"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Waxwings and their allies, tits & penduline tits

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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3 Waxwings Family Bombycillidae

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Bombycilla Vieillot, 1808

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Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, NA : n

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B. g. garrulus (Linnaeus, 1758) n Europe and n Asia

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B. g. pallidiceps Reichenow, 1908 w Canada and n and w USA

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Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla japonica (Siebold, 1824) EU : e Asia

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Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot, 1808 NA, LA : Canada to Venezuela and Colombia

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4 Silky-flycatchers Family Ptiliogonatidae TAX Follow AOU 1998 in recognizing silky flycatchers as a separate family Ptiliogonatidae. Change spelling to follow original spelling of genus Ptiliogonys.

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Phainoptila Salvin, 1877

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Black-and-yellow Phainoptila Phainoptila melanoxantha Salvin, 1877 MA : Costa Rica, Panama

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P. m. melanoxantha Salvin, 1877 se Costa Rica and nw Panama

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P. m. parkeri Barrantes & Sanchez, JE, 2000 n Costa Rica

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Ptiliogonys Swainson, 1827 TAX Revert spelling of Ptilogonys to the original spelling Ptiliogonys. Auk 130:566. AOU 54th supplement. 2013.

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Grey Silky-flycatcher Ptiliogonys cinereus Swainson, 1827 MA : nw Mexico to Guatemala

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P. c. cinereus Swainson, 1827 c and e Mexico

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P. c. otofuscus Moore, RT, 1935 nw Mexico

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P. c. pallescens Griscom, 1934 sw Mexico

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P. c. molybdophanes Ridgway, 1887 s Mexico and w Guatemala

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Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher Ptiliogonys caudatus Cabanis, 1861 MA : Costa Rica, Panama

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Phainopepla Baird, SF, 1858

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Phainopepla Phainopepla nitens (Swainson, 1838) NA, MA : sw USA to nc, nw Mexico

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P. n. lepida van Tyne, 1925 sw USA and nw Mexico

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P. n. nitens (Swainson, 1838) s Texas (s USA) to nc Mexico

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1 Hypocolius Family Hypocoliidae TAX Separate Grey Hypocolius as monotypic family Hypocoliidae to be consistent with treatment of other enigmatic waxwing relatives

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Hypocolius Bonaparte, 1850

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Grey Hypocolius Hypocolius ampelinus Bonaparte, 1850 EU : s, sw ENG Accept appeal to use broadly used name Grey Hypocolius

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1 Palmchat Family Dulidae

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Dulus Vieillot, 1816

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Palmchat Dulus dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : Hispaniola

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5 Oos Family Mohoidae PHY, SEQ Species of Moho are related to waxwings (Bombycillidae), not to honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) (Fleischer et al. 2008)

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Chaetoptila Gray, GR, 1869

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Kioea Chaetoptila angustipluma (Peale, 1848) PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands)

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Moho Lesson, 1830

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Kauai Oo Moho braccatus Cassin, 1855 PO : Kauai (Hawaiian Islands)

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Oahu Oo Moho apicalis Gould, 1861 PO : Oahu (Hawaiian Islands)

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Bishop's Oo Moho bishopi (Rothschild, 1893) PO : Maui, Molokai (Hawaiian Islands)

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Hawaii Oo Moho nobilis (Merrem, 1786) PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands)

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1 Hylocitrea Family Hylocitreidae

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Hylocitrea Mathews, 1925 PHY, SEQ Yellow-flanked Whistler (Hylocitrea) is related to the waxwings, not whistlers (Spellman et al 2008)

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Hylocitrea Hylocitrea bonensis (Meyer, AB & Wiglesworth, 1894) AU : Sulawesi

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H. b. bonensis (Meyer, AB & Wiglesworth, 1894) n, c and se Sulawesi

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H. b. bonthaina (Meyer, AB & Wiglesworth, 1896) sw Sulawesi

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9 Fairy Flycatchers Family Stenostiridae TAX Stenostiridae includes Stenostira and Elminia from Incertae Sedis and Culicicapa from Muscicapidae (Barker et al. 2002, 2004; Beresford et al. 2005; Fuchs et al. 2006)

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Chelidorhynx Blyth, 1843

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Yellow-bellied Fantail Chelidorhynx hypoxantha (Blyth, 1843) OR : e Himalayas to Southeast Asia TAX, SEQ RESEQUENCED: Yellow-bellied Fantail is a close relative of the Fairy Flycatcher (Stenostiridae) ( Nyari et al 2009, Fuchs et al 2009)

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Stenostira Cabanis & Bonaparte, 1850

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Fairy Flycatcher Stenostira scita (Vieillot, 1818) AF : s ENG Correct: English name of Stenostira scita to Fairy Flycatcher

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S. s. scita (Vieillot, 1818) sw South Africa

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S. s. saturatior Lawson, 1962 s South Africa

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S. s. rudebecki Clancey, 1955 Lesotho (ec South Africa)

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Culicicapa Swinhoe, 1871

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Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis (Swainson, 1820) OR : widespread, also Lesser Sundas

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C. c. calochrysea Oberholser, 1923 Himalayas to ne and c India east to c China and n and c Indochina

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C. c. antioxantha Oberholser, 1923 s Burma to Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo, Java and Bali

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C. c. ceylonensis (Swainson, 1820) sw India and Sri Lanka

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C. c. sejuncta Hartert, 1897 Flores and ? Lombok (Lesser Sundas)

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C. c. connectens Rensch, 1931 Sumba (sw Lesser Sundas)

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Citrine Canary-flycatcher Culicicapa helianthea (Wallace, 1865) OR : Philippines, also Sulawesi

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C. h. septentrionalis Parkes, 1960 nw Luzon (n Philippines)

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C. h. zimmeri Parkes, 1960 c and s Luzon (n Philippines)

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C. h. panayensis (Sharpe, 1877) w and c Philippines

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C. h. mayri Deignan, 1947 sw Sulu Arch. (sw Philippines)

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C. h. helianthea (Wallace, 1865) Sulawesi, Banggai Is., Sula Is. and Selayar Is.

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Elminia Bonaparte, 1854 TAX,SEQ Transfer Dusky Crested Flycatcher, White-bellied Crested Flycatcher, & White-tailed Crested Flycatcher from Trochocercus to Elminia (Dickinson 2003, Sinclair & Ryan 2003, Coates et al 2006 )

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African Blue Flycatcher Elminia longicauda (Swainson, 1838) AF : c, w

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E. l. longicauda (Swainson, 1838) Senegal and Gambia to Nigeria

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E. l. teresita Antinori, 1864 Cameroon to w Kenya, nw Tanzania and n Angola

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White-tailed Blue Flycatcher Elminia albicauda Barboza du Bocage, 1877 AF : sc

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Dusky Crested Flycatcher Elminia nigromitrata (Reichenow, 1874) AF : w,c

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E. n. colstoni (Dickerman, 1994) Liberia to Nigeria

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E. n. nigromitrata (Reichenow, 1874) Cameroon and Gabon to w Kenya and nw Tanzania

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White-bellied Crested Flycatcher Elminia albiventris (Sjöstedt, 1893) AF : c

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E. a. albiventris (Sjöstedt, 1893) Nigeria and Cameroon, Bioko I.

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E. a. toroensis (Jackson, 1906) ne DRCongo, Rwanda and w Uganda

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White-tailed Crested Flycatcher Elminia albonotata (Sharpe, 1891) AF : sc

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E. a. albonotata (Sharpe, 1891) e DRCongo to c Kenya, n Malawi and ne Zambia

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E. a. swynnertoni (Neumann, 1908) e Zimbabwe and c Mozambique

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E. a. subcaerulea (Grote, 1923) se Kenya to s Malawi and n Mozambique

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61 Tits, Chickadees Family Paridae PHY, TAX Revised classification follows Johansson et al 2013; see also Tietze & Borthakur 2012

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Cephalopyrus Bonaparte, 1854 PHY, SEQ Cephalopyrus is the basal lineage of the Paridae (Johansson et al 2013)

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Fire-capped Tit Cephalopyrus flammiceps (Burton, 1836) OR : Himalayas to n Laos

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C. f. flammiceps (Burton, 1836) n Pakistan to w Nepal

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C. f. olivaceus Rothschild, 1923 e Himalayas to sc and s China

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Sylviparus Burton, 1836

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Yellow-browed Tit Sylviparus modestus Burton, 1836 OR : Himalayas to sc Vietnam

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S. m. simlaensis Baker, ECS, 1917 nw Himalayas

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S. m. modestus Burton, 1836 c and e Himalayas to s China and Indochina

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S. m. klossi Delacour & Jabouille, 1930 Da Lat Plateau (sc Vietnam)

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Melanochlora Lesson, 1839

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Sultan Tit Melanochlora sultanea (Hodgson, 1837) OR : widespread

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M. s. sultanea (Hodgson, 1837) e Himalayas to s China, n Thailand and Burma

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M. s. flavocristata (Lafresnaye, 1837) c and s Thailand, Malay Pen., Sumatra and Hainan I. (off se China)

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M. s. seorsa Bangs, 1924 se China and n Indochina

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M. s. gayeti Delacour & Jabouille, 1925 se Laos and sc Vietnam

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Periparus de Sélys-Longchamps, 1884

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Rufous-naped Tit Periparus rufonuchalis (Blyth, 1849) EU : w, nw Himalayas

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Rufous-vented Tit Periparus rubidiventris (Blyth, 1847) OR : Himalayas to Burma

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P. r. rubidiventris (Blyth, 1847) w and c Himalayas

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P. r. beavani (Jerdon, 1863) e Himalayas

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P. r. whistleri (Stresemann, 1931) Yunnan, Sichuan (s, c China) and ne Burma SSP Split from P.r. beaveni (Martens et al 2006)

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P. r. saramatii (Ripley, 1961) ne India and nw Burma

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Coal Tit Periparus ater (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread TAX Spot-winged Tit Periparus melanolophus is conspecific with Coal Tit P. ater (Eck & Martens 2006, Martens et al. 2006, Collar 2007)

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P. a. britannicus (Sharpe & Dresser, 1871) Great Britain and ne Ireland

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P. a. hibernicus (Ingram, W, 1910) Ireland (except ne)

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P. a. ater (Linnaeus, 1758) Scandinavia and ne Europe through Siberia to Kamchatka, n Japan, Korea, ne China and ne Mongolia

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P. a. abietum (Brehm, CL, 1831) continental w, c, se Europe and Asia Minor

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P. a. vieirae (Nicholson, 1906) Iberian Pen.

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P. a. sardus (Kleinschmidt, O, 1903) Corsica and Sardinia

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P. a. atlas (Meade-Waldo, 1901) Morocco

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P. a. ledouci (Malherbe, 1845) n Algeria and n Tunisia

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P. a. cypriotes (Dresser, 1888) Cyprus

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P. a. moltchanovi (Menzbier, 1903) s Crimean Pen.

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P. a. michalowskii (Bogdanov, 1879) Caucasus (except sw) and c and e Transcaucasia

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P. a. derjugini Zarudny & Loudon, 1903 ne Turkey to sw Caucasus

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P. a. eckodedicatus (Martens, J, Tietze & Sun, 2006) w China

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P. a. gaddi Zarudny, 1911 se Azerbaijan and n Iran

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P. a. chorassanicus Zarudny & Bilkevitch, 1911 sw Turkmenistan and ne Iran

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P. a. phaeonotus (Blanford, 1873) sw Iran

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P. a. rufipectus (Severtsov, 1873) se Kazakhstan to nw China

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P. a. martensi (Eck, 1998) Kali Gandaki area (c Nepal)

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P. a. melanolophus (Vigors, 1831) e Afghanistan and nw Pakistan to nw Himalayas

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P. a. aemodius (Blyth, 1845) e Himalayas to n Burma

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P. a. pekinensis (Verreaux, J, 1868) ec China

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P. a. insularis (Hellmayr, 1902) s Kuril Is. and Japan

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P. a. kuatunensis (La Touche, 1923) se China

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P. a. ptilosus (Ogilvie-Grant, 1912) Taiwan

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Pardaliparus de Sélys-Longchamps, 1884 PHY, TAX Separation of Pardaliparus spp from Periparus follows Johansson et al 2013

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Yellow-bellied Tit Pardaliparus venustulus (Swinhoe, 1870) EU : e, c, s China

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Elegant Tit Pardaliparus elegans (Lesson, 1831) OR : Philippines

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P. e. edithae McGregor, 1907 Calayan and Camiguin Norte

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P. e. montigenus Hachisuka, 1930 nw Luzon

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P. e. gilliardi (Parkes, 1958) Bataan Pen. of wc Luzon

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P. e. elegans (Lesson, 1831) ec and s Luzon, Panay, Mindoro and Catanduanes

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P. e. visayanus Hachisuka, 1930 Cebu

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P. e. albescens McGregor, 1907 Ticao, Masbate, Guimaras and Negros

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P. e. mindanensis Mearns, 1905 Mindanao, Samar and Leyte

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P. e. suluensis Mearns, 1916 Sulu Arch. (except Bongao I.)

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P. e. bongaoensis (Parkes, 1958) Bongao I. (w Sulu Arch.)

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Palawan Tit Pardaliparus amabilis (Sharpe, 1877) OR : Philippines

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Lophophanes Kaup, 1829

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European Crested Tit Lophophanes cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : Europe

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L. c. scoticus Pražák, 1897 nc Scotland

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L. c. abadiei (Jouard, 1929) w France

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L. c. weigoldi (Tratz, 1914) w and s Iberian Pen.

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L. c. cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) n and e Europe to the Carpathian Mts.

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L. c. baschkirikus Snigirewski, 1931 sw and c Ural M ts.

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L. c. mitratus (Brehm, CL, 1831) c Europe to ne Spain, the Alps and n Balkans

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L. c. bureschi (von Jordans, 1940) Albania to Bulgaria and Greece

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Grey Crested Tit Lophophanes dichrous (Blyth, 1845) OR : Himalayas to Burma

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L. d. kangrae Whistler, 1932 nw Himalayas

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L. d. dichrous (Blyth, 1845) c and e Himalayas to sw China

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L. d. dichroides Przewalski, 1876 c China

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L. d. wellsi (Baker, ECS, 1917) s China and ne Burma

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Baeolophus Cabanis, 1850

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Bridled Titmouse Baeolophus wollweberi (Bonaparte, 1850) NA, MA : sw USA, Mexico

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B. w. vandevenderi (Rea, 1986) c Arizona and sw New Mexico (sw USA)

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B. w. phillipsi (van Rossem, 1947) se Arizona (sw USA) and nw Mexico

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B. w. wollweberi (Bonaparte, 1850) c and s Mexico

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B. w. caliginosus (van Rossem, 1947) sw Mexico

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Oak Titmouse Baeolophus inornatus (Gambel, 1845) NA, MA : w USA, Baja California

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B. i. inornatus (Gambel, 1845) sw Oregon to c California (w USA)

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B. i. affabilis Grinnell & Swarth, 1926 sw California (sw USA) and n Baja California (nw Mexico)

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B. i. mohavensis (Miller, AH, 1946) se California (sw USA)

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B. i. cineraceus (Ridgway, 1883) s Baja California (nw Mexico)

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Juniper Titmouse Baeolophus ridgwayi (Richmond, 1902) NA, MA : wc USA, n Mexico

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B. r. ridgwayi (Richmond, 1902) s Idaho to Arizona and New Mexico (wc USA), n Mexico

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B. r. zaleptus Oberholser, 1932 se Oregon, e California and w Nevada (w USA)

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Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus bicolor (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : e, se USA

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Black-crested Titmouse Baeolophus atricristatus (Cassin, 1850) NA, MA : Texas, ne Mexico

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B. a. paloduro Stevenson, JO, 1940 n Texas and sw Oklahoma, sw Texas (s USA) and n Mexico

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B. a. sennetti Ridgway, 1904 c and s Texas (s USA)

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B. a. atricristatus (Cassin, 1850) Rio Grand Valley (s Texas, USA) and ne Mexico

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Sittiparus de Sélys-Longchamps, 1884 PHY, TAX Separation of Sittiparus spp from Poecile follows Johansson et al 2013

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Varied Tit Sittiparus varius (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845) EU : e

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S. v. varius (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845) s Kuril Is., Japan, Korea and ne China

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S. v. sunsunpi (Kuroda, 1919) Tanegashima and Yakushima (off s Japan)

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S. v. namiyei (Kuroda, 1918) n Izu Is.

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S. v. owstoni (Ijima, 1893) s Izu Is. PS McKay et al 2014

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S. v. amamii Kuroda, 1922 n Ryukyu Is.

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S. v. orii Kuroda, 1923 Borodino Is. (e of Okinama)

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S. v. olivaceus Kuroda, 1923 s Ryukyu Is. PS McKay et al 2014

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S. v. castaneoventris (Gould, 1863) Taiwan PS McKay et al 2014

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White-fronted Tit Sittiparus semilarvatus (Salvadori, 1865) OR : Philippines

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S. s. snowi (Parkes, 1971) ne Luzon

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S. s. semilarvatus (Salvadori, 1865) c and s Luzon

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S. s. nehrkorni (Blasius, W, 1890) Mindanao

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Poecile Kaup, 1829

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White-browed Tit Poecile superciliosus Przewalski, 1876 EU : w China

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Sombre Tit Poecile lugubris (Temminck, 1820) EU : sc

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P. l. lugubris (Temminck, 1820) Balkan Pen. to n Greece

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P. l. lugens (Brehm, CL, 1855) c and s Greece

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P. l. anatoliae (Hartert, 1905) Asia Minor s to n Israel

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P. l. dubius (Hellmayr, 1901) w Iran

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P. l. kirmanensis (Koelz, 1950) se Iran

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Pere David's Tit Poecile davidi Berezowski & Bianchi, 1891 EU : nc China

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Marsh Tit Poecile palustris (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread

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P. p. dresseri (Stejneger, 1886) Wales, c and s England and w France

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P. p. palustris (Linnaeus, 1758) Scandinavia to n Iberian Pen. east to Poland, the Balkans and Greece

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P. p. italicus (Tschusi & Hellmayr, 1900) French Alps, Italy and Sicily

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P. p. stagnatilis (Brehm, CL, 1855) e Europe to the s Urals and nw Turkey

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P. p. kabardensis (Buturlin, 1929) Caucasus area and ne Turkey

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P. p. brevirostris Taczanowski, 1872 sc and se Siberia, n Mongolia, Manchuria and Liaoning (ne China) and extreme n Korea

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P. p. ernsti (Yamashina, 1933) Sakhalin I.

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P. p. hensoni (Stejneger, 1892) s Kuril Is. and n Japan

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P. p. jeholicus (Kleinschmidt, O & Weigold, 1922) n Hebei (ne China) and n Korea

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P. p. hellmayri Bianchi, 1903 e China and s Korea

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Caspian Tit Poecile hyrcanus Zarudny & Loudon, 1905 EU : se Azerbaijan and n Iran AS Caspian Tit is a member of the montanus/palustris complex, not sister to Sombre Tit (Johansson et al 2013)

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Black-bibbed Tit Poecile hypermelaenus Berezowski & Bianchi, 1891 OR : c,w,sw China, w Burma AS Poecile hypermelaenus is split from P. palustris (Eck & Martens 2006)

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Willow Tit Poecile montanus (Conrad von Baldenstein, 1827) EU : widespread

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P. m. kleinschmidti (Hellmayr, 1900) Britain

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P. m. rhenanus (Kleinschmidt, O, 1900) nw France to w Germany, n Switzerland and n Italy

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P. m. montanus (Conrad von Baldenstein, 1827) se France to Romania, Bulgaria and Greece

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P. m. salicarius (Brehm, CL, 1831) Germany and w Poland to ne Switzerland and Austria

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P. m. borealis (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1843) Scandinavia s to Ukraine

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P. m. uralensis (Grote, 1927) se European Russia, w Siberia and Kazahkstan

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P. m. baicalensis Swinhoe, 1871 ec and e Siberia, n Mongolia, n China and n Korea

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P. m. anadyrensis (Belopolski, 1932) ne Siberia

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P. m. kamtschatkensis Bonaparte, 1850 Kamchatka Pen. and n Kuril Is.

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P. m. sachalinensis (Lönnberg, 1908) Sakhalin I. and s Kuril Is.

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P. m. restrictus (Hellmayr, 1900) Japan

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P. m. songarus (Severtsov, 1873) se Kazakhstan to Kyrgyzstan and nw China

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P. m. affinis Przewalski, 1876 nc China

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P. m. stoetzneri (Kleinschmidt, O, 1921) ne China

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Sichuan Tit Poecile weigoldicus (Kleinschmidt, O & Weigold, 1921) EU : wc, swc China AS Poecile weigoldicus is split from P. montanus (Salzburger et al. 2002, Eck & Martens 2006, Collar 2007)

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Carolina Chickadee Poecile carolinensis (Audubon, 1834) NA : se USA

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P. c. atricapilloides (Lunk, 1952) Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas (sc USA)

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P. c. agilis (Sennett, 1888) Arkansas, Louisiana and e Texas (sc USA)

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P. c. carolinensis (Audubon, 1834) se USA

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P. c. extimus (Todd & Sutton, 1936) ec USA

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Black-capped Chickadee Poecile atricapillus (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : n

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P. a. turneri (Ridgway, 1884) c and s Alaska and nw Canada

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P. a. occidentalis (Baird, SF, 1858) coastal sw Canada and nw USA

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P. a. fortuitus (Dawson, WL, 1909) inland sw Canada and nw USA

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P. a. septentrionalis (Harris, 1846) w and c Canada to c USA

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P. a. bartletti (Aldrich & Nutt, 1939) Newfoundland

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P. a. atricapillus (Linnaeus, 1766) e Canada to c and ne USA

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P. a. garrinus (Behle, 1951) wc USA

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P. a. nevadensis (Linsdale, 1938) w USA

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P. a. practicus (Oberholser, 1937) Appalachian Mts. (e USA)

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Mountain Chickadee Poecile gambeli (Ridgway, 1886) NA : w, also nw Mexico PS Mountain Chickadee comprises genetically divergent populations that may be split (NACC 2010-A-3)

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P. g. baileyae (Grinnell, 1908) Pacific slope of the Rocky Mts. in w USA and w Canada

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P. g. inyoensis (Grinnell, 1918) central Rocky Mts. in w USA

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P. g. gambeli (Ridgway, 1886) e Rocky Mts. in wc USA

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P. g. atratus (Grinnell & Swarth, 1926) nw Mexico

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Mexican Chickadee Poecile sclateri (Kleinschmidt, O, 1897) NA, MA : sw USA, Mexico

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P. s. eidos (Peters, JL, 1927) sw USA and n Mexico

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P. s. garzai (Phillips, AR, 1986) ne Mexico

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P. s. sclateri (Kleinschmidt, O, 1897) c Mexico

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P. s. rayi (Miller, AH & Storer, 1950) s Mexico

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Grey-headed Chickadee Poecile cinctus (Boddaert, 1783) EU : n, also nw NA

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P. c. lapponicus (Lundahl, 1848) Scandanavia to n European Russia

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P. c. cinctus (Boddaert, 1783) ne European Russia through Siberia to Kamchatka and nc Mongolia

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P. c. sayanus Sushkin, 1904 s Siberia and nw Mongolia

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P. c. lathami (Stephens, 1817) n and w Alaska and nw Canada

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Boreal Chickadee Poecile hudsonicus (Forster, JR, 1772) NA : n

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P. h. stoneyi (Ridgway, 1887) n Alaska and nw Canada

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P. h. columbianus (Rhoads, 1893) s Alaska, w Canada to n Washington (nw USA)

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P. h. hudsonicus (Forster, JR, 1772) c Alaska to e Canada

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P. h. littoralis (Bryant, H, 1865) se Canada and ne USA

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P. h. farleyi (Godfrey, 1951) sc Canada

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Chestnut-backed Chickadee Poecile rufescens (Townsend, JK, 1837) NA : w

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P. r. rufescens (Townsend, JK, 1837) Alaska through w Canada to n and c California (w USA)

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P. r. neglectus (Ridgway, 1879) coastal c California (w USA)

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P. r. barlowi (Grinnell, 1900) coastal s California (w USA)

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Cyanistes Kaup, 1829

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African Blue Tit Cyanistes teneriffae (Lesson, 1831) AF : n, Canary Islands AS Cyanistes teneriffae is split from C. caeruleus (Salzburger et al. 2002).

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C. t. ultramarinus (Bonaparte, 1841) Morocco to n Tunisia

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C. t. cyrenaicae (Hartert, 1922) ne Libya

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C. t. degener (Hartert, 1901) Fuerteventura and Lanzarote Is. (e Canary Is.)

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C. t. ombriosus (Meade-Waldo, 1890) Hierro I. (sw Canary Is.)

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C. t. palmensis (Meade-Waldo, 1889) Palma I. (w Canary Is.)

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C. t. teneriffae (Lesson, 1831) La Gomera and Tenerife Is. (c Canary Is.)

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C. t. hedwigae (Dietzen, Garcia-del-Rey, Castro & Wink, 2008) Gran Canaria (c Canary Is.)

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Eurasian Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : w, c ENG Change  English name of Cyanistes caeruleus to Eurasian Blue Tit with split of C. teneriffae

.

C. c. obscurus (Pražák, 1894) British Isles

.

C. c. caeruleus (Linnaeus, 1758) n, c and e Europe to w and n Asia Minor

.

C. c. balearicus (von Jordans, 1913) Mallorca

.

C. c. ogliastrae (Hartert, 1905) Iberian Pen., Corsica and Sardinia

.

C. c. calamensis (Parrot, 1908) s Greece, Cyclades, Crete and Rhodes

.

C. c. orientalis Zarudny & Loudon, 1905 se European Russia

.

C. c. satunini Zarudny, 1908 Crimean Pen., Caucasus, e Turkey and nw Iran

.

C. c. raddei Zarudny, 1908 n Iran

.

C. c. persicus (Blanford, 1873) sw Iran

.

Azure Tit Cyanistes cyanus (Pallas, 1770) EU : c, e TAX Subspecies per Harrap & Quinn. Central Asian flavipectus are treated as a subspecies of Azure Tit.

.

C. c. cyanus (Pallas, 1770) Belarus, w and c European Russia to c Ural Mts.

.

C. c. hyperrhiphaeus Dementiev & Heptner, 1932 sw Ural Mts., sw Siberia and n Kazakhstan

.

C. c. yenisseensis (Buturlin, 1911) sc to e Siberia, n Mongolia and ne China

.

C. c. tianschanicus Menzbier, 1884 mountains of se Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and nw China

.

C. c. koktalensis Portenko, 1954 lowlands of se Kazakhstan

.

C. c. carruthersi (Hartert, 1917) Kyrgyzstan to n Tajikistan

.

C. c. flavipectus (Severtsov, 1873) s Kyrgyzstan to n Afghanistan

.

C. c. berezowskii Pleske, 1893 nc China

.

Pseudopodoces Zarudny & Loudon, 1902

.

Ground Tit Pseudopodoces humilis (Hume, 1871) EU : Tibet TAX Restore Ground Tit to monotypic Pseudopodoces following Johansson et al 2013

.

Parus Linnaeus, 1758

.

Great Tit Parus major Linnaeus, 1758 EU : w, c Eurasia, n Africa TAX Parus bokharensis is conspecific with P. major (Päckert et al. 2005, Eck & Martens 2006, Collar 2007)

.

P. m. newtoni Pražák, 1894 British Isles

.

P. m. major Linnaeus, 1758 mainland Europe to w and sc Siberia, the Caucasus and Asia Minor

.

P. m. kapustini Portenko, 1954 se Kazakhstan and nw China to Mongolia and e Siberia

.

P. m. corsus Kleinschmidt, O, 1903 Portugal, s Spain and Corsica

.

P. m. mallorcae von Jordans, 1913 Balearic Is.

.

P. m. excelsus Buvry, 1857 nw Africa

.

P. m. ecki von Jordans, 1970 Sardinia

.

P. m. aphrodite Madarász, 1901 s Italy, s Greece, the Aegean Is. and Cyprus

.

P. m. niethammeri von Jordans, 1970 Crete

.

P. m. terraesanctae Hartert, 1910 Syria to ne Egypt

.

P. m. karelini Zarudny, 1910 se Azerbaijan and nw Iran

.

P. m. blanfordi Pražák, 1894 n Iraq, nc and sw Iran

.

P. m. bokharensis Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823 Turkmenistan and n Afghanistan to sc Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

.

P. m. turkestanicus Zarudny & Loudon, 1905 se Kazakhstan to sw Mongolia

.

P. m. ferghanensis Buturlin, 1912 Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to w China

.

Japanese Tit Parus minor Temminck & Schlegel, 1848 EU : ec, e Asia AS Parus minor is split from P. major (Päckert et al. 2005, Eck & Martens 2006, Collar 2007)

.

P. m. minor Temminck & Schlegel, 1848 e Siberia, s Sakhalin I. ec and ne China, Korea and Japan

.

P. m. dageletensis Kuroda & Mori, 1920 Ulleungdo I. (off South Korea)

.

P. m. kagoshimae Taka-Tsukasa, 1919 s Kyushu and Goto Is. (s Japan)

.

P. m. amamiensis Kleinschmidt, O, 1922 n Ryukyu Is.

.

P. m. okinawae Hartert, 1905 c Ryukyu Is.

.

P. m. nigriloris Hellmayr, 1900 s Ryukyu Is.

.

P. m. tibetanus Hartert, 1905 se Tibet, sw and sc China to n Burma

.

P. m. commixtus Swinhoe, 1868 s China and n Vietnam

.

P. m. nubicolus Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 e Burma, n Thailand and nw Indochina

.

Cinereous Tit Parus cinereus Vieillot, 1818 OR : s, se Asia AS Parus cinereus is split from P. major (Päckert et al. 2005 , Eck & Martens 2006, Collar 2007).

.

P. c. intermedius Zarudny, 1890 ne Iran and sw Turkmenistan

.

P. c. decolorans Koelz, 1939 ne Afghanistan and nw Pakistan

.

P. c. ziaratensis Whistler, 1929 c and s Afghanistan and w Pakistan

.

P. c. caschmirensis Hartert, 1905 ne Afghanistan, n Pakistan and nw India

.

P. c. planorum Hartert, 1905 n India to Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and w, c Burma

.

P. c. vauriei Ripley, 1950 ne India

.

P. c. stupae Koelz, 1939 w, c and se India

.

P. c. mahrattarum Hartert, 1905 sw India and Sri Lanka

.

P. c. templorum Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 w and c Thailand and s Indochina

.

P. c. hainanus Hartert, 1905 Hainan (off se China)

.

P. c. ambiguus (Raffles, 1822) Malay Pen. and Sumatra

.

P. c. sarawacensis Slater, 1885 Borneo

.

P. c. cinereus Vieillot, 1818 Java, Lesser Sundas

.

Green-backed Tit Parus monticolus Vigors, 1831 EU, OR : w Himalayas to sc Vietnam and Taiwan

.

P. m. monticolus Vigors, 1831 n Pakistan to w Nepal and s Tibet

.

P. m. yunnanensis La Touche, 1922 e Himalayas and ne India to c China, n Indochina and Burma

.

P. m. legendrei Delacour, 1927 sc Vietnam

.

P. m. insperatus Swinhoe, 1866 Taiwan

.

Machlolophus Cabanis, 1850 PHY, TAX Separation of Machlolophus spp from Parus follows Johansson et al 2013

.

White-naped Tit Machlolophus nuchalis (Jerdon, 1845) OR : c, s India

.

Yellow Tit Machlolophus holsti (Seebohm, 1894) OR : Taiwan

.

Himalayan Black-lored Tit Machlolophus xanthogenys (Vigors, 1831) OR : Himalayas from n Pakistan to e Nepal ENG Change  English name of Parus xanthogenys to Himalayan Black-lored Tit, with split of P. aplonotus

.

Indian Black-lored Tit Machlolophus aplonotus (Blyth, 1847) OR : Peninsular India AS Parus aplonotus including subspecies travancoreensis is split from P. xanthogenys (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005)

.

M. a. aplonotus (Blyth, 1847) c India

.

M. a. travancoreensis Whistler & Kinnear, 1932 s India

.

Yellow-cheeked Tit Machlolophus spilonotus (Bonaparte, 1850) OR : Himalayas to sc Vietnam

.

M. s. spilonotus (Bonaparte, 1850) e Nepal and ne India to n and w Burma and sw China

.

M. s. subviridis (Blyth, 1855) ne India to s and e Burma, n Thailand and sc China

.

M. s. rex (David, 1874) s and se China, n and c Indochina

.

M. s. basileus Delacour, 1932 s Indochina

.

Melaniparus Bonaparte, 1850 PHY, TAX Separation of Melaniparus spp from Parus follows Johansson et al 2013

.

White-shouldered Black Tit Melaniparus guineensis (Shelley, 1900) AF : w, c

.

White-winged Black Tit Melaniparus leucomelas (Rüppell, 1840) AF : c

.

M. l. leucomelas (Rüppell, 1840) c and se Ethiopia

.

M. l. insignis (Cabanis, 1880) s Gabon, Congo and Angola e to Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia

.

Southern Black Tit Melaniparus niger (Vieillot, 1818) AF : se

.

M. n. ravidus (Clancey, 1964) e Zambia to c Mozambique and ne South Africa

.

M. n. xanthostomus (Shelley, 1892) se Angola to c Zambia and sw Tanzania, south to ne Namibia, Botswana and n South Africa

.

M. n. niger (Vieillot, 1818) s Mozambique and e South Africa

.

Carp's Tit Melaniparus carpi (Macdonald & Hall, BP, 1957) AF : sw ENG Change English name of Parus carpi to shorter and traditional  Carp's Tit,

.

White-bellied Tit Melaniparus albiventris (Shelley, 1881) AF : wc, e

.

White-backed Black Tit Melaniparus leuconotus (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) AF : Ethiopia, Eritrea

.

Dusky Tit Melaniparus funereus Verreaux, J & Verreaux, E, 1855 AF : c

.

M. f. funereus Verreaux, J & Verreaux, E, 1855 Guinea to Uganda, Kenya and DRCongo

.

M. f. gabela (Traylor, 1961) w Angola

.

Rufous-bellied Tit Melaniparus rufiventris (Barboza du Bocage, 1877) AF : se

.

M. r. rufiventris (Barboza du Bocage, 1877) s Congo and s DRCongo to c Angola and c Zambia

.

M. r. masukuensis (Shelley, 1900) se DRCongo, e Zambia and Malawi

.

M. r. diligens (Clancey, 1979) s Angola, n Namibia, sw Zambia and nw Botswana

.

Cinnamon-breasted Tit Melaniparus pallidiventris (Reichenow, 1885) AF : se

.

M. p. pallidiventris (Reichenow, 1885) Tanzania, s Malawi and n Mozambique

.

M. p. stenotopicus (Clancey, 1989) e Zimbabwe and wc Mozambique

.

Red-throated Tit Melaniparus fringillinus (Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884) AF : e

.

Stripe-breasted Tit Melaniparus fasciiventer (Reichenow, 1893) AF : ec

.

M. f. fasciiventer (Reichenow, 1893) Ruwenzori Mts (e DRCongo, w Uganda), w Rwanda and w Burundi

.

M. f. tanganjicae (Reichenow, 1909) Itombwe Mts. (e DRCongo) and sw Burundi

.

M. f. kaboboensis (Prigogine, 1957) Mt. Kabobo (e DRCongo)

.

Acacia Tit Melaniparus thruppi (Shelley, 1885) AF : ne

.

M. t. thruppi (Shelley, 1885) Ethiopia, Somalia (except sw) and n Kenya

.

M. t. barakae (Jackson, 1899) sw Somalia, e Uganda, Kenya and ne Tanzania

.

Miombo Tit Melaniparus griseiventris (Reichenow, 1882) AF : sc

.

Ashy Tit Melaniparus cinerascens (Vieillot, 1818) AF : s SSP Subspecies per Harrap & Quinn

.

M. c. benguelae (Hall, BP & Traylor, 1959) sw Angola and nw Namibia

.

M. c. cinerascens (Vieillot, 1818) Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and n South Africa

.

Grey Tit Melaniparus afer (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : s

.

M. a. arens (Clancey, 1963) s South Africa and Lesotho

.

M. a. afer (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Namiibia and w South Africa

.

.

11 Penduline Tits Family Remizidae

.

Remiz Jarocki, 1819

.

Eurasian Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : w, n, sc

.

R. p. pendulinus (Linnaeus, 1758) Europe to the Ural Mts., Caucasus and w Turkey

.

R. p. menzbieri (Zarudny, 1913) s and e Turkey and Syria to Armenia and nw Iran

.

R. p. caspius (Peltzam, 1870) sw Russia and nw Kazakhstan

.

R. p. jaxarticus (Severtsov, 1873) e Ural Mts. to w Siberia and n Kazakhstan

.

Black-headed Penduline Tit Remiz macronyx (Severtsov, 1873) EU : c Asia AS Remiz macronyx is split from R.pendulinus (Madge 2008)

.

R. m. macronyx (Severtsov, 1873) sw Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, n and se Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and ne Afghanistan.

.

R. m. neglectus (Zarudny, 1908) n Iran and s Turkmenistan

.

R. m. altaicus (Radde, 1899) se Azerbaijan and nw Iran

.

R. m. nigricans (Zarudny, 1908) se Iran and sw Afghanistan

.

R. m. ssaposhnikowi (Johansen, HE, 1907) se Kazakhstan

.

White-crowned Penduline Tit Remiz coronatus (Severtsov, 1873) EU : sc

.

R. c. coronatus (Severtsov, 1873) s Kazakhstan to nw China, n Afghanistan and e Turkmenistan

.

R. c. stoliczkae (Hume, 1874) e Kazakhstan to s Siberia, c Mongolia and n China

.

Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus (Swinhoe, 1870) EU : n China AS Remiz consobrinus is recognized by Madge (2008), not conspecific with R. coronatus (Eck & Martens 2006, Collar 2007)

.

Anthoscopus Cabanis, 1850

.

Sennar Penduline Tit Anthoscopus punctifrons (Sundevall, 1850) AF : ne, c, w

.

Yellow Penduline Tit Anthoscopus parvulus (Heuglin, 1864) AF : c, w

.

Mouse-colored Penduline Tit Anthoscopus musculus (Hartlaub, 1882) AF : ne

.

Forest Penduline Tit Anthoscopus flavifrons (Cassin, 1855) AF : w, c

.

A. f. waldronae Bannerman, 1935 Liberia to Ghana

.

A. f. flavifrons (Cassin, 1855) se Nigeria and s Cameroon to n DRCongo and Gabon

.

A. f. ruthae Chapin, 1958 e DRCongo

.

Grey Penduline Tit Anthoscopus caroli (Sharpe, 1871) AF : c, s

.

A. c. roccatii Salvadori, 1906 Uganda, ne DRCongo, Rwanda, Burundi, w Kenya and nw Tanzania

.

A. c. pallescens Ulfstrand, 1960 w Tanzania

.

A. c. ansorgei Hartert, 1905 Congo, w DRCongo to c Angola

.

A. c. rhodesiae Sclater, WL, 1932 se DRCongo, n Zambia and sw Tanzania

.

A. c. robertsi Haagner, 1909 se Kenya to ne Zambia, Malawi and n Mozambique

.

A. c. caroli (Sharpe, 1871) s Angola and sw Zambia to n Namibia and n Botswana

.

A. c. winterbottomi White, CMN, 1946 s DRCongo and nw Zambia

.

A. c. rankinei Irwin, 1963 ne Zimbabwe

.

A. c. hellmayri Roberts, 1914 e and s Zimbabwe, s Mozambique and ne South Africa

.

A. c. sylviella Reichenow, 1904 sc Kenya to c Tanzania

.

A. c. sharpei Hartert, 1905 sw Kenya to n Tanzania

.

Cape Penduline Tit Anthoscopus minutus (Shaw, 1812) AF : sw

.

A. m. damarensis Reichenow, 1905 w Angola and n Namibia, n and e Botswana, Zimbabwe and n South Africa

.

A. m. gigi Winterbottom, 1959 s South Africa

.

A. m. minutus (Shaw, 1812) w and s Namibia, sw Botswana and w and c South Africa

.

Auriparus Baird, SF, 1864

.

Verdin Auriparus flaviceps (Sundevall, 1850) NA, MA : sw and sc USA, n Mexico

.

A. f. acaciarum Grinnell, 1931 sw USA to n Baja California, c Sonora, c Chihuahua and c Durango (nw Mexico)

.

A. f. ornatus (Lawrence, 1851) sc USA and ne Mexico

.

A. f. flaviceps (Sundevall, 1850) c Baja California, s Sonora and n Sinaloa (nw Mexico)

.

A. f. lamprocephalus Oberholser, 1897 s Baja California (nw Mexico)

.

A. f. sinaloae Phillips, AR, 1986 nw Sinaloa (nw Mexico)

.

A. f. hidalgensis Phillips, AR, 1986 nc Mexico