"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)


Per Alstrom
Rauri Bowie
Jon Fjeldsa
Phil Gregory
Leo Joseph
Peter Kovalik
Adolfo Navarro-Siguenza
David Parkin
Alan Peterson
Douglas Pratt
Pamela Rasmussen
Frank Rheindt
Robert Ridgely
Peter Ryan
Dick Schodde
Minturn Wright

NAMES >> Index >>Falcons

IOC English NameScientific NameRangeComments
  PHY, SEQ : The Falconidae are not members of the Accipitriformes, but a separate lineage and Order more closely related to parrots and in turn the Passeriformes (Hackett et al. 2008).
Caracaras, Falcons (67)
Family Falconidae
Black Caracara Daptrius ater  Vieillot, 1816 SA : Amazonia  
Red-throated Caracara Ibycter americanus  (Boddaert, 1783) LA : s Mexico to s Brazil  
Carunculated Caracara Phalcoboenus carunculatus  Des Murs, 1853 SA : Ecuador, sw Colombia  
Mountain Caracara Phalcoboenus megalopterus  (Meyen, 1834) SA : Peru to c Chile  
White-throated Caracara Phalcoboenus albogularis  (Gould, 1837) SA : s Chile, s Argentina  
Striated Caracara Phalcoboenus australis  (Gmelin, JF, 1788) SA : s islands  
Northern Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway  (Jacquin, 1784) NA, LA : s USA to n SA  
Guadalupe Caracara Caracara lutosa   (Ridgway, 1876) MA : Guadalupe I. (Mexico)
Southern Crested Caracara Caracara plancus  (Miller, JF, 1777) SA : n Boliva to e Brazil south to Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Is.  
Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima  (Vieillot, 1816) LA : Costa Rica to n Argentina  
        M. c. cordata  Bangs & Penard, TE, 1918 s Costa Rica through South America north of the Amazon  
        M. c. chimachima  (Vieillot, 1816) Amazon south to n Argentina  
Chimango Caracara Milvago chimango  (Vieillot, 1816) SA : Southern Cone  
        M. c. chimango  (Vieillot, 1816) s Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay to c Argentina and Chile  
        M. c. temucoensis  Sclater, WL, 1918 s Argentina and Chile to Tiera del Fuego  
Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans  (Linnaeus, 1758) LA : Mexico to n Argentina  
        H. c. chapmani  Bangs & Penard, TE, 1918 Mexico to Honduras  
        H. c. cachinnans  (Linnaeus, 1758) Nicaragua to Peru and c Brazil  
        H. c. queribundus  Bangs & Penard, TE, 1919 e Bolivia to e Brazil, Paraguay and n Argentina  
Barred Forest Falcon Micrastur ruficollis  (Vieillot, 1817) LA : s Mexico to n Argentina  
        M. r. guerilla  Cassin, 1848 Mexico to Nicaragua  
        M. r. interstes  Bangs, 1907 Costa Rica to w Colombia and Ecuador  
        M. r. zonothorax  (Cabanis, 1866) e Colombia and n Venezuela south to Bolivia  
        M. r. concentricus  (Lesson, 1830) s Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonia  
        M. r. ruficollis  (Vieillot, 1817) e Brazil, Paraguay, n Argentina  
        M. r. olrogi  Amadon, 1964 nw Argentina  
Plumbeous Forest Falcon Micrastur plumbeus  Sclater, WL, 1918 SA : sw Colombia, nw Ecuador  
Lined Forest Falcon Micrastur gilvicollis  (Vieillot, 1817) SA : Amazonia  
Cryptic Forest Falcon Micrastur mintoni  Whittaker, 2003 SA : e Amazonia s to Bolivia  
Slaty-backed Forest Falcon Micrastur mirandollei  (Schlegel, 1862) LA : Costa Rica to e Brazil  
Collared Forest Falcon Micrastur semitorquatus  (Vieillot, 1817) LA : c Mexico to n Argentina  
        M. s. naso  (Lesson, 1842) Mexico to nw Peru  
        M. s. semitorquatus  (Vieillot, 1817) e Colombia through the Guianas and Brazil to n Argentina  
Buckley's Forest Falcon Micrastur buckleyi  Swann, 1919 SA : w Amazonia  
Spot-winged Falconet Spiziapteryx circumcincta  (Kaup, 1852) SA : se Bolivia and w Paraguay to c Argentina  
Pygmy Falcon Polihierax semitorquatus  (Smith, A, 1836) AF : e, s  
        P. s. castanonotus  (Heuglin, 1860) s Sudan and Ethiopia to c Tanzania  
        P. s. semitorquatus  (Smith, A, 1836) s Angola to nw South Africa  
White-rumped Falcon Polihierax insignis  Walden, 1872 OR : Southeast Asia  
        P. i. insignis  Walden, 1872 w and c Burma  
        P. i. cinereiceps  Baker, ECS, 1927 s Burma, nw Thailand  
        P. i. harmandi  (Oustalet, 1876) Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia  
Collared Falconet Microhierax caerulescens  (Linnaeus, 1758) OR : ne India through Southeast Asia  
        M. c. caerulescens  (Linnaeus, 1758) n India, Nepal  
        M. c. burmanicus  Swann, 1920 Burma to Indochina  
Black-thighed Falconet Microhierax fringillarius  (Drapiez, 1824) OR : Malay Peninsula, Greater Sundas  
White-fronted Falconet Microhierax latifrons  Sharpe, 1879 OR : Borneo  
Philippine Falconet Microhierax erythrogenys  (Vigors, 1831) OR : Philippines  
        M. e. erythrogenys  (Vigors, 1831) n Philippines  
        M. e. meridionalis  Ogilvie-Grant, 1897 s Philippines  
Pied Falconet Microhierax melanoleucos  (Blyth, 1843) OR : ne India to s China and c Vietnam  
Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni  Fleischer, JG, 1818 EU : s Europe and nw Africa to n China  
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus  Linnaeus, 1758 EU, AF : widespread  
        F. t. tinnunculus  Linnaeus, 1758 Europe and nw Africa to Siberia  
        F. t. perpallidus  (Clark, AH, 1907) ne Siberia to ne China and Korea  
        F. t. interstinctus  McClelland, 1840 Himalayas to Japan and Indochina  
        F. t. objurgatus  (Baker, ECS, 1927) s India, Sri Lanka  
        F. t. canariensis  (Koenig, AF, 1890) Madeira and w Canary Is.  
        F. t. dacotiae  Hartert, 1913 e Canary Is.  
        F. t. neglectus  Schlegel, 1873 n Cape Verde Is.  
        F. t. alexandri  Bourne, 1955 s Cape Verde Is.  
        F. t. rupicolaeformis  (Brehm, CL, 1855) ne Africa and Arabia  
        F. t. archeri  Hartert & Neumann, 1932 Socotra I., Somalia, ne Kenya  
        F. t. rufescens  Swainson, 1837 West Africa to Ethiopia south to n Angola and Tanzania  
Rock Kestrel Falco rupicolus  Daudin, 1800 AF : 
Angola to s Tanzania south to South Africa
AS : Falco rupicolus is split from F. tinnunculus (Hockey, Dean & Ryan, eds. 2005)
Malagasy Kestrel Falco newtoni  (Gurney, 1863) AF : Madagascar, Aldabra Island  
        F. n. newtoni  (Gurney, 1863) Madagascar  
        F. n. aldabranus  Grote, 1928 Aldabra and Anjouan Is.  
Mauritius Kestrel Falco punctatus  Temminck, 1821 AF : Mauritius  
Reunion Kestrel Falco duboisi   Cowles, 1994 IO : La Réunion EXT : Cheke, A & Hume, J. 2008.
Seychelles Kestrel Falco araeus  (Oberholser, 1917) AF : Seychelles Islands  
Spotted Kestrel Falco moluccensis  (Bonaparte, 1850) OR, AU : Moluccas, Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, Java and Bali  
        F. m. moluccensis  (Bonaparte, 1850) n and s Moluccas  
        F. m. microbalius  (Oberholser, 1917) Java to Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi and Tanimbar Is.  
Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides  Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 AU : widespread  
        F. c. baru  Rand, 1940 Snow Mts. (wc New Guinea)  
        F. c. cenchroides  Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 Australia, Tasmania, Lord Howe Is., Norfolk Is.  
American Kestrel Falco sparverius  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, LA : widespread  
        F. s. sparverius  Linnaeus, 1758 Alaska and Canada through the USA to w Mexico  
        F. s. paulus  (Howe & King, L, 1902) se USA  
        F. s. peninsularis  Mearns, 1892 nw Mexico  
        F. s. tropicalis  (Griscom, 1930) s Mexico to n Honduras  
        F. s. nicaraguensis  Howell, TR, 1965 nw Honduras, Nicaragua  
        F. s. sparverioides  Vigors, 1827 Bahamas, Cuba  
        F. s. dominicensis  Gmelin, JF, 1788 Hispaniola  
        F. s. caribaearum  Gmelin, JF, 1788 Puerto Rico to Grenada (West Indies)  
        F. s. brevipennis  (von Berlepsch, 1892) Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)  
        F. s. isabellinus  Swainson, 1838 e Venezuela, the Guianas, n Brazil  
        F. s. ochraceus  (Cory, 1915) e Colombia, nw Venezuela  
        F. s. caucae  (Chapman, 1915) w Colombia  
        F. s. aequatorialis  Mearns, 1892 n Ecuador  
        F. s. peruvianus  (Cory, 1915) sw Ecuador, Peru, n Chile  
        F. s. cinnamominus  Swainson, 1838 se Peru to Paraguay and Tierra del Fuego  
        F. s. fernandensis  (Chapman, 1915) Alejandro Selkirk and Juan Fernandez Is. (Chile)  
        F. s. cearae  (Cory, 1915) s Brazil  
Greater Kestrel Falco rupicoloides  Smith, A, 1829 AF : e, s  
        F. r. fieldi  (Elliot, 1897) ne Ethiopia, n Somalia, n Kenya  
        F. r. arthuri  (Gurney, 1884) c and s Kenya, ne Tanzania  
        F. r. rupicoloides  Smith, A, 1829 s Angola to sw Zambia south to South Afirca  
Fox Kestrel Falco alopex  (Heuglin, 1861) AF : Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia to Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya  
Grey Kestrel Falco ardosiaceus  Vieillot, 1823 AF : Senegal and Gambia to Ethiopia south to Tanzania and west tp Angola and Namibia  
Dickinson's Kestrel Falco dickinsoni  Sclater, PL, 1864 AF : Angola and Namibia to c Kenya and n Mozambique  
Banded Kestrel Falco zoniventris  Peters, W, 1854 AF : Madagascar  
Red-necked Falcon Falco chicquera  Daudin, 1800 AF, OR : c, w, s AF, India  
        F. c. chicquera  Daudin, 1800 se Iran through India to Bangladesh  
        F. c. ruficollis  Swainson, 1837 Senegal and Gambia to w Ethiopia south through e Africa to Zambia and n Mozambique  
        F. c. horsbrughi  Gunning & Roberts, 1911 Namibia and s Mozambique to South Africa  
Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus  Linnaeus, 1766 EU : c Europe to c Asia  
Amur Falcon Falco amurensis  Radde, 1863 EU : e Siberia, Korea and ne China  
Eleonora's Falcon Falco eleonorae  Géné, 1839 EU : s Europe, also n AF  
Sooty Falcon Falco concolor  Temminck, 1825 AF, EU : e Libya to sw Pakistan  
Aplomado Falcon Falco femoralis  Temminck, 1822 LA : widespread  
        F. f. septentrionalis  Todd, 1916 sw USA to Honduras  
        F. f. femoralis  Temminck, 1822 Nicaragua through South America to Tierra del Fuego  
        F. f. pichinchae  Chapman, 1925 Andes from Colombia to n Chile and nw Argentina  
Merlin Falco columbarius  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : widespread  
        F. c. subaesalon  Brehm, CL, 1827 Iceland  
        F. c. aesalon  Tunstall, 1771 Europe to nw Siberia  
        F. c. insignis  (Clark, AH, 1907) nc Siberia  
        F. c. pacificus  (Stegmann, 1929) ne Asia  
        F. c. pallidus  (Sushkin, 1900) steppes of wc Asia  
        F. c. lymani  Bangs, 1913 mountains of ec Asia  
        F. c. columbarius  Linnaeus, 1758 Alaska to Newfoundland to n USA  
        F. c. suckleyi  Ridgway, 1874 se Alaska to n Washington (USA)  
        F. c. richardsonii  Ridgway, 1871 c and sc Canada to nc USA  
Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis  Daudin, 1800 LA : n Mexico to ne Argentina  
        F. r. petoensis  Chubb, C, 1918 Mexico to w Ecuador  
        F. r. rufigularis  Daudin, 1800 e Colombia through the Guianas to s Brazil and ne Argentina  
        F. r. ophryophanes  (Salvadori, 1895) e Bolivia to s Brazil, Paraguay and nw Argentina  
Orange-breasted Falcon Falco deiroleucus  Temminck, 1825 LA : s Mexico to ne Argentina  
Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo  Linnaeus, 1758 EU : widespread  
        F. s. subbuteo  Linnaeus, 1758 Europe to Japan to n India and c China  
        F. s. streichi  Hartert & Neumann, 1907 Burma to s China and n Indochina  
African Hobby Falco cuvierii  Smith, A, 1830 AF : Widespread south of the Sahara  
Oriental Hobby Falco severus  Horsfield, 1821 OR, AU : nw India to Solomon Islands  
        F. s. severus  Horsfield, 1821 e Himalayas to Philippines and Greater Sundas  
        F. s. papuanus  Meyer, AB & Wiglesworth, 1893 Sulawesi to the Solomon Is.  
Australian Hobby Falco longipennis  Swainson, 1838 AU : widespread  
        F. l. hanieli  Hellmayr, 1914 Lesser Sundas  
        F. l. longipennis  Swainson, 1838 sw and se Australia, Tasmania  
        F. l. murchisonianus  Mathews, 1912 Australia except sw and se  
New Zealand Falcon Falco novaeseelandiae  Gmelin, JF, 1788 AU : New Zealand  
Brown Falcon Falco berigora  Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 AU : widespread  
        F. b. novaeguineae  (Meyer, AB, 1894) c and e New Guinea, coastal n Australia  
        F. b. berigora  Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 n, c and e Australia  
        F. b. occidentalis  (Gould, 1844) sw and wc Australia  
        F. b. tasmanicus  (Mathews, 1916) Tasmania  
Grey Falcon Falco hypoleucos  Gould, 1841 AU : Australia  
Black Falcon Falco subniger  Gray, GR, 1843 AU : Australia  
Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus  Temminck, 1825 EU, AF : s Europe, Arabian Peninsula, widespread AF  
        F. b. feldeggii  Schlegel, 1843 Italy to Turkey, Azerbaijan and nw Iran  
        F. b. erlangeri  Kleinschmidt, O, 1901 nw Africa  
        F. b. tanypterus  Schlegel, 1843 ne Africa to Arabia, Israel and Iraq  
        F. b. abyssinicus  Neumann, 1904 s Mauritania to Ethiopia and Somalia south to Cameroon and n Kenya  
        F. b. biarmicus  Temminck, 1825 DR Congo to s Kenya south to South Africa  
Laggar Falcon Falco jugger  Gray, JE, 1834 OR : Pakistan to Burma, India  
Saker Falcon Falco cherrug  Gray, JE, 1834 EU : c, s  
        F. c. cherrug  Gray, JE, 1834 c Europe to sc Siberia and n Kazakhstan  
        F. c. coatsi  Dementiev, 1945 c Asia to s Siberia and n China  
        F. c. hendersoni  Hume, 1871 w and s Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan  
        F. c. milvipes  Jerdon, 1871 Himalayas to Tibet  
Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus  Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : arctic Europe, Asia and North America  
Prairie Falcon Falco mexicanus  Schlegel, 1850 NA, MA : sc Canada to sc USA  
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus  Tunstall, 1771 Worldwide : widespread  
        F. p. tundrius  White, CM, 1968 Alaska to Greenland  
        F. p. pealei  Ridgway, 1874 Aleutians to s Alaska and sw Canada  
        F. p. anatum  Bonaparte, 1838 North America (south of tundra) to n Mexico  
        F. p. cassini  Sharpe, 1873 w South America (Colombia to Tierra del Fuego), Falkland Is.  
        F. p. peregrinus  Tunstall, 1771 n Eurasia (s of tundra)  
        F. p. calidus  Latham, 1790 Lapland to ne Siberia  
        F. p. japonensis  Gmelin, JF, 1788 ne Siberia to Japan  
        F. p. brookei  Sharpe, 1873 Mediterraneean region to Caucasus and n Iran  
        F. p. peregrinator  Sundevall, 1837 Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka to s and e China  
        F. p. furuitii  Momiyama, 1927 Bonin Is. (Japan)
TAX : Correct original spelling fruitii to proper furuitii under ICZN code Article 32.5.1.

        F. p. madens  Ripley & Watson, 1963 Cape Verde Is.  
        F. p. minor  Bonaparte, 1850 Morocco, Mauritania, Africa south of the Sahara  
        F. p. radama  Hartlaub, 1861 Madagascar and the Comoro Is.  
        F. p. ernesti  Sharpe, 1894 Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea and Bismarck Arch.  
        F. p. macropus  Swainson, 1838 Australia  
        F. p. nesiotes  Mayr, 1941 Solomon Is, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji  
Barbary Falcon Falco pelegrinoides  Temminck, 1829 EU : sw, also n AF  
        F. p. babylonicus  Sclater, PL, 1861 e Iran to Mongolia and Pakistan  
        F. p. pelegrinoides  Temminck, 1829 Canary Is., n Africa to Arabia and sw Iran  
Taita Falcon Falco fasciinucha  Reichenow & Neumann, 1895 AF : s Ethiopia to n South Africa