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NAMES >> Index >>Ibises to pelicans & cormorants

IOC English NameScientific NameRangeComments
       
 
ORDER PELECANIFORMES
   
       
Ibises, Spoonbills (36)
Family Threskiornithidae
  PHY : Ibises and spoonbills (Threskiornithidae) and herons (Ardeidae) are sister taxa in the Order Pelecaniformes (Hackett et al. 2008)
African Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus  (Latham, 1790) AF : Africa south of the Sahara, Iraq ENG : Change English name of Threskiornis aethiopicus to African Sacred Ibis with split of T.bernieri
Malagasy Sacred Ibis Threskiornis bernieri  (Bonaparte, 1855) AF : Madagascar, Aldabra AS : Threskiornis bernieri is split from T. aethiopicus (REF); recognized by BLI
        T. b. bernieri  (Bonaparte, 1855) Madagascar  
        T. b. abbotti  (Ridgway, 1893) Aldabra I. (Seychelles, Indian Ocean)  
Reunion Ibis Threskiornis solitarius † (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1848) IO : La Réunion EXTINCT : Cheke, A & Hume, J. 2008.
Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus  (Latham, 1790) OR : India, Southeast Asia  
Australian White Ibis Threskiornis moluccus  (Cuvier, 1829) AU : widespread  
        T. m. moluccus  (Cuvier, 1829) Lesser Sundas, Moluccas to s New Guinea and Australia  
        T. m. pygmaeus  Mayr, 1931 Solomon Is.  
Straw-necked Ibis Threskiornis spinicollis  (Jameson, 1835) AU : sc New Guinea, Australia  
Red-naped Ibis Pseudibis papillosa  (Temminck, 1824) OR : India, Pakistan, Nepal  
White-shouldered Ibis Pseudibis davisoni  (Hume, 1875) OR : s Indochina, Borneo  
Giant Ibis Pseudibis gigantea  (Oustalet, 1877) OR : s Vietnam, Cambodia  
Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremita  (Linnaeus, 1758) AF : Morocco and Algeria, Middle Eastern population?  
Southern Bald Ibis Geronticus calvus  (Boddaert, 1783) AF : South Africa  
Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon  (Temminck, 1835) EU : ne China  
Olive Ibis Bostrychia olivacea  (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1838) AF : w, c, e  
        B. o. olivacea  (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1838) Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast  
        B. o. cupreipennis  (Reichenow, 1903) s Cameroon to the DR Congo  
        B. o. rothschildi 
†  (Bannerman, 1919)
Principe I. (Gulf of Guinea)  
        B. o. akeleyorum  (Chapman, 1912) Kenya and Tanzania  
Sao Tome Ibis Bostrychia bocagei  (Chapin, 1923) AF : São Tomé  
Spot-breasted Ibis Bostrychia rara  (Rothschild, Hartert & Kleinschmidt, O, 1897) AF : Sierra Leone to Ghana, s Nigeria to Gabon and s DRCongo  
Hadada Ibis Bostrychia hagedash  (Latham, 1790) AF : widespread  
        B. h. nilotica  (Neumann, 1909) Sudan and Ethiopia to ne DR Congo, Uganda and nw Tanzania  
        B. h. brevirostris  (Reichenow, 1907) Senegal to Kenya and s to Zambia and n Mozambique  
        B. h. hagedash  (Latham, 1790) southern Africa  
Wattled Ibis Bostrychia carunculata  (Rüppell, 1837) AF : Ethiopia, Eritrea  
Plumbeous Ibis Theristicus caerulescens  (Vieillot, 1817) SA : ne Bolivia and s Brazil to ne Argentina and Uruguay  
Buff-necked Ibis Theristicus caudatus  (Boddaert, 1783) SA : widespread  
        T. c. caudatus  (Boddaert, 1783) n South America to the Mato Grosso (sw Brazil)  
        T. c. hyperorius  Todd, 1948 e Bolivia to s Brazil and n Argentina  
Black-faced Ibis Theristicus melanopis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : sw Peru, w Chile, s Argentina  
Andean Ibis  Theristicus branickii  von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894 Andes of Ecuador to n Chile and n Bolivia  AS : Andean Ibis T. branickii is split from Black-faced Ibis (Steinbacher 1979, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Matheu & del Hoyo 1992, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Viscarra 2009, Collar & Bird 2011, Clements 6, cf H&M3, HBW; SACC)
Sharp-tailed Ibis Cercibis oxycerca  (von Spix, 1825) SA : e Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana  and n Brazil  
Green Ibis Mesembrinibis cayennensis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) LA : Honduras to se Brazil and ne Argentina  
Bare-faced Ibis Phimosus infuscatus  (Lichtenstein, 1823) SA : widespread  
        P. i. berlepschi  Hellmayr, 1903 n South America  
        P. i. nudifrons  (von Spix, 1825) c and s Brazil  
        P. i. infuscatus  (Lichtenstein, 1823) e Bolivia to Paraguay, Uruguay and c Argentina  
American White Ibis Eudocimus albus  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, LA : s USA, Caribbean, n SA  
Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber  (Linnaeus, 1758) SA : n and e Colombia and e Ecuador to ne Brazil  
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus  (Linnaeus, 1766) Worldwide : widespread  
White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi  (Vieillot, 1817) NA, LA : c USA to c Argentina  
Puna Ibis Plegadis ridgwayi  (Allen, JA, 1876) SA : n Peru to n Chile and nw Argentina  
Madagascan Ibis Lophotibis cristata  (Boddaert, 1783) AF : Madagascar  
        L. c. cristata  (Boddaert, 1783) n and e Madagascar  
        L. c. urschi  Lavauden, 1929 s and w Madagascar  
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia  Linnaeus, 1758 AF, EU, OR : widespread  
        P. l. leucorodia  Linnaeus, 1758 Europe to n China, India and Sri Lanka  
        P. l. balsaci  Naurois & Roux, 1974 w Mauritania  
        P. l. archeri  Neumann, 1928 coasts of the Red Sea, Somalia  
Black-faced Spoonbill Platalea minor  Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 EU : Korea, ne China  
African Spoonbill Platalea alba  Scopoli, 1786 AF : widespread south of the Sahara  
Royal Spoonbill Platalea regia  Gould, 1838 AU : widespread  
Yellow-billed Spoonbill Platalea flavipes  Gould, 1838 AU : Australia  
Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, LA : s USA to n Argentina  
       
Herons, Bitterns (72)
Family Ardeidae
  PHY : The herons (Ardeidae) and ibises,spoonbills (Threskiornithidae) are sister taxa in the Order Pelecaniformes (Hackett et al. 2008)
Forest Bittern Zonerodius heliosylus  (Lesson & Garnot, 1828) AU : New Guinea  
White-crested Tiger Heron Tigriornis leucolopha  (Jardine, 1846) AF : Senegal to Central African Republic and DRCongo  
Rufescent Tiger Heron Tigrisoma lineatum  (Boddaert, 1783) LA : widespread  
        T. l. lineatum  (Boddaert, 1783) Honduras south to ne Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil  
        T. l. marmoratum  (Vieillot, 1817) se Bolivia to s Brazil and n Argentina  
Fasciated Tiger Heron Tigrisoma fasciatum  (Such, 1825) LA : Costa Rica to n Bolivia, se SA  
        T. f. salmoni  Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1875 Costa Rica to n Bolivia  
        T. f. fasciatum  (Such, 1825) se Brazil to n Argentina  
        T. f. pallescens  Olrog, 1950 nw Argentina  
Bare-throated Tiger Heron Tigrisoma mexicanum  Swainson, 1834 LA : Mexico to Colombia  
Agami Heron Agamia agami  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) LA : e Mexico to Amazonia  
Boat-billed Heron Cochlearius cochlearius  (Linnaeus, 1766) LA : wc Mexico to ne Argentina  
        C. c. zeledoni  (Ridgway, 1885) w Mexico  
        C. c. phillipsi  Dickerman, 1973 e Mexico, Belize  
        C. c. ridgwayi  Dickerman, 1973 s Mexico to Honduras  
        C. c. panamensis  Griscom, 1926 Costa Rica and Panama  
        C. c. cochlearius  (Linnaeus, 1766) n and c South America  
Zigzag Heron Zebrilus undulatus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : Amazonia  
Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread  
        B. s. stellaris  (Linnaeus, 1758) Europe to e Asia  
        B. s. capensis  (Schlegel, 1863) southern Africa  
Australasian Bittern Botaurus poiciloptilus  (Wagler, 1827) AU : sw, se Australia, New Zealand  
American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus  (Rackett, 1813) NA : widespread  
Pinnated Bittern Botaurus pinnatus  (Wagler, 1829) LA : e Mexico to ne Argentina  
        B. p. caribaeus  Dickerman, 1961 se Mexico, Belize  
        B. p. pinnatus  (Wagler, 1829) El Salvador and Nicaragua to n Argentina and s Brazil  
Stripe-backed Bittern Ixobrychus involucris  (Vieillot, 1823) SA : Colombia to Surinam, s Bolivia and s Brazil to c Chile and c Argentina  
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA, LA : e, sw USA to se Brazil  
        I. e. exilis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) e Canada, e and sw USA  
        I. e. pullus  van Rossem, 1930 nw Mexico  
        I. e. erythromelas  (Vieillot, 1817) e Panama and n South America to n Bolivia and n Argentina  
        I. e. limoncochae  Norton, DW, 1965 e Ecuador  
        I. e. bogotensis  Chapman, 1914 c Colombia  
        I. e. peruvianus  Bond, 1955 wc Peru  
Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus  (Linnaeus, 1766) EU, AF : s, c Europe to c Asia, nw India, Africa.  
        I. m. minutus  (Linnaeus, 1766) c and s Europe to c Asia and nw India  
        I. m. payesii  (Hartlaub, 1858) Africa south of the Sahara  
        I. m. podiceps  (Bonaparte, 1855) Madagascar  
Black-backed Bittern Ixobrychus dubius  Mathews, 1912 AU : e, sw Australia AS : Ixobrychus dubius is split from I. minutus (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Christidis & Boles 2008).
New Zealand Bittern Ixobrychus novaezelandiae 
†  (Purdie, 1871)
AU : South I., New Zealand EXTINCT :
Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : widespread, also e Asia  
Von Schrenck's Bittern Ixobrychus eurhythmus  (Swinhoe, 1873) EU : se Siberia, Korea, Japan and e China  
Cinnamon Bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : widespread, also e Asia  
Dwarf Bittern Ixobrychus sturmii  (Wagler, 1827) AF : widespread  
Black Bittern Dupetor flavicollis  (Latham, 1790) OR, AU : widespread  
        D. f. flavicollis  (Latham, 1790) India to Indochina, the Philippines, w and c Indonesia  
        D. f. australis  (Lesson, 1831) e Indonesia, New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., Australia  
        D. f. woodfordi  (Ogilvie-Grant, 1888) Solomon Is.  
White-eared Night Heron Gorsachius magnificus  (Ogilvie-Grant, 1899) OR : s,e China, n Vietnam  
Japanese Night Heron Gorsachius goisagi  (Temminck, 1836) EU : Japan  
Malayan Night Heron Gorsachius melanolophus  (Raffles, 1822) OR : widespread  
White-backed Night Heron Gorsachius leuconotus  (Wagler, 1827) AF : widespread  
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax  (Linnaeus, 1758) Worldwide : except AU  
        N. n. nycticorax  (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasia s to Indonesia and n Africa  
        N. n. hoactli  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) s Canada to n Argentina and Chile, Hawaii  
        N. n. obscurus  Bonaparte, 1855 Chile, sw Argentina  
        N. n. falklandicus  Hartert, 1914 Falkland Is.  
Ascension Night Heron Nycticorax olsoni 
†  Bourne, Ashmole & Simmons, 2003
AO : Ascension I. EXTINCT : Bourne, Ashmole & Simmons, 2003
Reunion Night Heron Nycticorax duboisi † (Rothschild, 1907) IO : La Réunion EXTINCT : Cheke, A & Hume, J. 2008.
Mauritius Night Heron Nycticorax mauritianus 
†  (Newton, E & Gadow, 1893)
IO : Mauritius I. EXTINCT : Cheke, A & Hume, J. 2008.
Rodrigues Night Heron Nycticorax megacephalus 
†  (Milne-Edwards, 1873)
IO : Rodrigues I. EXTINCT : Cheke, A & Hume, J. 2008.
Nankeen Night Heron Nycticorax caledonicus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AU : widespread ENG : CHANGE English name of Nycticorax caledonicus to Nankeen Night Heron, preferred name in AU region and correct original color reference (Lecroy pers comm)
        N. c. crassirostris 
†  Vigors, 1839
Bonin I. (Japan)  
        N. c. manillensis  Vigors, 1831 Philippines, n Borneo  
        N. c. australasiae (Vieillot, 1823) Java east to New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand  SSP : H&M 4:186. N. c. australasiae (Vieillot, 1823) replaces N. c. hilli Mathews, 1912.
        N. c. pelewensis  Mathews, 1926 Palau and Caroline Is. (wc Pacific)  
        N. c. caledonicus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) New Caledonia  
        N. c. mandibularis  Ogilvie-Grant, 1888 Bismarck Arch. and Solomon Is.  
Yellow-crowned Night Heron Nyctanassa violacea  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, LA : e USA to Peru and e Brazil  
        N. v. violacea  (Linnaeus, 1758) c and e USA to e Mexico and e Honduras  
        N. v. bancrofti  Huey, 1927 w Mexico, Socorro I., West Indies  
        N. v. caliginis  Wetmore, 1946 Panama and w Colombia to Peru  
        N. v. cayennensis  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Panama and ne Colombia to ne Brazil  
        N. v. paupera  (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1870) Galapagos Is.  
Bermuda Night Heron Nyctanassa carcinocatactes 
†  Olson & Wingate, 2006
AO : Bermuda EXTINCT : Olson & Wingate, 2006
Green Heron Butorides virescens  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, MA : e and c USA to Panama  
        B. v. anthonyi  (Mearns, 1895) w USA, n Baja California (Mexico)  
        B. v. frazari  (Brewster, 1888) s Baja California (Mexico)  
        B. v. virescens  (Linnaeus, 1758) c and e USA and e Canada to Panama  
        B. v. maculata  (Boddaert, 1783) Bahama Is. and the Caribbean  
Lava Heron Butorides sundevalli  (Reichenow, 1877) SA: Galápagos Islands AS : Butorides sundevalli is split from B. striata (Harris 1982, Dickinson 2003; cf SACC 15, needs new data
Striated Heron Butorides striata  (Linnaeus, 1758) SA, EU, AF, AU : widespread  
        B. s. striata  (Linnaeus, 1758) e Panama to n Argentina, Bolivia and Chile  
        B. s. atricapilla  (Afzelius, 1804) Africa south of the Sahara  
        B. s. brevipes  (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833) Somalia and the Red Sea coasts  
        B. s. rutenbergi  (Hartlaub, 1880) Madagascar, La Réunion  
        B. s. rhizophorae  Salomonsen, 1934 Comoros  
        B. s. crawfordi  Nicoll, 1906 Aldabra Is. and Amirante Is.  
        B. s. degens  Hartert, 1920 Seychelles  
        B. s. albolimbata  Reichenow, 1900 Chagos Arch. and Maldive Is.  
        B. s. chloriceps  (Bonaparte, 1855) Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Laccadive Is.  
        B. s. spodiogaster  Sharpe, 1894 Andaman Is., Nicobar Is. and islands off w Sumatra  
        B. s. amurensis  (Schrenck, 1860) se Siberia, ne China and Japan  
        B. s. actophila  Oberholser, 1912 e China to n Burma and n Vietnam  
        B. s. javanica  (Horsfield, 1821) Burma and Thailand to the Philippines and the Greater and Lesser Sundas  
        B. s. moluccarum  Hartert, 1920 Moluccas  
        B. s. papuensis  Mayr, 1940 nw New Guinea  
        B. s. idenburgi  Rand, 1941 n, e and se New Guinea  
        B. s. macrorhyncha  (Gould, 1848) e and ne Australia, New Caledonia  
        B. s. stagnatilis  (Gould, 1848) nw and nc Australia  
        B. s. patruelis  (Peale, 1848) Tahiti Is. (Society Is.)  
        B. s. solomonensis  Mayr, 1940 New Hanover to Solomons to Fiji  
Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides  (Scopoli, 1769) EU, AF : widespread  
Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii  (Sykes, 1832) EU, OR : Persian Gulf to Burma, Maldive Islands  
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus  (Bonaparte, 1855) OR : widespread in the east  
Javan Pond Heron Ardeola speciosa  (Horsfield, 1821) OR : e  
        A. s. continentalis  Salomonsen, 1933 c Thailand through s Indochina  
        A. s. speciosa  (Horsfield, 1821) w and c Indonesia  
Malagasy Pond Heron Ardeola idae  (Hartlaub, 1860) AF : Madagascar, Aldabra Island  
Rufous-bellied Heron Ardeola rufiventris  (Sundevall, 1850) AF : Uganda and s Kenya to s Angola, n Botswana and e South Africa  
Western Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, AF, NA, LA : s Europe to Iran, Africa, Indian Ocean Is., North and Latin America. ENG : Change English name of Bubulcus ibis to (Western) Cattle Egret with split of B. coromandus
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus  (Boddaert, 1783) OR : s, e Asia, Australasia AS : Bubulcus coromandus is split from B. ibis (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005).
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea  Linnaeus, 1758 EU, AF, OR : widespread  
        A. c. cinerea  Linnaeus, 1758 w Europe to e Asia to India and Africa  
        A. c. jouyi  Clark, AH, 1907 n China, Korea and Japan to Sumatra and Java  
        A. c. monicae  Jouanin & Roux, 1963 Banc d'Arguin (Mauritania)  
        A. c. firasa  Hartert, 1917 Madagascar, Comoros and Aldabra  
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, MA : widespread  
        A. h. fannini  Chapman, 1901 nw North America  
        A. h. herodias  Linnaeus, 1758 southern Canada through c America  
        A. h. occidentalis  Audubon, 1835 se USA through the West Indies  
        A. h. cognata  Bangs, 1903 Galapagos Is.  
Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi  Linnaeus, 1766 SA : widespread  
White-necked Heron Ardea pacifica  Latham, 1801 AU : Australia, s New Guinea  
Black-headed Heron Ardea melanocephala  Children & Vigors, 1826 AF : widespread south of the Sahara  
Humblot's Heron Ardea humbloti  Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, A, 1885 AF : Madagascar  
White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis  Hume, 1878 OR : e Himalayas  
Great-billed Heron Ardea sumatrana  Raffles, 1822 OR, AU : Southeast Asia to n Australia  
Goliath Heron Ardea goliath  Cretzschmar, 1829 AF, EU :  widespread in Africa south of the Sahara, Iran and Iraq to India  
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea  Linnaeus, 1766 EU, OR, AF : widespread  
        A. p. purpurea  Linnaeus, 1766 s and c Europe to c Asia and the Middle east, Africa south of the Sahara  
        A. p. bournei  Naurois, 1966 Cape Verde Is.  
        A. p. madagascariensis  van Oort, 1910 Madagascar  
        A. p. manilensis  Meyen, 1834 s and e Asia to the Philippines and Indonesia  
Great Egret Ardea alba  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, SA, AF, EU, OR, AU : Worldwide ENG : Revert English name of Ardea alba to Great Egret with relump of A. modesta
        A. a. alba  Linnaeus, 1758 c Europe to ne Asia south to n and c Africa and s Asia  
        A. a. melanorhynchos  Wagler, 1827 Africa south of the Sahara  
        A. a. egretta  Gmelin, JF, 1789 s Canada to s Argentina and s Chile  
        A. a. modesta  Gray, JE, 1831 s, e Asia to Indonesia and Australasia.  
Capped Heron Pilherodius pileatus  (Boddaert, 1783) LA : e Panama to se Brazil  
Whistling Heron Syrigma sibilatrix  (Temminck, 1824) SA : n, sc, se  
        S. s. fostersmithi  Friedmann, 1949 ne Colombia, nw Venezuela  
        S. s. sibilatrix  (Temminck, 1824) e Bolivia and s Brazil to ne Argentina  
Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia  (Wagler, 1829) OR, AF, AU : widespread ENG : Change English name of Egretta intermedia to Intermediate Egret to conform to broadest usage.
        E. i. brachyrhyncha  (Brehm, AE, 1854) Africa south of the Sahara  
        E. i. intermedia  (Wagler, 1829) Japan to s India and Greater Sundas  
        E. i. plumifera  (Gould, 1848) e Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia  
Pied Heron Egretta picata  (Gould, 1845) AU : Sulawesi to n Australia  
White-faced Heron Egretta novaehollandiae  (Latham, 1790) AU : widespread  
Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA, MA : s USA, Caribbean  
        E. r. rufescens  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) s USA, West Indies, Mexico  
        E. r. dickeyi  (van Rossem, 1926) Baja California (Mexico)  
Black Heron Egretta ardesiaca  (Wagler, 1827) AF : widespread south of the Sahara  
Slaty Egret Egretta vinaceigula  (Sharpe, 1895) AF : Zambia to ne Namibia, n Botswana and w Zimbabwe  
Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor  (Statius Müller, 1776) NA, LA : se USA to n SA  
        E. t. occidentalis  (Huey, 1927) Baja California (Mexico)  
        E. t. ruficollis  Gosse, 1847 e and se USA to nw South America, West Indies  
        E. t. tricolor  (Statius Müller, 1776) nc and ne South America  
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea  (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, LA : se USA to s Brazil  
Snowy Egret Egretta thula  (Molina, 1782) NA, LA : widespread  
        E. t. brewsteri  Thayer & Bangs, 1909 w North America  
        E. t. thula  (Molina, 1782) e and s North America to c Chile and n Argentina  
Little Egret Egretta garzetta  (Linnaeus, 1766) EU, AF, OR, AU : widespread  
        E. g. garzetta  (Linnaeus, 1766) Europe to Japan south to Africa, India and the Philippines  
        E. g. nigripes  (Temminck, 1840) Sundas to Australia and New Zealand  
Western Reef Heron Egretta gularis  (Bosc, 1792) AF, EU, OR : w AF, ne AF to w India, Sri Lanka  
        E. g. gularis  (Bosc, 1792) coastal w Africa  
        E. g. schistacea  (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828) coastal ne Africa to w India, Sri Lanka  
Dimorphic Egret Egretta dimorpha  Hartert, 1914 AF : e, Madagascar  
Pacific Reef Heron Egretta sacra  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR, AU : Southeast Asia to New Zealand  
        E. s. sacra  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) coastal se Asia to Australia, Oceania  
        E. s. albolineata  (Gray, GR, 1859) New Caledonia, Loyalty Is.  
Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes  (Swinhoe, 1860) EU : e Asia  
       
Hamerkop (1)
Family Scopidae
   
Hamerkop Scopus umbretta  Gmelin, JF, 1789 AF : also sw Arabian Peninsula  
        S. u. umbretta  Gmelin, JF, 1789 tropical Africa, Madagascar, sw Arabia  
        S. u. minor  Bates, 1931 coastal w Africa  
       
Shoebill (1)
Family Balaenicipitidae
   
Shoebill Balaeniceps rex  Gould, 1850 AF : s Sudan, Uganda and wsw Ethiopia to se DRCongo and n Zambia  
       
Pelicans (8)
Family Pelecanidae
   
Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus  Linnaeus, 1758 EU, AF : e Europe to c Asia, Africa south of the Sahara  
Pink-backed Pelican Pelecanus rufescens  Gmelin, JF, 1789 AF : widespread south of the Sahara  
Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis  Gmelin, JF, 1789 OR : se India, Sri Lanka, Sumatra  
Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus  Bruch, 1832 EU : se Europe to China  
Australian Pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus  Temminck, 1824 AU : widespread  
American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos  Gmelin, JF, 1789 NA : sc Canada to c USA  
Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis  Linnaeus, 1766 NA, LA : coasts, Caribbean  
        P. o. californicus  Ridgway, 1884 coasts of w USA and w Mexican  
        P. o. carolinensis  Gmelin, JF, 1789 Atlantic coasts of temperate and tropical Americas  
        P. o. murphyi  Wetmore, 1945 coasts of w Colombia and Ecuador  
        P. o. occidentalis  Linnaeus, 1766 West Indies  
        P. o. urinator  Wetmore, 1945 Galapagos Is.  
Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus  Molina, 1782 SA : coastal Peru and Chile  
       
 
ORDER SULIFORMES
   
       
Frigatebirds (5)
Family Fregatidae
   
Ascension Frigatebird Fregata aquila  (Linnaeus, 1758) AO : se  
Christmas Frigatebird Fregata andrewsi  Mathews, 1914 IO : ne  
Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens  Mathews, 1914 AO, PO : Caribbean, Cape Verde Is, e Pacific  
Great Frigatebird Fregata minor  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) TrO : widespread  
        F. m. nicolli  Mathews, 1914 s Atlantic  
        F. m. aldabrensis  Mathews, 1914 w Indian Ocean  
        F. m. minor  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) c and e Indian Ocean to South China Sea  
        F. m. palmerstoni  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) w and c Pacific  
        F. m. ridgwayi  Mathews, 1914 e Pacific  
Lesser Frigatebird Fregata ariel  (Gray, GR, 1845) TrO : widespread  
        F. a. trinitatis  Miranda-Ribeiro, 1919 s Atlantic  
        F. a. iredalei  Mathews, 1914 w Indian Ocean  
        F. a. ariel  (Gray, GR, 1845) e Indian Ocean to c Pacific  
       
Gannets, Boobies (10)
Family Sulidae
   
Northern Gannet Morus bassanus  (Linnaeus, 1758) AO : n  
Cape Gannet Morus capensis  (Lichtenstein, 1823) AF : s coasts  
Australasian Gannet Morus serrator  (Gray, GR, 1843) AU : Australia, New Zealand  
Abbott's Booby Papasula abbotti  (Ridgway, 1893) IO : ne  
Blue-footed Booby Sula nebouxii  Milne-Edwards, 1882 PO : ec  
        S. n. nebouxii  Milne-Edwards, 1882 Pacific coast from s California (USA) to Peru  
        S. n. excisa  Todd, 1948 Galapagos Is.  
Peruvian Booby Sula variegata  (Tschudi, 1843) SA : w coast  
Masked Booby Sula dactylatra  Lesson, 1831 TrO : widespread  
        S. d. dactylatra  Lesson, 1831 Caribbean and sw Atlantic islands  
        S. d. melanops  Hartlaub, 1859 Red Sea, nw Indian Ocean  
        S. d. bedouti  Mathews, 1913 s and e Indian Ocean  
        S. d. tasmani  van Tets, Meredith, Fullagar & Davidson, P, 1988 Tasman Sea  
        S. d. personata  Gould, 1846 Coral Sea to Micronesia and Polynesia  
        S. d. californica  Rothschild, 1915 islands off w Mexico  
Nazca Booby Sula granti  Rothschild, 1902 PO : ec  
Red-footed Booby Sula sula  (Linnaeus, 1766) TrO : widespread  
        S. s. sula  (Linnaeus, 1766) Caribbean and sw Atlantic islands  
        S. s. rubripes  Gould, 1838 tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans  
        S. s. websteri  Rothschild, 1898 ec Pacific  
Brown Booby Sula leucogaster  (Boddaert, 1783) TrO : widespread  
        S. l. leucogaster  (Boddaert, 1783) Caribbean and Atlantic Is.  
        S. l. brewsteri  Goss, 1888 coasts of w USA and w Mexico  
        S. l. etesiaca  Thayer & Bangs, 1905 Pacific coasts of Central America and Colombia  
        S. l. plotus  (Forster, JR, 1844) Red Sea through the Indian Ocean to the w and c Pacific  
       
Cormorants, Shags (41)
Family Phalacrocoracidae
  TAX : The genera of cormorants and the distinctions between "shags" and "cormorants" remain mostly unresolved due to conflicts among studies and missing taxa (Siegel-Causey 1988, Kennedy et al 2000, Christidis & Boles 2008). Except for species of Microcarbo
Little Pied Cormorant Microcarbo melanoleucos  (Vieillot, 1817) AU : widespread  
        M. m. melanoleucos  (Vieillot, 1817) Lesser Sundas to Australia  
        M. m. brevicauda  (Mayr, 1931) Rennell I. (Solomon Is.)  
        M. m. brevirostris  (Gould, 1837) New Zealand  
Reed Cormorant Microcarbo africanus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : widespread  
        M. a. africanus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Africa south of the Sahara  
        M. a. pictilis  (Bangs, 1918) Madagascar  
Crowned Cormorant Microcarbo coronatus  (Wahlberg, 1855) AF : sw coast  
Little Cormorant Microcarbo niger  (Vieillot, 1817) OR : widespread  
Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmeus  (Pallas, 1773) EU : se Europe  
Red-legged Cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi  (Lesson & Garnot, 1828) SA : w coast TAX, ENG : Red-legged Cormorant likely represents a monotypic clade; default to Phalacrocorax for now (Kennedy et al 2000; Christidis and Boles 2008); CHANGE English name from Shag to Cormorant
Flightless Cormorant Phalacrocorax harrisi  Rothschild, 1898 SA : Galápagos Islands PHY, TAX : Flightless Cormorant is most closely related to Double-crested and Neotropic cormorants in Phalacrocorax (Kennedy et al 2009)
Bank Cormorant Phalacrocorax neglectus  (Wahlberg, 1855) AF : sw coast  
Spotted Shag Phalacrocorax punctatus  (Sparrman, 1786) AU : New Zealand  
        P. p. punctatus  (Sparrman, 1786) North and South Is.  
        P. p. oliveri  Mathews, 1930 Stewart I.  
Pitt Shag Phalacrocorax featherstoni  Buller, 1873 AU : Chatham Islands  
Pallas's Cormorant Phalacrocorax perspicillatus 
†  Pallas, 1811
EU, NA : Bering Sea islands EXTINCT :
Brandt's Cormorant Phalacrocorax penicillatus  (von Brandt, 1837) NA : w coast  
Pelagic Cormorant Phalacrocorax pelagicus  Pallas, 1811 PO : n coasts ENG : Change English name of Phalacrocorax pelagicus to Pelagic Cormorant to follow AOU
        P. p. pelagicus  Pallas, 1811 n Pacific islands and coasts  
        P. p. resplendens  Audubon, 1838 Pacific coast from Canada to Mexico  
Red-faced Cormorant Phalacrocorax urile  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) PO : n coasts ENG : Change English name of Phalacrocorax urile to Red-faced Cormorant to follow AOU
Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) LA : widespread,also s USA  
        P. b. mexicanus  (von Brandt, 1837) s USA to Cuba and Nicaragua  
        P. b. brasilianus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Costa Rica to Tierra del Fuego  
Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus  (Lesson, 1831) NA, MA : widespread  
        P. a. cincinatus  (von Brandt, 1837) s Alaska to sw Canada  
        P. a. albociliatus  Ridgway, 1884 sw Canada to s California  
        P. a. auritus  (Lesson, 1831) c and e Canada, ne USA  
        P. a. floridanus  (Audubon, 1835) s and se USA  
        P. a. heuretus  Watson, Olson & Miller, JR, 1991 Cuba, Bahamas  
European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis  (Linnaeus, 1761) EU : w coasts, also n AF  
        P. a. aristotelis  (Linnaeus, 1761) Iceland, w Europe  
        P. a. riggenbachi  Hartert, 1923 w coast of Morocco  
        P. a. desmarestii  (Payraudeau, 1826) Mediterranean coasts and islands  
Black-faced Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscescens  (Vieillot, 1817) AU : s Australian coast  
Indian Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis  Stephens, 1826 OR : India, Southeast Asia  
Little Black Cormorant Phalacrocorax sulcirostris  (von Brandt, 1837) AU : widespread,also to Indonesia  
Australian Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax varius  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AU : Australia, New Zealand  
        P. v. hypoleucos  (von Brandt, 1837) Australia, Tasmania  
        P. v. varius  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) New Zealand  
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo  (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, AU, OR : also ne NA, n AF  
        P. c. carbo  (Linnaeus, 1758) ne USA and e Canada to w Europe  
        P. c. sinensis  (Staunton, 1796) c Europe to India and China  
        P. c. hanedae  Kuroda, 1925 Japan  
        P. c. maroccanus  Hartert, 1906 nw Africa  
        P. c. novaehollandiae  Stephens, 1826 Australia and New Zealand  
White-breasted Cormorant Phalacrocorax lucidus  (Lichtenstein, 1823) AF : widespread south of the Sahara  
Japanese Cormorant Phalacrocorax capillatus  (Temminck & Schlegel, 1849) EU : ne Asia  
Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis  (Sparrman, 1788) AF : s coasts  
Socotra Cormorant Phalacrocorax nigrogularis  Ogilvie-Grant & Forbes, HO, 1899 EU : Persian Gulf  
Rock Shag Phalacrocorax magellanicus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : s coasts  
Guanay Cormorant Leucocarbo bougainvillii  (Lesson, 1837) SA : w coast  
Imperial Shag Leucocarbo atriceps  (King, 1828) SA : coasts of s South America, Falkland Is TAX : Includes albiventer; sympatry of King Shag and Imperial Shag in s SA needs study to resolve status as species or color morph (Rasmussen 2004, Jaramillo 2003); best to lump as do HBW, SACC
        L. a. atriceps  (King, 1828) s South America  
        L. a. albiventer  (Lesson, 1831) s South America, Falkland Is.  
South Georgia Shag Leucocarbo georgianus  (Lönnberg, 1906) SO : South Georgia,South Sandwich and South Orkney Is AS : Split members of Imperial Shag complex (Orta 1992, Jaramillo 2003, HANZAB, HBW)
Antarctic Shag Leucocarbo bransfieldensis  (Murphy, 1936) SO : South Shetland Is, Antarctica Peninsula AS : Split members of Imperial Shag complex (Orta 1992, Jaramillo 2003, HANZAB, HBW) SACC needs proposal
Heard Island Shag Leucocarbo nivalis  (Falla, 1937) SO : Heard Is (s Indian Ocean) AS : Split members of Imperial Shag complex (Orta 1992, Jaramillo 2003, HANZAB, HBW)
Crozet Shag Leucocarbo melanogenis  (Blyth, 1860) SO : Prince Edward, Marion and Crozet Is AS : Split members of Imperial Shag complex (Orta 1992, Jaramillo 2003, HANZAB, HBW)
Macquarie Shag Leucocarbo purpurascens  (von Brandt, 1837) SO : Macquarie Is and nearby rocks AS : Split members of Imperial Shag complex (Orta 1992, Jaramillo 2003, HANZAB, HBW)
Kerguelen Shag Leucocarbo verrucosus  (Cabanis, 1875) IO : Kerguelen Islands  
Rough-faced Shag Leucocarbo carunculatus  (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AU : New Zealand, South Island  
Bronze Shag Leucocarbo chalconotus  (Gray, GR, 1845) AU : New Zealand, Stewart Island  
Chatham Shag Leucocarbo onslowi  (Forbes, HO, 1893) AU : Chatham Islands  
Campbell Shag Leucocarbo campbelli  (Filhol, 1878) AU : Campbell Island  
Auckland Shag Leucocarbo colensoi  (Buller, 1888) AU : Auckland Islands  
Bounty Shag Leucocarbo ranfurlyi  (Ogilvie-Grant, 1901) AU : Bounty Island  
       
Anhingas, Darters (4)
Family Anhingidae
   
Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster  Pennant, 1769 OR : Middle East, Pakistan to se Asia through Greater Sundas, Sulawesi and Philippines. ENG : Change English name of Anhinga melanogaster from Darter to Oriental Darter with split of A. rufa and A. novaehollandiae
African Darter Anhinga rufa  (Daudin, 1802) AF, EU : Subsaharan Africa, Madagascar, Near East AS : Anhinga rufa is split from A. melanogaster (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Kennedy et al. 2005, Schodde et al 2012).
        A. r. rufa  (Daudin, 1802) Africa south of the Sahara  
        A. r. vulsini  Bangs, 1918 Madagascar  
       A. r. chantrei  (Oustalet, 1882)

(sc Turkey), se Iraq; nonbreed-(ne Israel), sw Iran

 
Australasian Darter Anhinga novaehollandiae  (Gould, 1847) AU : New Guinea, Australia AS : Anhinga novaehollandiae is split from A. melanogaster (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Christidis & Boles 2008, Kennedy et al. 2005, Schodde et al 2012).
  A. n. papua  Rand, 1938 New Guinea  
  A. n. novaehollandiae  (Gould, 1847) Australia  
Anhinga Anhinga anhinga  (Linnaeus, 1766) NA, LA : sc and se USA to n Argentina  
        A. a. leucogaster  (Vieillot, 1816) se USA to Colombia, Cuba  
        A. a. anhinga  (Linnaeus, 1766) Trinidad, Tobago, Colombia to n Argentina