burhinidae
Eurasian Stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : w, sw EU  
        B. o. oedicnemus  (Linnaeus, 1758) w and s Europe to the Balkans, Ukraine and Caucasus  
        B. o. distinctus  (Bannerman, 1914) w Canary Is.  
        B. o. insularum  (Sassi, 1908) e Canary Is.  
        B. o. saharae  (Reichenow, 1894) n Africa and the Mediterranean islands to Iraq and Iran  
        B. o. harterti  Vaurie, 1963 w Kazakhstan to Pakistan and nw India  
Indian Stone-curlew Burhinus indicus  (Salvadori, 1865) OR : Indian subcontinent to se Asia AS : Burhinus indicus is split from Burhinus oedicnemus (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005).
Senegal Thick-knee Burhinus senegalensis  (Swainson, 1837) AF : Senegal to Ethiopia and Kenya and north to Egypt  
Water Thick-knee Burhinus vermiculatus  (Cabanis, 1868) AF : se, sc  
        B. v. buettikoferi  (Reichenow, 1898) Liberia to Gabon  
        B. v. vermiculatus  (Cabanis, 1868) DR Congo to Somalia and South Africa  
Spotted Thick-knee Burhinus capensis  (Lichtenstein, 1823) AF : widespread  
        B. c. maculosus  (Temminck, 1824) Senegal to Somalia south to n Uganda and n Kenya  
        B. c. dodsoni  (Ogilvie-Grant, 1899) coastal Somalia and Saudi Arabia  
        B. c. capensis  (Lichtenstein, 1823) s Kenya to South Africa, west from Zambia to Angola  
        B. c. damarensis  (Reichenow, 1905) Namibia, Botswana and w South Africa  
Double-striped Thick-knee Burhinus bistriatus  (Wagler, 1829) LA : s Mexico to n Brazil, also Hispaniola  
        B. b. bistriatus  (Wagler, 1829) s Mexico to nw Costa Rica  
        B. b. vocifer  (L'Herminier, 1837) Venezuela, Guyana and n Brazil  
        B. b. pediacus  Wetmore & Borrero, 1964 n Colombia  
        B. b. dominicensis  (Cory, 1883) Hispaniola  
Peruvian Thick-knee Burhinus superciliaris  (Tschudi, 1843) SA : s Ecuador to s Peru  
Bush Stone-curlew Burhinus grallarius  (Latham, 1802) AU : Australia  
Great Stone-curlew Esacus recurvirostris  (Cuvier, 1829) OR : se Iran through Southeast Asia  
Beach Stone-curlew Esacus magnirostris  (Vieillot, 1818) OR, AU : Malay Peninsula and Philippines to n Australia TAX : Correct species name of Beach Stone-curlew from neglectus to magnirostris (Dickinson 2003, Christides and Boles 2008)
Sheathbills (2)
Family Chionidae
Snowy Sheathbill Chionis albus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AN : s Atlantic islands  
Black-faced Sheathbill Chionis minor  Hartlaub, 1841 IO : s  
        C. m. marionensis  Reichenow, 1908 Prince Edward and Marion Is. (south of South Africa)  
        C. m. crozettensis  (Sharpe, 1896) Crozet Is. (s Indian Ocean)  
        C. m. minor  Hartlaub, 1841 Kerguelen Is. (s Indian Ocean)  
        C. m. nasicornis  Reichenow, 1904 Heard and McDonald Is. (s Indian Ocean)  
Magellanic Plover (1)
Family Pluvianellidae
  TAX : The Magellanic Plover (Pluvianellus) is most closely related to the sheathbills (Chionidae) (REF), but is treated as a monotypic family by the SACC.
Magellanic Plover Pluvianellus socialis  Gray, GR, 1846 SA : Southern Cone  
Oystercatchers (12)
Family Haematopodidae
Magellanic Oystercatcher Haematopus leucopodus  Garnot, 1826 SA : extreme s coasts  
Blackish Oystercatcher Haematopus ater  Vieillot, 1825 SA : s, w coasts  
Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani  Audubon, 1838 NA : w coast  
American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus  Temminck, 1820 NA, LA : widespread coasts  
        H. p. palliatus  Temminck, 1820 coastal se Canada, e USA to s South America and the West Indies  
        H. p. galapagensis  Ridgway, 1886 Galapagos Is.  
Canary Islands Oystercatcher Haematopus meadewaldoi †  Bannerman, 1913 AF : Canary Islands
African Oystercatcher Haematopus moquini  Bonaparte, 1856 AF : s, sw coasts  
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus  Linnaeus, 1758 EU : nw, c, e  
        H. o. ostralegus  Linnaeus, 1758 Iceland to Scandinavia and s Europe  
        H. o. longipes  Buturlin, 1910 Ukraine and Turkey to c Russia and w Siberia  
        H. o. buturlini  Dementiev, 1941 w Kazakhstan to nw China  
        H. o. osculans  Swinhoe, 1871 Kamchatka Pen., Korea, ne China  
South Island Oystercatcher Haematopus finschi  Martens, GH, 1897 AU : New Zealand coasts  
Pied Oystercatcher Haematopus longirostris  Vieillot, 1817 AU : coastal Australia, Moluccas  
Variable Oystercatcher Haematopus unicolor  Forster, JR, 1844 AU : coastal New Zealand  
Chatham Oystercatcher Haematopus chathamensis  Hartert, 1927 AU : Chatham Is AS : Haematopus chathamensis is split from H.unicolor (Turbott 1990)
Sooty Oystercatcher Haematopus fuliginosus  Gould, 1845 AU : coastal Australia  
        H. f. fuliginosus  Gould, 1845 s  
        H. f. opthalmicus  Castelnau & Ramsay, EP, 1877 n  
Crab-plover (1)
Family Dromadidae
Crab-plover Dromas ardeola  Paykull, 1805 AF, IO : Madagascar to Andaman Islands  
Ibisbill (1)
Family Ibidorhynchidae
Ibisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii  Vigors, 1832 EU : Himalayas to nw China  
Stilts, Avocets (10)
Family Recurvirostridae
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, AF, OR : widespread  
White-headed Stilt Himantopus leucocephalus  Gould, 1837 AU : widespread  
Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus  (Statius Müller, 1776) NA, LA : w, s USA to Peru and e Brazil, Hawaiian Islands  
        H. m. knudseni  Stejneger, 1887 Hawaiian Is.  
        H. m. mexicanus  (Statius Müller, 1776) w and s USA to sw Peru and ne Brazil, West Indies  
White-backed Stilt Himantopus melanurus  Vieillot, 1817 SA : Peru and ne Brazil to sc Argentina AS : Himantopus melanurus is split from H. mexicanus (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001); SACC awaits more study
Black Stilt Himantopus novaezelandiae  Gould, 1841 AU : New Zealand  
Banded Stilt Cladorhynchus leucocephalus  (Vieillot, 1816) AU : s, sw Australia  
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta  Linnaeus, 1758 AF, EU : widespread  
American Avocet Recurvirostra americana  Gmelin, JF, 1789 NA : sc Canada to w and sc USA, c Mexico  
Red-necked Avocet Recurvirostra novaehollandiae  Vieillot, 1816 AU : Australia  
Andean Avocet Recurvirostra andina  Philippi & Landbeck, 1861 SA : Peru to nw Argentina  
Plovers (67)
Family Charadriidae
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread  
Long-toed Lapwing Vanellus crassirostris  (Hartlaub, 1855) AF : c, e, se  
        V. c. crassirostris  (Hartlaub, 1855) Nigeria to s Sudan south to e DR Congo and n Tanzania  
        V. c. leucopterus  Reichenow, 1889 s DR Congo to Malawi south to Botswana and ne South Africa  
Blacksmith Lapwing Vanellus armatus  (Burchell, 1822) AF : Angola to Kenya and south to South Africa  
Spur-winged Lapwing Vanellus spinosus  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU,AF : se Europe and Middle east, Mauritania to Guinea and east to Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania, north to Egypt  
River Lapwing Vanellus duvaucelii  (Lesson, 1826) OR : nc India through Southeast Asia  
Black-headed Lapwing Vanellus tectus  (Boddaert, 1783) AF : e, c, w  
        V. t. tectus  (Boddaert, 1783) sw Mauritania to Ethiopia south to Ivory Coast and Uganda  
        V. t. latifrons  (Reichenow, 1881) s Somalia to e Kenya  
Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus malarbaricus  (Boddaert, 1783) OR : India TAX : Species epithet, malarbaricus, is correct original spelling. H&M 4:206 
White-crowned Lapwing Vanellus albiceps  Gould, 1834 AF : Senegal to South Sudan and Angola; Tanzania, Zambia to Mozambique and South Africa  
Senegal Lapwing Vanellus lugubris  (Lesson, 1826) AF : se, c, w  
Black-winged Lapwing Vanellus melanopterus  (Cretzschmar, 1829) AF : e, se  
        V. m. melanopterus  (Cretzschmar, 1829) Ethiopia and Eritrea to nw Somalia  
        V. m. minor  (Zedlitz, 1908) Kenya, Tanzania, coastal South Africa  
Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus  (Boddaert, 1783) AF : e, s  
        V. c. demissus  (Friedmann, 1928) n Somalia  
        V. c. coronatus  (Boddaert, 1783) Ethiopia and e Africa to Zambia and South Africa  
        V. c. xerophilus  Clancey, 1960 sw Angola to w South Africa and w Zimbabwe  
African Wattled Lapwing Vanellus senegallus  (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : widespread  
        V. s. senegallus  (Linnaeus, 1766) Senegal and Gambia to Sudan south to ne DR Congo and n Uganda  
        V. s. lateralis  Smith, A, 1839 s and e DR Congo to w Kenya south to n Namibia and e South Africa  
        V. s. major  (Neumann, 1914) Ethiopia and Eritrea  
Spot-breasted Lapwing Vanellus melanocephalus  (Rüppell, 1845) AF : Ethiopia  
Brown-chested Lapwing Vanellus superciliosus  (Reichenow, 1886) AF : Nigeria to n DRCongo  
Grey-headed Lapwing Vanellus cinereus  (Blyth, 1842) EU : e Siberia, Japan, ne and e China  
Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus  (Boddaert, 1783) OR : widespread, also Middle East  
        V. i. aigneri  (Laubmann, 1913) se Turkey to Pakistan  
        V. i. indicus  (Boddaert, 1783) c Pakistan to Nepal, ne India and Bangladesh  
        V. i. lankae  (Koelz, 1939) Sri Lanka  
        V. i. atronuchalis  (Jerdon, 1864) ne India to s China, se Asia, Malay Pen. and n Sumatra  
Javan Lapwing Vanellus  macropterus † (Wagler, 1827) OR : Java
Banded Lapwing Vanellus tricolor  (Vieillot, 1818) AU : sw, s, se Australia  
Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles  (Boddaert, 1783) AU : widespread  
        V. m. miles  (Boddaert, 1783) coastal New Guinea, Aru Is., n Australia  
        V. m. novaehollandiae  Stephens, 1819 s Australia, New Zealand  
Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius  (Pallas, 1771) EU : c Asia  
White-tailed Lapwing Vanellus leucurus  (Lichtenstein, 1823) EU : sw Asia  
Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis  (Molina, 1782) SA : widespread  
        V. c. cayennensis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) n South America  
        V. c. lampronotus  (Wagler, 1827) c and e Brazil to n Chile and n Argentina  
        V. c. fretensis  (Brodkorb, 1934) s Chile and s Argentina  
        V. c. chilensis  (Molina, 1782) c Chile and wc Argentina  
Andean Lapwing Vanellus resplendens  (Tschudi, 1843) SA : Colombia to nw Argentina  
Red-kneed Dotterel Erythrogonys cinctus  Gould, 1838 AU : Australia, s New Guinea  
Inland Dotterel Peltohyas australis  (Gould, 1841) AU : Australia PHY; ENG : Restore Inland Plover to genus Peltohyas and English name to Inland Dotterel; relative of Wrybill and Red-kneed Dotterel; Resequence following lapwings, their sister group (Baker et al. 2007; Fjelds? comm)
Wrybill Anarhynchus frontalis  Quoy & Gaimard, 1832 AU : New Zealand PHY, SEQ : Wrybill is related to Inland Dotterel and Red-kneed Dotterel; resequence accordingly (Baker et al 2007)
European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : Greenland to nc Russia  
Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) EU : nc and ne Siberia, also Alaska  
American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica  (Statius Müller, 1776) NA : Alaska and n Canada  
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n  
        P. s. squatarola  (Linnaeus, 1758) n Eurasia and Alaska  
        P. s. tomkovichi  Engelmoer & Roselaar, 1998 Wrangel I. (ne Siberia)  
        P. s. cynosurae  (Thayer & Bangs, 1914) n Canada  
New Zealand Plover Charadrius obscurus  Gmelin, JF, 1789 AU : New Zealand  
        C. o. aquilonius  Dowding, 1994 North Island (New Zealand)  SSP : Subspecies follow Gill, BJ et al 2010.
        C. o. obscurus  Gmelin, JF, 1789 South Island (New Zealand)  
Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula  Linnaeus, 1758 EU : n, also ne Canada  
        C. h. psammodromus  Salomonsen, 1930 ne Canada, Greenland, Iceland  
        C. h. hiaticula  Linnaeus, 1758 British Isles and w France to s Norway, s Sweden and the Baltic States  
        C. h. tundrae  (Lowe, 1915) n Eurasia  
Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus  Bonaparte, 1825 NA : Alaska and n Canada  
Long-billed Plover Charadrius placidus  Gray, JE & Gray, GR, 1863 EU : se Siberia, Japan, Koreas, ne and c  China  
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius  Scopoli, 1786 EU, OR : widespread  
        C. d. curonicus  Gmelin, JF, 1789 n Africa, Europe, Asia (except sc and se)  
        C. d. jerdoni  (Legge, 1880) India to s China and Indochina  
        C. d. dubius  Scopoli, 1786 Philippines to New Guinea and the Bismarck Arch.  
Wilson's Plover Charadrius wilsonia  Ord, 1814 NA, LA : coastal e, sw USA to e Brazil, Peru  
        C. w. wilsonia  Ord, 1814 e USA to e Mexico and Belize, West Indies  
        C. w. beldingi  (Ridgway, 1919) Baja California (Mexico) to wc Peru  
        C. w. cinnamominus  (Ridgway, 1919) Colombia through the Guianas to ne Brazil, Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad, Grenada  
        C. w. crassirostris  von Spix, 1825 s Brazil  
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, LA : Alaska and c Canada to Peru  
        C. v. vociferus  Linnaeus, 1758 Canada, USA, Mexico  
        C. v. ternominatus  Bangs & Kennard, 1920 Bahamas, Greater Antilles  
        C. v. peruvianus  (Chapman, 1920) Peru, nw Chile  
Piping Plover Charadrius melodus  Ord, 1824 NA : e, c  
        C. m. circumcinctus  (Ridgway, 1874) sc Canada, nc USA  
        C. m. melodus  Ord, 1824 e Canada, ne USA  
Madagascan Plover Charadrius thoracicus  (Richmond, 1896) AF : Madagascar  
Kittlitz's Plover Charadrius pecuarius  Temminck, 1823 AF : widespread  
St. Helena Plover Charadrius sanctaehelenae  (Harting, 1873) AO : St. Helena Island  
Three-banded Plover Charadrius tricollaris  Vieillot, 1818 AF : s, e  
        C. t. tricollaris  Vieillot, 1818 Ethiopia and e Africa to Chad, Gabon and South Africa  
        C. t. bifrontatus  Cabanis, 1882 Madagascar  
Forbes's Plover Charadrius forbesi  (Shelley, 1883) AF : Senegal and Gambia to South Sudan, Zambia and Angola  
White-fronted Plover Charadrius marginatus  Vieillot, 1818 AF : widespread  
        C. m. mechowi  (Cabanis, 1884) Africa south of the Sahara south to n Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe and n Mozambique  
        C. m. marginatus  Vieillot, 1818 sw Angola to sw South Africa  
        C. m. arenaceus  Clancey, 1971 s Mozambique to s South Africa  
        C. m. tenellus  Hartlaub, 1861 Madagascar  
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus  Linnaeus, 1758 EU, AF, OR : widespread AS : Kentish Plover is specifically distinct from Snowy Plover, and more closely related to the White-fronted Plover (Küpper et al. 2009, NACC 2010-A-1)
        C. a. alexandrinus  Linnaeus, 1758 w Europe, Atlantic Is. and n Africa to n China  
        C. a. dealbatus  (Swinhoe, 1870) se China  
        C. a. nihonensis  Deignan, 1941 se Russia, ne, e China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan  
        C. a. seebohmi  Hartert & Jackson, AC, 1915 s India, Sri Lanka  
Snowy Plover Charadrius nivosus  (Cassin, 1858) NA, LA : c Canada to Panama, Peru to sc Chile  
        C. n. nivosus  (Cassin, 1858) USA to Mexico, West Indies  
        C. n. occidentalis  (Cabanis, 1872) coastal Peru to sc Chile  
Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus  Chasen, 1938 OR : Java  
Red-capped Plover Charadrius ruficapillus  Temminck, 1821 AU : Australia  
Malaysian Plover Charadrius peronii  Schlegel, 1865 OR : Malay Peninsula to Philippines and Lesser Sundas  
Chestnut-banded Plover Charadrius pallidus  Strickland, 1853 AF : s  
        C. p. venustus  Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884 s Kenya, n Tanzania  
        C. p. pallidus  Strickland, 1853 sw Angola and Namibia to Mozambique and nc South Africa  
Collared Plover Charadrius collaris  Vieillot, 1818 LA : widespread  
Puna Plover Charadrius alticola  (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1902) SA : Peru to nw Argentina  
Two-banded Plover Charadrius falklandicus  Latham, 1790 SA : Southern Cone  
Double-banded Plover Charadrius bicinctus  Jardine & Selby, 1827 AU : widespread  
        C. b. bicinctus  Jardine & Selby, 1827 New Zealand, Chatham Is.  
        C. b. exilis  Falla, 1978 Auckland Is.  
Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus  Pallas, 1776 EU : c, e  
        C. m. pamirensis  (Richmond, 1896) mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to wc China  
        C. m. atrifrons  Wagler, 1829 c and e Himalayas to s Tibet  
        C. m. schaeferi  Meyer de Schauensee, 1937 e Tibet to s Mongolia  
        C. m. mongolus  Pallas, 1776 se Siberia  
        C. m. stegmanni  Portenko, 1939 ne Siberia  
Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii  Lesson, 1826 EU : c  
        C. l. columbinus  Wagler, 1829 Turkey to s Afghanistan  
        C. l. scythicus  Carlos, Roselaar & Voisin, 2012 Turkmenistan through s Kazakhstan  
        C. l. leschenaultii  Lesson, 1826 w China to s Mongolia and s Siberia  
Caspian Plover Charadrius asiaticus  Pallas, 1773 EU : sw Russia through Kazakhstan to nw China  
Oriental Plover Charadrius veredus  Gould, 1848 EU : c Siberia to Mongolia and n China  
Eurasian Dotterel Charadrius morinellus  Linnaeus, 1758 EU : n Europe to ne Siberia, nw Alaska  
Rufous-chested Plover Charadrius modestus  Lichtenstein, 1823 SA : s Chile and s Argentina, Falkland Is.  
Mountain Plover Charadrius montanus  Townsend, JK, 1837 NA : wc USA  
Hooded Dotterel Thinornis cucullatus  (Vieillot, 1818) AU : s Australia TAX : Nomenclature follows Olson, 1998 
Shore Dotterel Thinornis novaeseelandiae  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AU : Chatham Islands  
Black-fronted Dotterel Elseyornis melanops  (Vieillot, 1818) AU : widespread  
Tawny-throated Dotterel Oreopholus ruficollis  (Wagler, 1829) SA : w, s  
        O. r. pallidus  Carriker, 1935 n Peru  
        O. r. ruficollis  (Wagler, 1829) c Peru to Tierra del Fuego  
Diademed Plover Phegornis mitchellii  (Fraser, 1845) SA : Peru to sc Chile and Argentina ENG : SACC 397 reverted to Diademed Sandpiper-Plover
Pied Plover Hoploxypterus cayanus  (Latham, 1790) SA : e Colombia to se Brazil  
Egyptian Plover (1)
Family Pluvianidae
  PHY, TAX : Move Egyptian Plover (Pluvianus) from the Glareolidae to its own family tentatively named "Pluvianidae". It is a separate lineage that is the outgroup to plovers and their allies (Baker et al 2007, Hackett et al. 2008)
Egyptian Plover Pluvianus aegyptius  (Linnaeus, 1758) AF : Senegal and Gambia to Ethiopia, DRCongo and n Angola  
Painted-snipes (3)
Family Rostratulidae
Greater Painted-snipe Rostratula benghalensis  (Linnaeus, 1758) AF, OR : widespread  
Australian Painted-snipe Rostratula australis  (Gould, 1838) AU : Australia AS, ENG : Rostratula australis is split from R. benghalensis (Lane & Rogers 2000; Christidis and Bolles 2008).
South American Painted-snipe Nycticryphes semicollaris  (Vieillot, 1816) SA : Paraguay and s Brazil to c Argentina, c Chile  
Jacanas (8)
Family Jacanidae
Lesser Jacana Microparra capensis  (Smith, A, 1839) AF : Mali to Ghana, east to Ethiopia and south to Namibia, Botswana and e South Africa  
African Jacana Actophilornis africanus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : widespread south of the Sahara  
Madagascan Jacana Actophilornis albinucha  (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I, 1832) AF : Madagascar  
Comb-crested Jacana Irediparra gallinacea  (Temminck, 1828) AU : Sulawesi to n, e Australia, also Philippines  
Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus  (Scopoli, 1786) OR : widespread  
Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus  (Latham, 1790) OR : widespread  
Northern Jacana Jacana spinosa  (Linnaeus, 1758) MA : also Caribbean  
        J. s. gymnostoma  (Wagler, 1831) Mexico, Cozumel I.  
        J. s. violacea  (Cory, 1881) Cuba, Isle of Pines, Jamaica, Hispaniola  
        J. s. spinosa  (Linnaeus, 1758) Belize and Guatemala to w Panama  
Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana  (Linnaeus, 1766) SA : widespread  
        J. j. hypomelaena  (Gray, GR, 1846) wc Panama to n Colombia  
        J. j. melanopygia  (Sclater, PL, 1857) w Colombia to w Venezuela  
        J. j. intermedia  (Sclater, PL, 1857) n and c Venezuela  
        J. j. jacana  (Linnaeus, 1766) Trinidad, s Colombia and s Venezuela through the Guianas south to e Bolivia, n Argentina and Uruguay  
        J. j. scapularis  Chapman, 1922 w Ecuador, nw Peru  
        J. j. peruviana  Zimmer, 1930 ne Peru, nw Brazil  
Plains-wanderer (1)
Family Pedionomidae
Plains-wanderer Pedionomus torquatus  Gould, 1840 AU : e Australia  
Seedsnipes (4)
Family Thinocoridae
Rufous-bellied Seedsnipe Attagis gayi  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I & Lesson, 1831 SA : Ecuador to s Chile and Argentina  
        A. g. latreillii  Lesson, 1831 n Ecuador  
        A. g. simonsi  Chubb, 1918 c Peru to n Chile and nw Argentina  
        A. g. gayi  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I & Lesson, 1831 Chile and Argentina to Tierra del Fuego  
White-bellied Seedsnipe Attagis malouinus  (Boddaert, 1783) SA : s Chile and s Argentina  
Grey-breasted Seedsnipe Thinocorus orbignyianus  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I & Lesson, 1831 SA : Peru to s Chile and Argentina  
        T. o. ingae  Tschudi, 1843 n Peru to n Chile and nw Argentina  
        T. o. orbignyianus  Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I & Lesson, 1831 nc Chile and wc Argentina to Tierra del Fuego  
Least Seedsnipe Thinocorus rumicivorus  Eschscholtz, 1829 SA : Ecuador to nw Argentina, Southern Cone  
        T. r. pallidus  Salvadori & Festa, 1910 sw Ecuador, nw Peru  
        T. r. cuneicauda  (Peale, 1848) coastal Peru  
        T. r. bolivianus  Lowe, 1921 s Peru, w Bolivia, n Chile and nw Argentina  
        T. r. rumicivorus  Eschscholtz, 1829 Patagonia to Tierra del Fuego  
Sandpipers, Snipes (96)
Family Scolopacidae
Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola  Linnaeus, 1758 EU : widespread  
Amami Woodcock Scolopax mira  Hartert, 1916 EU : Ryukyu Islands  
Javan Woodcock Scolopax saturata  Horsfield, 1821 OR : Sumatra, Java  
New Guinea Woodcock Scolopax rosenbergii  Schlegel, 1871 AU : New Guinea  
Bukidnon Woodcock Scolopax bukidnonensis  Kennedy, Fisher, TH, Harrap, Diesmos & Manamtam, 2001 OR : Philippines  
Sulawesi Woodcock Scolopax celebensis  Riley, 1921 AU : Sulawesi  
        S. c. heinrichi  Stresemann, 1932 ne Sulawesi  
        S. c. celebensis  Riley, 1921 c Sulawesi  
Moluccan Woodcock Scolopax rochussenii  Schlegel, 1866 AU : Moluccas  
American Woodcock Scolopax minor  Gmelin, JF, 1789 NA : sc and se Canada, e USA  
Chatham Snipe Coenocorypha pusilla  (Buller, 1869) AU : Chatham Islands  
North Island Snipe Coenocorypha barrierensis 
†  Oliver, 1955
AU : North, Browns and Little Barrier Is., NZ EXT, AS : Coenocorypha barrierensis is split from C. aucklandica (Checklist Committee of OSNZ)
South Island Snipe Coenocorypha iredalei † Rothschild, 1921 AU : Small islands of Stewart Is., NZ EXT, AS : Coenocorypha iredalei is split from C. aucklandica (Checklist Committee of OSNZ); recently extinct (1960‘s)
Snares Snipe Coenocorypha huegeli  (Tristram, 1893) AU : Snares Is., NZ AS : Coenocorypha heugli is split from C. aucklandica (Checklist Committee of OSNZ)
Subantarctic Snipe Coenocorypha aucklandica  (Gray, GR, 1845) AU : Antipodes Is., Auckland Is. NZ ENG : CHANGE English name of Coenocorypha aucklandica to Subantarctic Snipe with above splits of C. huegeli and C. iredalei
        C. a. meinertzhagenae  Rothschild, 1927 Antipodes Is.  
        C. a. aucklandica  (Gray, GR, 1845) Auckland Is.  
        C. a. perseverance  Miskelly & Baker, AJ, 2010 Campbell Is.  
Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus  (Brünnich, 1764) EU : n Europe to ne Siberia  
Solitary Snipe Gallinago solitaria  Hodgson, 1831 EU : c, e  
        G. s. solitaria  Hodgson, 1831 c Asia  
        G. s. japonica  (Bonaparte, 1856) ne China to Kamchatka Pen.  
Latham's Snipe Gallinago hardwickii  (Gray, JE, 1831) EU : e Siberia,  Japan  
Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola  Hodgson, 1836 OR : s Himalayas to e India and n Vietnam  
Pin-tailed Snipe Gallinago stenura  (Bonaparte, 1831) EU : nw Russia and Mongolia to e Siberia  
Swinhoe's Snipe Gallinago megala  Swinhoe, 1861 EU : c Asia and n Mongolia, se Siberia  
African Snipe Gallinago nigripennis  Bonaparte, 1839 AF : e, sc, s  
        G. n. aequatorialis  Rüppell, 1845 Ethiopia to e DR Congo, e Zimbabwe and n Mozambique  
        G. n. angolensis  Barboza du Bocage, 1868 Angola and n Namibia to Zambia and w Zimbabwe  
        G. n. nigripennis  Bonaparte, 1839 s Mozambique and South Africa  
Madagascan Snipe Gallinago macrodactyla  Bonaparte, 1839 AF : Madagascar  
Great Snipe Gallinago media  (Latham, 1787) EU : n Europe to c Asia  
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread  
        G. g. faeroeensis  (Brehm, CL, 1831) Iceland, Faroe Is., Orkney and Shetland Is.  
        G. g. gallinago  (Linnaeus, 1758) c and n Europe and Asia  
Wilson's Snipe Gallinago delicata  (Ord, 1825) NA, LA : widespread to nw SA  
South American Snipe Gallinago paraguaiae  (Vieillot, 1816) SA : widespread  
        G. p. paraguaiae  (Vieillot, 1816) Trinidad, Colombia through the Guianas south to n Argentina and Uruguay  
        G. p. magellanica  (King, 1828) c Chile and c Argentina to Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Is.  
Puna Snipe Gallinago andina  Taczanowski, 1875 SA : Peru to nw Argentina  
Noble Snipe Gallinago nobilis  Sclater, PL, 1856 SA : Venezuela, Colombia  
Giant Snipe Gallinago undulata  (Boddaert, 1783) SA : n, se  
        G. u. undulata  (Boddaert, 1783) Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, n Brazil  
        G. u. gigantea  (Temminck, 1826) e Bolivia to Paraguay, se Brazil and ne Argentina  
Fuegian Snipe Gallinago stricklandii  (Gray, GR, 1845) SA : c and s Chile, s Argentina  
Andean Snipe Gallinago jamesoni  (Jardine & Bonaparte, 1855) SA : Venezuela to Bolivia  
Imperial Snipe Gallinago imperialis  Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1869 SA : Colombia, Peru  
Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : n  
        L. g. caurinus  Pitelka, 1950 s Alaska and s Yukon (nw Canada)  
        L. g. hendersoni  Rowan, 1932 c Canada  
        L. g. griseus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) ne Canada  
Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus  (Say, 1822) EU, NA : ne Siberia,  Alaska and n Canada  
Asian Dowitcher Limnodromus semipalmatus  (Blyth, 1848) EU : c Asia and Mongolia to se Siberia and ne China  
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread  
        L. l. islandica  Brehm, CL, 1831 Iceland, Faroe and Shetland Is., n Norway  
        L. l. limosa  (Linnaeus, 1758) w and c Europe to c Asia  
        L. l. melanuroides  Gould, 1846 c and e Asia  
Hudsonian Godwit Limosa haemastica  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : w Alaska to c Canada  
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : n, also Alaska  
        L. l. lapponica  (Linnaeus, 1758) n Europe  
        L. l. taymyrensis  Engelmoer & Roselaar, 1998 nw and nc Siberia  
        L. l. menzbieri  Portenko, 1936 ne Siberia  
        L. l. baueri  Naumann, JF, 1836 ne Siberia to n and w Alaska  
Marbled Godwit Limosa fedoa  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : c  
        L. f. beringiae  Gibson & Kessel, 1989 Alaska  
        L. f. fedoa  (Linnaeus, 1758) c and sc Canada, nc USA  
Little Curlew Numenius minutus  Gould, 1841 EU : nc and ne Siberia  
Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis  (Forster, JR, 1772) NA : nw Canada  
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n  
        N. p. islandicus  Brehm, CL, 1831 Iceland and British Isles  
        N. p. phaeopus  (Linnaeus, 1758) Norway to nc Siberia  
        N. p. alboaxillaris  Lowe, 1921 w Kazakhstan to sw Siberia  
        N. p. rogachevae  Tomkovich, 2008 c Siberia  
        N. p. variegatus  (Scopoli, 1786) ne Siberia  
        N. p. rufiventris  Vigors, 1829 Alaska and nw Canada  
        N. p. hudsonicus  Latham, 1790 Hudson Bay area to ne Canada  
Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius tahitiensis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : Alaska  
Slender-billed Curlew Numenius tenuirostris  Vieillot, 1817 EU : w Russia  
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : c, w  
        N. a. arquata  (Linnaeus, 1758) w, n and c Europe  
        N. a. orientalis  Brehm, CL, 1831 w and c Siberia to Manchuria  
        N. a. suschkini  Neumann, 1929 w Kazakhstan to sw Siberia  
Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis  (Linnaeus, 1766) EU : e and se Siberia, ne China ENG : Change English name to Far Eastern Curlew to reduce confusion with the eastern race of Eurasian Curlew, and to align IOC with H&M, BLI, HBW, Clements.  
Long-billed Curlew Numenius americanus  Bechstein, 1812 NA : w, wc  
        N. a. parvus  Bishop, 1910 sw and sc Canada to sw USA  
        N. a. americanus  Bechstein, 1812 wc USA  
Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda  (Bechstein, 1812) NA : Alaska and nw Canada, sc Canada to c and ne USA  
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus  (Pallas, 1764) EU : n Europe to ne Siberia  
Common Redshank Tringa totanus  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : w, c  
        T. t. robusta  (Schiřler, 1919) Iceland, Faroe Is.  
        T. t. totanus  (Linnaeus, 1758) w and n Europe to w Siberia  
        T. t. ussuriensis  Buturlin, 1934 s Siberia and Mongolia to e Asia  
        T. t. terrignotae  Meinertzhagen & Meinertzhagen, A, 1926 s Manchuria and e China  
        T. t. craggi  Hale, 1971 nw China  
        T. t. eurhina  (Oberholser, 1900) Tajikistan, n India, Tibet  
Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis  (Bechstein, 1803) EU : e Europe to e Siberia and ne China  
Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia  (Gunnerus, 1767) EU : n Europe to e Siberia  
Nordmann's Greenshank Tringa guttifer  (Nordmann, 1835) EU : e Siberia  
Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : s Alaska and w Canada to e Canada  
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : Alaska to c Canada  
Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus  Linnaeus, 1758 EU : n and c Europe to e Siberia and ne China  
Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria  Wilson, A, 1813 NA : n  
        T. s. cinnamomea  (Brewster, 1890) Alaska and w Canada  
        T. s. solitaria  Wilson, A, 1813 e British Columbia to Labrador (Canada)  
Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola  Linnaeus, 1758 EU : n and c Europe to e Siberia and ne China  
Grey-tailed Tattler Tringa brevipes  (Vieillot, 1816) EU : nc and ne Siberia TAX, SEQ : Move Tattlers from Heteroscelus to Tringa (Pereira & Baker 2005, NACC); note gender agreement
Wandering Tattler Tringa incana  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) EU, NA : ne Siberia, Alaska and nw Canada  
Willet Tringa semipalmata  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : e, c, se TAX, SEQ : Move Willet from Catoptrophorus to Tringa (Pereira & Baker 2005, NACC); note gender agreement
        T. s. inornata  (Brewster, 1887) sc Canada, nc USA  
        T. s. semipalmata  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) se Canada, e and s USA, West Indies  
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus  (Güldenstädt, 1775) EU : e Europe to ne Siberia  
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread  
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius  (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : widespread  
Tuamotu Sandpiper Prosobonia parvirostris  (Peale, 1848) PO : Tuamotu Archipelago  
Kiritimati Sandpiper Prosobonia cancellata † (Gmelin, JF, 1789) PO : Kiritimati I.
Tahiti Sandpiper Prosobonia leucoptera † (Gmelin, JF, 1789) PO : Tahiti (Society Islands)
Moorea Sandpiper Prosobonia ellisi †  Sharpe, 1906 PO : Moorea (Society Islands)
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n  
        A. i. interpres  (Linnaeus, 1758) ne Canada, Greenland, n Europe to ne Siberia and w Alaska  
        A. i. morinella  (Linnaeus, 1766) ne Alaska, n Canada  
Black Turnstone Arenaria melanocephala  (Vigors, 1829) NA : coastal w Alaska  
Surfbird Aphriza virgata  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : Alaska and nw Canada  
Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris  (Horsfield, 1821) EU : ne Siberia  
Red Knot Calidris canutus  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n  
        C. c. canutus  (Linnaeus, 1758) nc Siberia  
        C. c. piersmai  Tomkovich, 2001 New Siberian Arch.  
        C. c. rogersi  (Mathews, 1913) Chukotsk Pen. (e Siberia)  
        C. c. roselaari  Tomkovich, 1990 Wrangel I. (ne Siberia), nw Alaska  
        C. c. rufa  (Wilson, A, 1813) n Canada  
        C. c. islandica  (Linnaeus, 1767) islands off n Canada, n Greenland  
Sanderling Calidris alba  (Pallas, 1764) NA, EU : n  
        C. a. alba  (Pallas, 1764) Ellesmere I., n and e Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land and Taymyr  
        C. a. rubida  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) ne Siberia, Alaska, n Canada  
Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla  (Linnaeus, 1766) NA, EU : ne Siberia, w and n Alaska and n Canada  
Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri  (Cabanis, 1857) NA, EU : ne Siberia, w and n Alaska  
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis  (Pallas, 1776) EU : n and ne Siberia  
Little Stint Calidris minuta  (Leisler, 1812) EU : n Europe and n Asia  
Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii  (Leisler, 1812) EU : n Europe and n Asia  
Long-toed Stint Calidris subminuta  (Middendorff, 1853) EU : c and e Siberia  
Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla  (Vieillot, 1819) NA : Alaska and n Canada  
White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis  (Vieillot, 1819) NA : n Alaska and n Canada  
Baird's Sandpiper Calidris bairdii  (Coues, 1861) NA : ne Siberia, Alaska, n Canada and w Greenland  
Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos  (Vieillot, 1819) NA, EU : n Siberia, w and n Alaska and n Canada  
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata  (Horsfield, 1821) EU : n Siberia  
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea  (Pontoppidan, 1763) EU : n Asia  
Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima  (Brünnich, 1764) NA, EU : n  
        C. m. belcheri  Engelmoer & Roselaar, 1998 Hudson Bay and James Bay (Canada)  
        C. m. maritima  (Brünnich, 1764) n Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Scandinavia to nc Siberia  
        C. m. littoralis  (Brehm, CL, 1831) Iceland  
Rock Sandpiper Calidris ptilocnemis  (Coues, 1873) EU, NA : e Siberia to Alaska  
        C. p. tschuktschorum  (Portenko, 1937) Chukosk Pen. (e Siberia) to w Alaska  
        C. p. ptilocnemis  (Coues, 1873) Pribilof, Hall and St. Mathew Is.  
        C. p. couesi  (Ridgway, 1880) Aleutian Is., Alaskan Pen.  
        C. p. quarta  (Hartert, 1920) s Kamchatka Pen., Kuril and Commander Is.  
Dunlin Calidris alpina  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n  
        C. a. arctica  (Schiřler, 1922) ne Greenland  
        C. a. schinzii  (Brehm, CL & Schilling, 1822) se Greenland, Iceland, the British Isles to Scandinavia and the Baltic  
        C. a. alpina  (Linnaeus, 1758) n Europe to nw Siberia  
        C. a. centralis  (Buturlin, 1932) nc to ne Siberia  
        C. a. sakhalina  (Vieillot, 1816) e Russia to the Chukotsk Pen.  
        C. a. kistchinski  Tomkovich, 1986 Sea of Okhotsk to Kuril Is. and Kamchatka  
        C. a. actites  Nechaev & Tomkovich, 1988 Sakhalin I. (off se Russia)  
        C. a. arcticola  (Todd, 1953) nw Alaska to nw Canada  
        C. a. pacifica  (Coues, 1861) w and s Alaska  
        C. a. hudsonia  (Todd, 1953) c Canada  
Stilt Sandpiper Calidris himantopus  (Bonaparte, 1826) NA : n Alaska and n Canada  
Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : ne Siberia  
Broad-billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus  (Pontoppidan, 1763) EU : n  
        L. f. falcinellus  (Pontoppidan, 1763) n Europe to nw Siberia  
        L. f. sibirica  Dresser, 1876 ne Siberia  
Buff-breasted Sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis  (Vieillot, 1819) NA, EU : ne Siberia, n Alaska and n Canada  
Ruff Philomachus pugnax  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : Europe to e Siberia  
Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor  (Vieillot, 1819) NA : w and c Canada, n USA  
Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n Alaska, n Canada, n Europe and n Asia  
Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n Alaska, n Canada, n Europe and n Asia  
Coursers, Pratincoles (17)
Family Glareolidae
Cream-colored Courser Cursorius cursor  (Latham, 1787) AF : ne, c, w, also sw EU  
        C. c. cursor  (Latham, 1787) Canary Is., North Africa to Iraq  
        C. c. bogolubovi  Zarudny, 1885 se Turkey to nw India  
        C. c. exsul  Hartert, 1920 Cape Verde Is.  
Somali Courser Cursorius somalensis  Shelley, 1885 AF : ne  
        C. s. somalensis  Shelley, 1885 Eritrea, e Ethiopia, n Somalia  
        C. s. littoralis  Erlanger, 1905 se Sudan, n and e Kenya, s Somalia  
Burchell's Courser Cursorius rufus  Gould, 1837 AF : Angola to South Africa  
Temminck's Courser Cursorius temminckii  Swainson, 1822 AF : widespread south of the Sahara  
Indian Courser Cursorius coromandelicus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : Pakistan, Nepal, India and Sri Lanka  
Double-banded Courser Rhinoptilus africanus  (Temminck, 1807) AF : sw, e  
        R. a. raffertyi  Mearns, 1915 Eritrea, e Ethiopia, Djibouti  
        R. a. hartingi  Sharpe, 1893 se Ethiopia, Somalia  
        R. a. gracilis  (Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884) Kenya, Tanzania  
        R. a. bisignatus  (Hartlaub, 1865) sw Angola  
        R. a. erlangeri  Niethammer & Wolters, 1966 nw Namibia  
        R. a. traylori  Irwin, 1963 ne Botswana  
        R. a. africanus  (Temminck, 1807) e Namibia, c and se Botswana, n South Africa  
        R. a. granti  Sclater, WL, 1921 w South Africa  
Three-banded Courser Rhinoptilus cinctus  (Heuglin, 1863) AF : e, se  
        R. c. mayaudi  (Érard, Hemery & Pasquet, 1993) Ethiopia, n Somalia  
        R. c. balsaci  (Érard, Hemery & Pasquet, 1993) s Somalia, ne Kenya  
        R. c. cinctus  (Heuglin, 1863) se Sudan, nw Kenya  
        R. c. emini  Zedlitz, 1914 s Kenya, Tanzania, n Zambia  
        R. c. seebohmi  Sharpe, 1893 s Angola and n Namibia to Zimbabwe and n South Africa  
Bronze-winged Courser Rhinoptilus chalcopterus  (Temminck, 1824) AF : widespread south of the Sahara  
Jerdon's Courser Rhinoptilus bitorquatus  (Blyth, 1848) OR : ec India  
Australian Pratincole Stiltia isabella  (Vieillot, 1816) AU : widespread  
Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola  (Linnaeus, 1766) AF, EU : widespread  
        G. p. pratincola  (Linnaeus, 1766) s Europe and n Africa to Pakistan  
        G. p. erlangeri  Neumann, 1920 s Somalia, n Kenya  
        G. p. fuelleborni  Neumann, 1910 Senegal to s Kenya to e Zambia, Zimbabwe and e South Africa  
        G. p. riparia  Clancey, 1979 Angola, sw Zambia, ne Namibia, nw Botswana  
Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum  Forster, JR, 1795 EU, OR : c and e Siberia, Japan, China and widespread throughout the Orient  
Black-winged Pratincole Glareola nordmanni  Fischer von Waldheim, 1842 EU : wc  
Madagascan Pratincole Glareola ocularis  Verreaux, J, 1833 AF : Madagascar  
Rock Pratincole Glareola nuchalis  Gray, GR, 1849 AF : sc, wc, w  
        G. n. liberiae  Schlegel, 1881 Sierra Leone to w Cameroon  
        G. n. nuchalis  Gray, GR, 1849 Chad to Ethiopia south to Mozambique  
        G. n. torrens  Clancey, 1981 s Angola and ne Namibia to w Zambia  
Grey Pratincole Glareola cinerea  Fraser, 1843 AF : Mali and Niger to  Angola and DRCongo  
Small Pratincole Glareola lactea  Temminck, 1820 OR : Afghanistan to Cambodia  
Gulls, Terns and Skimmers (102)
Family Laridae
  PHY, TAX : The skimmers Rynchops and terns are embedded among the gulls in a monophyletic clade; separation of the families Rynchopidae and Sternidae would render the gull family Laridae paraphyletic relative to these other two groups (Baker et al. 2008,
Brown Noddy Anous stolidus  (Linnaeus, 1758) TrO : widespread  
        A. s. pileatus  (Scopoli, 1786) Red Sea, Indian Ocean east through the Pacific to Hawaiian Is. and Easter I.  
        A. s. galapagensis  Sharpe, 1879 Galapagos Is.  
        A. s. ridgwayi  Anthony, 1898 islands off w Mexico to w Costa Rica  
        A. s. stolidus  (Linnaeus, 1758) islands of the Caribbean and tropical Atlantic  
Lesser Noddy Anous tenuirostris  (Temminck, 1823) IO : w, nw ENG : Change English name of Anous tenuirostris from suggested Sooty Noddy back to established Lesser Noddy
        A. t. tenuirostris  (Temminck, 1823) islands of the w Indian Ocean  
        A. t. melanops  Gould, 1846 Houtman Abrolhos Is. (w Australia)  
Black Noddy Anous minutus  Boie, F, 1844 PO, AO : tropical  
        A. m. worcesteri  (McGregor, 1911) Cavilli I. and Tubbataha Reef (Sulu Sea)  
        A. m. minutus  Boie, F, 1844 ne Australia and New Guinea to Tuamotu Arch.  
        A. m. marcusi  (Bryan, 1903) Marcus and Wake Is. through Micronesia to Caroline Is.  
        A. m. melanogenys  Gray, GR, 1846 Hawaiian Is.  
        A. m. diamesus  (Heller & Snodgrass, 1901) Clipperton I. (off w Mexico) and Cocos I. (off w Costa Rica)  
        A. m. americanus  (Mathews, 1912) islands in the Caribbean  
        A. m. atlanticus  (Mathews, 1912) tropical s Atlantic islands  
Blue Noddy Procelsterna cerulea  (Bennett, FD, 1840) PO : w, c  
        P. c. saxatilis  Fisher, WK, 1903 Marcus (Japan) and n Marshall Is. (Micronesia) to nw Hawaiian Is.  
        P. c. cerulea  (Bennett, FD, 1840) Kiritimati I. and Marquesas Is. (Pacific)  
        P. c. nebouxi  Mathews, 1912 Phoenix and Tuvalu Is., Fiji and Samoa  
        P. c. teretirostris  (Lafresnaye, 1841) Tuamotu Arch., Cook, Austral and Society Is.  
        P. c. murphyi  Mougin & Naurois, 1981 Gambier Is. (French Polynesia)  
Grey Noddy Procelsterna albivitta  Bonaparte, 1856 PO : s  
        P. a. albivitta  Bonaparte, 1856 Lord Howe, Norfolk and Kermadec Is., Tonga  
        P. a. skottsbergii  Lönnberg, 1921 Henderson, Easter, and Sala y Gómez Is. (west of Chile)  
        P. a. imitatrix  Mathews, 1912 San Ambrosio and San Félix Is (west of Chile)  
White Tern Gygis alba  (Sparrman, 1786) TrO : widespread PHY, ENG : Gygis is a noddy (Baker et al 2007, Odeen et al 2010); consider English name change to “White Noddy“; see Yeung et al 2009 re taxonomy of Pacific Ocean subspecies
        G. a. alba  (Sparrman, 1786) islands of the tropical south Atlantic Ocean  
        G. a. candida  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Seychelles and Mascarene Is. to the central Pacific (except ranges of next two ssp.)  
        G. a. microrhyncha  Saunders, H, 1876 Phoenix, Line and Marquesas Is.  
        G. a. leucopes  Holyoak & Thibault, 1976 Pitcarin Is.  
Black Skimmer Rynchops niger  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, LA : widespread  
        R. n. niger  Linnaeus, 1758 coastal USA and Mexico  
        R. n. cinerascens  von Spix, 1825 n South America south to Bolivia and nw Argentina  
        R. n. intercedens  Saunders, H, 1895 e Brazil to Paraguay , Uruguay and ne Argentina  
African Skimmer Rynchops flavirostris  Vieillot, 1816 AF : widespread  
Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis  Swainson, 1838 OR : e Pakistan to Burma  
Swallow-tailed Gull Creagrus furcatus  (Néboux, 1842) SA: Galápagos Islands  
Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, NA : n coasts  
        R. t. tridactyla  (Linnaeus, 1758) n, e Canada and n Europe to n Russia  
        R. t. pollicaris  Ridgway, 1884 e Siberia to w Alaska  
Red-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris  (Bruch, 1853) NA : Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands  
Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea  (Phipps, 1774) EU, NA : n coasts  
Sabine's Gull Xema sabini  (Sabine, 1819) EU, NA : n coasts  
Slender-billed Gull Chroicocephalus genei  (Brčme, 1839) EU, AF : Iberian Pen. Through the Middle East to Pakistan and India; Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia  
Bonaparte's Gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia  (Ord, 1815) NA : sw Alaska to se Canada  
Red-billed Gull Chroicocephalus scopulinus  (Forster, JR, 1844) AU : New Zealand  
Silver Gull Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae  (Stephens, 1826) AU : Australia  
        C. n. forsteri  (Mathews, 1912) n and ne Australia, New Caledonia, Loyalty Is. (sw Pacific)  
        C. n. gunni  (Mathews, 1912) Tasmania  
        C. n. novaehollandiae  (Stephens, 1826) s Australia  
Black-billed Gull Chroicocephalus bulleri  (Hutton, FW, 1871) AU : New Zealand  
Andean Gull Chroicocephalus serranus  (Tschudi, 1844) SA : Ecuador to sc Chile and sc Argentina  
Brown-headed Gull Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus  (Jerdon, 1840) EU : sc Asia, w China and Tibet  
Brown-hooded Gull Chroicocephalus maculipennis  (Lichtenstein, 1823) SA : e, s coasts  
Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus  (Linnaeus, 1766) EU : widespread ENG : Change English name of Chroicocephalus (Larus) ridibundus reverts to Black-headed Gull with adoption of Pallas‘s Gull for Larus ichthyaetus
Grey-headed Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus  (Vieillot, 1818) SA, AF : widespread ENG : Change English name of Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus to Grey-headed Gull, which prevails in Africa and elsewhere
        C. c. cirrocephalus  (Vieillot, 1818) coastal Ecuador and Peru, coastal c Brazil to Argentina  
        C. c. poiocephalus  (Swainson, 1837) coastal Africa south of the Sahara and Madagascar  
Hartlaub's Gull Chroicocephalus hartlaubii  (Bruch, 1853) AF : coastal Namibia to South Africa  
Saunders's Gull Chroicocephalus saundersi  Swinhoe, 1871 EU : coastal e China  
Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus  (Pallas, 1776) EU, NA : e and n Europe to w Siberia; e Siberia  
Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea  (MacGillivray, 1824) EU, NA : n coasts  
Dolphin Gull Leucophaeus scoresbii  (Traill, 1823) SA : extreme s coasts, Falkland Is.  
Lava Gull Leucophaeus fuliginosus  (Gould, 1841) SA: Galápagos Is  
Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, LA : widespread coasts  
        L. a. megalopterus  (Bruch, 1855) coastal se Canada, e and s USA to e Central America, sw USA, w Mexico  
        L. a. atricilla  (Linnaeus, 1758) West Indies to n Venezuelan islands  
Franklin's Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan  (Wagler, 1831) NA : sc canada and nc USA  
Grey Gull Leucophaeus modestus  (Tschudi, 1843) SA : n Chile  
Relict Gull Ichthyaetus relictus  (Lönnberg, 1931) EU : Kazahkstan to Mongolia and nc China  
Audouin's Gull Ichthyaetus audouinii  (Payraudeau, 1826) EU, AF : Mediterranean and nw AF coasts  
Mediterranean Gull Ichthyaetus melanocephalus  (Temminck, 1820) EU : widespread in Europe  
Pallas's Gull Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus  (Pallas, 1773) EU : sw Russia to Mongolia and n China ENG : Change English name of Larus ichthyaetus from Great Black-headed Gull to Pallas‘s Gull
White-eyed Gull Ichthyaetus leucophthalmus  (Temminck, 1825) AF : Red Sea  
Sooty Gull Ichthyaetus hemprichii  (Bruch, 1853) AF, EU : east AF and Middle East coasts  
Pacific Gull Larus pacificus  Latham, 1802 AU : s, w Australian coasts  
        L. p. georgii  King, 1826 w, sw and sc coasts  
        L. p. pacificus  Latham, 1802 se and Tasmanian coasts  
Belcher's Gull Larus belcheri  Vigors, 1829 SA : wc  coast of Peru and n Chile ENG : Change English name of Larus belcheri from Band-tailed Gull to Belcher‘s Gull to follow changes by AOU (NACC, SACC 60)
Olrog's Gull Larus atlanticus  Olrog, 1958 SA : ne coast of Argentina  
Black-tailed Gull Larus crassirostris  Vieillot, 1818 EU : e Siberia, Japan, Korea and e China  
Heermann's Gull Larus heermanni  Cassin, 1852 NA, MA : nw coast of Mexico and sw coast of California  (USA)
Mew Gull Larus canus  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : w Europe to Siberia and nw NA  
        L. c. canus  Linnaeus, 1758 Iceland and the British Isles to White Sea  
        L. c. heinei  Homeyer, 1853 w Russia to c Siberia  
        L. c. kamtschatschensis  Bonaparte, 1857 ne Siberia  
        L. c. brachyrhynchus  Richardson, 1831 n Alaska, w Canada  
Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis  Ord, 1815 NA, MA : s Canada and n USA  
California Gull Larus californicus  Lawrence, 1854 NA, MA : nc, w  
        L. c. albertaensis  Jehl, 1987 c Canada, nc and nw USA  
        L. c. californicus  Lawrence, 1854 nw USA  
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : coastal e NA and w Europe  
Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus  Lichtenstein, 1823 SA, AU, AF : s coasts  
        L. d. dominicanus  Lichtenstein, 1823 South America, Falkland Is., South Georgia, Australia, New Zealand  
        L. d. vetula  Bruch, 1853 southern Africa  
        L. d. judithae  Jiguet, 2002 subantarctic islands of the Indian Ocean  
        L. d. melisandae  Jiguet, 2002 s and sw Madagascar  
        L. d. austrinus  Fleming, JH, 1924 Antarctica and Antarctic islands  
Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens  Naumann, JF, 1840 EU, NA : coastal n Pacific  
Western Gull Larus occidentalis  Audubon, 1839 NA : w coast  
        L. o. occidentalis  Audubon, 1839 sw British Columbia, w USA to c California  
        L. o. wymani  Dickey & van Rossem, 1925 c California (USA) to Baja California (Mexico)  
Yellow-footed Gull Larus livens  Dwight, 1919 NA, MA : coastal nw Mexico and s California  
Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus  Gunnerus, 1767 EU, NA : widespread n coasts  
        L. h. hyperboreus  Gunnerus, 1767 n Europe to nw Siberia  
        L. h. pallidissimus  Portenko, 1939 nw Siberia to the Bering Sea  
        L. h. barrovianus  Ridgway, 1886 Alaska to nw Canada  
        L. h. leuceretes  Schleep, 1819 nc Canada to Greenland and Iceland  
Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides  Meyer, B, 1822 NA, EU : n AO coast  
        L. g. kumlieni  Brewster, 1883 ne Canada  
        L. g. glaucoides  Meyer, B, 1822 s and w Greenland, Novaya Zemlya  
Thayer's Gull Larus thayeri  Brooks, WS, 1915 NA : n Canada and w Greenland  
European Herring Gull Larus argentatus  Pontoppidan, 1763 EU : n ENG : Change English name of Larus argentatus to European Herring Gull with split of L. smithonianus (Sangster et al 2005)
        L. a. argenteus  Brehm, CL & Schilling, 1822 Iceland, nw Europe  
        L. a. argentatus  Pontoppidan, 1763 Scandinavia to the Kola Pen. (nw Russia)  
American Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus  Coues, 1862 NA : c Alaska to Newfoundland and the Great Lakes AS : Larus smithsonianus is split from L. argentatus (Sangster et al. 2005); Recognized by BOU, but not by AOU
Vega Gull Larus vegae  Palmén, 1887 EU : ne, e TAX : Vega Gull includes Mongolian Gull L. mongolicus as ssp following Collinson, J.M., Parkin, D.T., Knox, A.G., Sangster, G., and L. Svensson. 2008. Species boundaries in the Herring and Lesser Black-backed Gull complex. British Birds 101(7):340-363 and, in part, Pierre Yésou (Dutch Birding 24:271-298, 2002)
        L. v. mongolicus  Sushkin, 1925 e Kazakhstan to Mongolia  
        L. v. vegae  Palmén, 1887 ne Siberia  
Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans  Pallas, 1811 EU : c Eurasia to ne China ENG : Change English name of Larus cachinnans from Yellow-legged Gull to Caspian Gull with split of Larus michahellis
Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis  Naumann, JF, 1840 EU : w AS : Larus michahellis is split from L.cachinnans (Sangster et al 2005, AOU 2007); recognized by BOU, AOU. This species retains the English name Yellow-legged Gull of the former, unsplit species. .
        L. m. atlantis  Dwight, 1922 Azore, Madeira and Canary Is.  
        L. m. michahellis  Naumann, JF, 1840 w and s Europe, nw Africa, Mediterranean  
Armenian Gull Larus armenicus  Buturlin, 1934 EU : Armenia to e Turkey and nw Iran  
Slaty-backed Gull Larus schistisagus  Stejneger, 1884 EU : coastal ne and e Siberia, n Japan  
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus  Linnaeus, 1758 EU : w Europe to c Northern Siberia; also Greenland and Iceland TAX : Lesser Black-backed Gull includes Heuglin‘s Gull L. heuglini as subspecies following Collinson, J.M., Parkin, D.T., Knox, A.G., Sangster, G., and L. Svensson. 2008. Species boundaries in the Herring and Lesser Black-backed Gull complex. British Birds 101(7):340-363.
        L. f. graellsii  Brehm, AE, 1857 Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Is., w Europe  
        L. f. intermedius  Schiřler, 1922 Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, sw Sweden and w Norway  
        L. f. fuscus  Linnaeus, 1758 n Norway, Sweden and Finland to the White Sea  
        L. f. heuglini  Bree, 1876 n Russia to nc Siberia  
        L. f. barabensis  Johansen, H, 1960 c Asia  
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Worldwide : widespread  
        G. n. nilotica  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Europe, n Africa through the Middle East and sc Asia to w China and Thailand  
        G. n. affinis  (Horsfield, 1821) Japan, s and e China through se Asia to Philippines, Sumatra, Sulawesi and Borneo  
        G. n. macrotarsa  (Gould, 1837) Australia  
        G. n. aranea  (Wilson, A, 1814) e and s USA through Greater Antilles  
        G. n. vanrossemi  Bancroft, 1929 s California (USA) to nw Mexico  
        G. n. gronvoldi  (Mathews, 1912) French Guiana to ne Argentina  
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia  (Pallas, 1770) Worldwide : widespread except SA  
Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus  (Boddaert, 1783) NA, LA, AF : coasts  
        T. m. maximus  (Boddaert, 1783) s California (USA) to Peru, Florida and West Indies to Argentina  
        T. m. albididorsalis  (Hartert, 1921) Mauritania to Guinea  
Greater Crested Tern Thalasseus bergii  (Lichtenstein, 1823) AU, OR, AF : coasts of e AF to the s Pacific ENG : CHANGE English name of Thalasseus bergii to preferred Greater Crested Tern (2.9)
        T. b. bergii  (Lichtenstein, 1823) Namibia, South Africa  
        T. b. enigma  (Clancey, 1979) Zambezi Delta (Mozambique)  
        T. b. thalassinus  (Stresemann, 1914) Tanzania, Madagascar to Mascarenes and Chagos Arch.  
        T. b. velox  (Cretzschmar, 1827) Red Sea and nw Somalia to Burma and w Sumatra  
        T. b. cristatus  (Stephens, 1826) e China to w, n and e Australia, Ryukyu and Tuamotu Is.  
Elegant Tern Thalasseus elegans  (Gambel, 1849) NA, LA : coastal sw USA and nw Mexico  
Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis  (Lesson, 1831) AF, OR, AU : widespread coasts  
        T. b. bengalensis  (Lesson, 1831) Red Sea and Indian Ocean  
        T. b. emigratus  (Neumann, 1934) Libya and Persian Gulf  
        T. b. torresii  Gould, 1843 Australasia  
Chinese Crested Tern Thalasseus bernsteini  (Schlegel, 1863) EU : islands off China's e coast  
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis  (Latham, 1787) EU, AF : northern Europe to Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas  
Cabot's Tern Thalasseus acuflavidus  (Cabot, 1847) NA, LA : widespread coasts from Virginia to French Guiana, Argentina TAX : New World Cabot‘s Tern including Cayenne Tern T. eurygnatha is sister to Elegant Tern, not Sandwich Tern of Europe (AOU, Efe et al. 2009); acuflavida (Cabot 1847) has priority over eurygnatha (Sanders 1876)
        T. a. acuflavidus  (Cabot, 1847) e North America to s Caribbean  
        T. a. eurygnathus  (Saunders, H, 1876) islands off Venezuela and the Guianas, n and e South America  
Little Tern Sternula albifrons  (Pallas, 1764) AF, EU, OR, AU : widespread  
        S. a. albifrons  (Pallas, 1764) Europe and n Africa to c Asia,  
        S. a. guineae  (Bannerman, 1931) Mauritania to Gabon  
        S. a. sinensis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) India and the Indian Ocean through e and se Asia to Australia  
Saunders's Tern Sternula saundersi  (Hume, 1877) AF, EU : Middle East  
Least Tern Sternula antillarum  Lesson, 1847 NA, MA : widespread  
        S. a. athalassos  (Burleigh & Lowery, 1942) c and sc North America  
        S. a. antillarum  Lesson, 1847 e and s USA to Honduras, Caribbean, n South America  
        S. a. browni  (Mearns, 1916) c California (USA) to w Mexico  
Yellow-billed Tern Sternula superciliaris  (Vieillot, 1819) SA : e Peru, c Colombia and n Venezuela to ne Argentina  
Peruvian Tern Sternula lorata  (Philippi & Landbeck, 1861) SA : coasts Ecuador to Chile  
Fairy Tern Sternula nereis  Gould, 1843 AU : s, sw, w coasts  
        S. n. exsul  Mathews, 1912 New Caledonia  
        S. n. davisae  Mathews & Iredale, 1913 n North I. (New Zealand)  
        S. n. nereis  Gould, 1843 w and s Australia  
Damara Tern Sternula balaenarum  Strickland, 1853 AF : coastal Angola, Namibia and South Africa  
Aleutian Tern Onychoprion aleuticus  (Baird, SF, 1869) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts  
Spectacled Tern Onychoprion lunatus  (Peale, 1848) PO : islands of the sw Pacific Ocean  
Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus  (Scopoli, 1786) TrO : widespread  
        O. a. melanopterus  (Swainson, 1837) Caribbean Sea and w Africa  
        O. a. antarcticus  (Lesson, 1831) Red Sea, Persian Gulf and w Indian Ocean  
        O. a. anaethetus  (Scopoli, 1786) e Indian Ocean and w Pacific  
        O. a. nelsoni  (Ridgway, 1919) w coast of Mexico and Central America  
Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus  (Linnaeus, 1766) TrO : widespread  
        O. f. fuscatus  (Linnaeus, 1766) Gulf of Mexico and West Indies, Gulf of Guinea, s Atlantic  
        O. f. nubilosus  (Sparrman, 1788) Red Sea and Indian Ocean to Ryukyu Is., Philippines and Greater Sundas  
        O. f. serratus  (Wagler, 1830) w and n Australia and New Guinea through the s Pacific to Easter I.  
        O. f. kermadeci  Mathews, 1916 Kermadec, Lord Howe and Norfolk Is.  
        O. f. oahuensis  (Bloxam, A, 1827) Bonin Is. (Japan) to the Hawaiian Is. south to Kiritimati (Line Is.)  
        O. f. crissalis  (Lawrence, 1872) islands off w Mexico to the Galapagos  
        O. f. luctuosus  (Philippi & Landbeck, 1866) Juan Fernandez Is. (Chile)  
River Tern Sterna aurantia  Gray, JE, 1831 OR : e Pakistan through India to s Vietnam  
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii  Montagu, 1813 Worldwide : widespread coasts  
        S. d. dougallii  Montagu, 1813 e North America, West Indies, Azores, Europe, Africa  
        S. d. arideensis  Mathews, 1912 Seychelles to Madagascar and Rodrigues I.  
        S. d. korustes  (Hume, 1874) Sri Lanka, Andaman Is. and Mergui Arch. (sw Burma)  
        S. d. bangsi  Mathews, 1912 Ryukyu Is. and e China to New Guinea, ne Australia and islands of the sw Pacific  
        S. d. gracilis  Gould, 1845 Moluccas, w and n Australia  
White-fronted Tern Sterna striata  Gmelin, JF, 1789 AU : New Zealand  
Black-naped Tern Sterna sumatrana  Raffles, 1822 AF, OR, AU : coasts  
        S. s. mathewsi  Stresemann, 1914 islands of the w Indian Ocean  
        S. s. sumatrana  Raffles, 1822 islands of e Indian Ocean to islands of w Pacific and Australasia  
South American Tern Sterna hirundinacea  Lesson, 1831 SA : coastal Peru and se Brazil to Tierra del Fuego,  Falkland Is.  
Common Tern Sterna hirundo  Linnaeus, 1758 EU, NA : widespread  
        S. h. hirundo  Linnaeus, 1758 North America to n South America, n and w Africa, Europe to nw Siberia and w China  
        S. h. tibetana  Saunders, H, 1876 w Himalayas to w Mongolia and Tibet  
        S. h. minussensis  Sushkin, 1925 c Siberia to n Mongolia  
        S. h. longipennis  Nordmann, 1835 ne Siberia to ne China  
White-cheeked Tern Sterna repressa  Hartert, 1916 AF, EU : coastal Kenya to coastal Pakistan  
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea  Pontoppidan, 1763 EU, NA : widespread through the north  
Antarctic Tern Sterna vittata  Gmelin, JF, 1789 SO : widespread  
        S. v. tristanensis  Murphy, 1938 Tristan da Cunha, Gough, St. Paul and Amsterdam Is.  
        S. v. georgiae  Reichenow, 1904 South Georgia, South Orkney and South Sandwich Is.  
        S. v. gaini  Murphy, 1938 South Shetland Is., Antarctic Pen. and islands  
        S. v. vittata  Gmelin, JF, 1789 Prince Edward, Crozet, Kerguelen, Bouvet and Heard Is.  
        S. v. bethunei  Buller, 1896 Stewart, Snares, Auckland, Bounty, Antipodes, Campbell and Macquarie Is.  
Kerguelen Tern Sterna virgata  Cabanis, 1875 IO : s islands  
        S. v. mercuri  Voisin, 1971 Crozet and Prince Edward Is.  
        S. v. virgata  Cabanis, 1875 Kerguelen Is.  
Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri  Nuttall, 1834 NA, MA : sc Canada through the USA to ne Mexico  
Snowy-crowned Tern Sterna trudeaui  Audubon, 1838 SA : se Brazil to e Argentina, c Chile  
Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda  Gray, JE, 1831 OR : India through Southeast Asia  
Black-fronted Tern Chlidonias albostriatus  (Gray, GR, 1845) AU : New Zealand  
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida  (Pallas, 1811) AF, EU, OR, AU : widespread  
        C. h. hybrida  (Pallas, 1811) n Africa and sw Europe to c Asia, se Siberia, China and se Asia  
        C. h. delalandii  (Mathews, 1912) s and e Africa, Madagascar  
        C. h. javanicus  (Horsfield, 1821) Australia  
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus  (Temminck, 1815) EU : e Europe to e Siberia and ne China  
Black Tern Chlidonias niger  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : widespread  
        C. n. niger  (Linnaeus, 1758) Europe to c Asia  
        C. n. surinamensis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Canada, n USA  
Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : widespread  
        P. s. simplex  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) n, c and e  
        P. s. chloropoda  (Vieillot, 1819) sc and se  
Inca Tern Larosterna inca  (Lesson & Garnot, 1827) SA : coastal n Peru to c Chile  
Skuas (7)
Family Stercorariidae
Chilean Skua Stercorarius chilensis  Bonaparte, 1857 SA : s coasts and oceans  
South Polar Skua Stercorarius maccormicki  Saunders, H, 1893 AN : coasts  
Brown Skua Stercorarius antarcticus  (Lesson, 1831) SO : oceans and islands ENG : Change English name of Stercorarius antarcticus from Subantarctic Skua to Brown Skua to follow SACC
        S. a. antarcticus  (Lesson, 1831) Falkland Is., se Argentina  
        S. a. hamiltoni  (Hagen, 1952) Triistan da Cunha and Gough Is.  
        S. a. lonnbergi  (Mathews, 1912) Antarctic Pen. and subantarctic Is.  
Great Skua Stercorarius skua  (Brünnich, 1764) EU : nw islands and coasts  
Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus  (Temminck, 1815) NA, EU : n PHY : Stercorarius pomarinus is more closely related to the large skuas than to the traditional jaegers
Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n ENG : Many prefer “skua“ to German “jaeger“ for Stercorarius parasiticus and S. longicaudus
Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus  Vieillot, 1819 NA, EU : n  
        S. l. longicaudus  Vieillot, 1819 n Scandinavia and n Russia  
        S. l. pallescens  Lřppenthin, 1932 e Siberia, arctic North America, Greenland  
Auks (25)
Family Alcidae
Little Auk Alle alle  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n coasts  
        A. a. alle  (Linnaeus, 1758) Baffin I. (Canada) to Novaya Zemlya (nw Russia)  
        A. a. polaris  Stenhouse, 1930 Frans Josef Land (Russia) to St. Lawrence I. (Alaska)  
Thick-billed Murre Uria lomvia  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n coasts  
        U. l. lomvia  (Linnaeus, 1758) ne Canada to Novaya Zemlya (nw Russia)  
        U. l. eleonorae  Portenko, 1937 e Taymyr Pen. to New Siberia islands (nc Russia)  
        U. l. heckeri  Portenko, 1944 Wrangel and Herald Is., Chukotsk Pen. (ne Russia)  
        U. l. arra  (Pallas, 1811) n Japan to the Aleutian Is. and se Alaska  
Common Murre Uria aalge  (Pontoppidan, 1763) NA, EU : n coasts  
        U. a. aalge  (Pontoppidan, 1763) e Canada to Iceland, Scotland, s Norway and the Baltic Sea  
        U. a. hyperborea  Salomonsen, 1932 n Norway to Svalbard and nw Russia  
        U. a. albionis  Witherby, 1923 British Isles to w Iberian Pen.  
        U. a. inornata  Salomonsen, 1932 e Korea, Japan through the Bering Sea to w Alaska and sw Canada  
        U. a. californica  (Bryant, H, 1861) n Washington to California (USA)  
Razorbill Alca torda  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : n Atlantic coasts  
        A. t. torda  Linnaeus, 1758 ne North America, Greenland to n Scandinavia and the White Sea  
        A. t. islandica  Brehm, CL, 1831 Iceland, Faroe Is., British Isles to nw France  
Great Auk Pinguinus impennis † (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n North Atlantic
Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n coasts  
        C. g. mandtii  (Lichtenstein, 1822) ne Canada to Svalbard to n Siberis and n Alaska  
        C. g. arcticus  (Brehm, CL, 1824) ne USA, se Canada and s Greenland to the British Isles, s Scandinavia and the White Sea  
        C. g. islandicus  Hřrring, 1937 Iceland  
        C. g. faeroeensis  Brehm, CL, 1831 Faroe Is.  
        C. g. grylle  (Linnaeus, 1758) Baltic Sea  
Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba  Pallas, 1811 EU, NA : n Pacific coasts  
        C. c. columba  Pallas, 1811 ne Siberia through the Bering Sea and the e Aleutian Is. to nw USA  
        C. c. kaiurka  Portenko, 1937 Commander Is.(se Russia) to wc Aleutian Is.  
        C. c. snowi  Stejneger, 1897 n and c Kuril Is. (se Russia)  
Spectacled Guillemot Cepphus carbo  Pallas, 1811 EU : ne coasts  
Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus marmoratus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : nw coasts  
Long-billed Murrelet Brachyramphus perdix  (Pallas, 1811) EU : ne coasts  
Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris  (Vigors, 1829) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts  
Guadalupe Murrelet Synthliboramphus hypoleucus  (Xántus de Vésey, 1860) MA : nw Baja California (Mexico) ENG : Change English name of S. hypoleucus from Xantus‘s Murrelet to Guadalupe Murrelet (NACC 2011-C-14b)
Scripps's Murrelet Synthliboramphus scrippsi  (Green & Arnold, 1939) NA, MA : Channel Is. (California, USA) and islands off w Baja California (Mexico) AS : Scripps‘s Murrelet is split from Guadalupe [Xantus‘s] Murrelet (Sibley and Monroe 1993, Nettleship 1996, Birt et al 2012, NACC 2011-14-C)
Craveri's Murrelet Synthliboramphus craveri  (Salvadori, 1865) NA, MA : w coasts  
Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts  
        S. a. antiquus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) ne Asia, the Aleutian Is. to s Alaska  
        S. a. microrhynchos  Stepanyan, 1972 Commander Is. (se Russia)  
Japanese Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume  (Temminck, 1836) EU : Japan, coasts  
Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus  (Pallas, 1811) NA : nw coasts  
        P. a. aleuticus  (Pallas, 1811) Aleutian Is. and s Alaska to n Baja California (Mexico)  
        P. a. australis  van Rossem, 1939 s Baja California (Mexico)  
Parakeet Auklet Aethia psittacula  (Pallas, 1769) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts  
Least Auklet Aethia pusilla  (Pallas, 1811) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts  
Whiskered Auklet Aethia pygmaea  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) EU, NA : nc, nw Pacific coasts  
Crested Auklet Aethia cristatella  (Pallas, 1769) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts  
Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata  (Pallas, 1811) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts  
Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, NA : n Atlantic coasts  
        F. a. arctica  (Linnaeus, 1758) e Canada and ne USA to Iceland, c and s Norway to s Novaya Zemlya (nw Russia)  
        F. a. grabae  (Brehm, CL, 1831) Faroe Is. to s Norway, British Isles and nw France  
        F. a. naumanni  Norton, 1901 n Canada and Greenland to n Novaya Zemlya (nw Russia)  
Horned Puffin Fratercula corniculata  (Naumann, JF, 1821) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts  
Tufted Puffin Fratercula cirrhata  (Pallas, 1769) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts