"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Screamers, ducks, geese & swans

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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ORDER ANSERIFORMES

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3 Screamers Family Anhimidae

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Anhima Brisson, 1760

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Horned Screamer Anhima cornuta (Linnaeus, 1766) SA : Colombia and Venezuelathrough Amazonia to Bolivia and ne Argentina

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Chauna Illiger, 1811

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Northern Screamer Chauna chavaria (Linnaeus, 1766) SA : n Colombia, nw Venezuela

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Southern Screamer Chauna torquata (Oken, 1816) SA : se Peru and s Brazil to c Argentina

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1 Magpie Goose Family Anseranatidae

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Anseranas Lesson, 1828

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Magpie Goose Anseranas semipalmata (Latham, 1798) AU : New Guinea, n Australia

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173 Ducks, Geese and Swans Family Anatidae

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Dendrocygna Swainson, 1837

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White-faced Whistling Duck Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus, 1766) AF, SA : widespread

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Black-bellied Whistling Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, LA : se Texas to n Argentina

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D. a. fulgens Friedmann, 1947 se Texas to Panama

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D. a. autumnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Panama to Ecuador and n Argentina

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Spotted Whistling Duck Dendrocygna guttata Schlegel, 1866 OR, AU : Philippines to New Guinea

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West Indian Whistling Duck Dendrocygna arborea (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : West Indies

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Fulvous Whistling Duck Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816) NA, LA, AF, OR : widespread

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Plumed Whistling Duck Dendrocygna eytoni (Eyton, 1838) AU : Australia

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Wandering Whistling Duck Dendrocygna arcuata (Horsfield, 1824) OR, AU : Philippines to Australia

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D. a. arcuata (Horsfield, 1824) Philippines to Indonesia

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D. a. pygmaea Mayr, 1945 New Britain I. (Bismarck Arch.)

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D. a. australis Reichenbach, 1850 s New Guinea, n and e Australia

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Lesser Whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica (Horsfield, 1821) OR : widespread

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Thalassornis Eyton, 1838

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White-backed Duck Thalassornis leuconotus Eyton, 1838 AF : widespread

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T. l. leuconotus Eyton, 1838 e Cameroon to s Ethiopia and South Africa

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T. l. insularis Richmond, 1897 Madagascar

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Cereopsis Latham, 1801

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Cape Barren Goose Cereopsis novaehollandiae Latham, 1801 AU : s Australia

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C. n. novaehollandiae Latham, 1801 s Australia, Tasmania

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C. n. grisea (Vieillot, 1818) Recherche Arch. (sw Australia)

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Anser Brisson, 1760

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Swan Goose Anser cygnoides (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : c Asia and Mongolia to se Siberia

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Taiga Bean Goose Anser fabalis (Latham, 1787) EU : n ENG Change  English name Anser fabalis to Taiga Bean Goose with split of A.serrirostris (AOU 2007)

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A. f. fabalis (Latham, 1787) Scandinavia to nc Siberia

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A. f. johanseni Delacour, 1951 w Siberia

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A. f. middendorffii Severtsov, 1873 e Siberia

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Tundra Bean Goose Anser serrirostris Gould, 1852 EU : n AS Anser serrirostris is split from A.fabalis (AOU 2007). Author citation Gould, 1852 rather than Swinhoe, 1871 follows H&M 4:10

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A. s. rossicus Buturlin, 1933 n Russia, nw Siberia

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A. s. serrirostris Gould, 1852 ne Siberia

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Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus Baillon, 1834 EU : Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard

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Greylag Goose Anser anser (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : c, w

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A. a. anser (Linnaeus, 1758) n and c Europe

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A. a. rubrirostris Swinhoe, 1871 ec Europe to China

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Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769) NA, MA, EU : widespread

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A. a. flavirostris Dalgety & Scott, P, 1948 w Greenland

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A. a. albifrons (Scopoli, 1769) n Russia

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A. a. elgasi Delacour & Ripley, 1975 s Alaska (USA)

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A. a. gambelli Hartlaub, 1852 Alaska, nw and nc Canada

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A. a. sponsa Banks, 2011 w Alaska (USA)

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Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : n Eurasia

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Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus (Latham, 1790) EU : c Asia

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Chen Boie, F, 1822

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Snow Goose Chen caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : n

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C. c. caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) ne Siberia, n Alaska (USA), nw Canada

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C. c. atlantica Kennard, 1927 ne Canada, nw Greenland

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Ross's Goose Chen rossii (Cassin, 1861) NA : n Canada

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Emperor Goose Chen canagica (Sevastianov, 1802) NA, EU : w Alaska, ne Siberia

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Branta Scopoli, 1769

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Canada Goose Branta canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : widespread

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B. c. occidentalis (Baird, SF, 1858) sw Alaska

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B. c. fulva Delacour, 1951 s Alaska (USA), w Bitish Columbia (Canada)

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B. c. maxima Delacour, 1951 sc Canada

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B. c. parvipes (Cassin, 1852) c Alaska (USA) to c Canada

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B. c. moffitti Aldrich, 1946 sw Canada and nw USA

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B. c. interior Todd, 1938 sc Canada

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B. c. canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) e Canada

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Cackling Goose Branta hutchinsii (Richardson, 1832) NA : c Canada

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B. h. asiatica Aldrich, 1946 Bering I., n Kurile Is.(ne Russia)

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B. h. leucopareia (von Brandt, JF, 1836) Aleutian Is.(USA)

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B. h. minima Ridgway, 1885 w Alaska (USA)

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B. h. taverneri Delacour, 1951 ne Alaska (USA), n Canada

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B. h. hutchinsii (Richardson, 1832) nc Canada, Greenland

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Nene Branta sandvicensis (Vigors, 1834) PO : Hawaiian Islands

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Brant Goose Branta bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : widespread

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B. b. bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758) nw and nc Russia

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B. b. hrota (Müller, OF, 1776) ne Canada, Greenland, Spitzbergen

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B. b. nigricans (Lawrence, 1846) ne Siberia, Alaska, nw Canada

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Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis (Bechstein, 1803) EU : Greenland to nw Russia

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Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis (Pallas, 1769) EU : nw Siberia

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Coscoroba Reichenbach, 1853

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Coscoroba Swan Coscoroba coscoroba (Molina, 1782) SA : Southern Cone

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Cygnus Garsault, 1764

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Black Swan Cygnus atratus (Latham, 1790) AU : Australia, New Zealand

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Black-necked Swan Cygnus melancoryphus (Molina, 1782) SA : Southern Cone TAX Change  Spelling of Cygnus melanocoryphus to Cygnus melancoryphus (David & Gosselin 2002; SACC)

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Mute Swan Cygnus olor (Gmelin, JF, 1789) EU : Europe to c Asia

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Trumpeter Swan Cygnus buccinator Richardson, 1831 NA : Alaska, w Canada, nc USA

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Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus (Ord, 1815) EU, NA : n

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C. c. columbianus (Ord, 1815) Alaska, n Canada

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C. c. bewickii Yarrel, 1830 n Eurasia

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Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : n Eurasia

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Stictonetta Reichenbach, 1853

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Freckled Duck Stictonetta naevosa (Gould, 1841) AU : se, sw Australia

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Hymenolaimus Gray, GR, 1843

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Blue Duck Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AU : New Zealand

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Tachyeres Owen, 1875

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Flying Steamer Duck Tachyeres patachonicus (King, PP, 1831) SA : s Chile, s Argentina and Falkland Is.

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Fuegian Steamer Duck Tachyeres pteneres (Forster, JR, 1844) SA : s Chile and s Argentina

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Falkland Steamer Duck Tachyeres brachypterus (Latham, 1790) SA : Falkland Is.

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Chubut Steamer Duck Tachyeres leucocephalus Humphrey & Thompson, 1981 SA : se Argentina

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Merganetta Gould, 1842

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Torrent Duck Merganetta armata Gould, 1842 SA : Venezuela to c Chile and w Argentina

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M. a. colombiana Des Murs, 1845 w Venezuela and n Colombia to c Ecuador

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M. a. leucogenis (Tschudi, 1843) n Peru

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M. a. turneri Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1869 s Peru, n Chile

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M. a. garleppi von Berlepsch, 1894 n Bolivia

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M. a. berlepschi Hartert, 1909 s Bolivia, nw Argentina

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M. a. armata Gould, 1842 w Argentina, Chile

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Plectropterus Stephens, 1824

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Spur-winged Goose Plectropterus gambensis (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : widespread

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P. g. gambensis (Linnaeus, 1766) Gambia to Ethiopia south to Angola and Mozambique

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P. g. niger Sclater, PL, 1877 Namibia and Zimbabwe through South Africa

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Sarkidiornis Eyton, 1838

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Comb Duck Sarkidiornis sylvicola von Ihering, H & von Ihering, R, 1907 SA : n Colombia and Venezuela to n Argentina

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Knob-billed Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos (Pennant, 1769) AF, OR : Africa south of the Sahara, s and se Asia

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Cyanochen Bonaparte, 1856

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Blue-winged Goose Cyanochen cyanoptera (Rüppell, 1845) AF : Ethiopia

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Alopochen Stejneger, 1885

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Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiaca (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : s Mauritania to s Egypt and Ethiopia south to South Africa

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Mauritius Sheldgoose Alopochen mauritiana (Newton, E & Gadow, 1893) IO : Mauritius I. EXT, ENG Cheke, A & Hume, J. 2008.  Change English name from Mascarene Sheldgoose to Mauritius Sheldgoose with recognition of Reunion Sheldgoose as a separate species.

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Reunion Sheldgoose Alopochen kervazoi (Cowles, 1994) IO : La Réunion EXT, AS Cheke, A & Hume, J. 2008.  Treated as conspecific with A. mauritiana by R. Roe (MS).

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Neochen Oberholser, 1918

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Orinoco Goose Neochen jubata (von Spix, 1825) SA : Amazonia

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Chloephaga Eyton, 1838

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Andean Goose Chloephaga melanoptera (Eyton, 1838) SA : Peru to s Chile and Argentina

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Upland Goose Chloephaga picta (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : Southern Cone

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C. p. picta (Gmelin, JF, 1789) s Chile, s Argentina

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C. p. leucoptera (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Falkland Is.

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Kelp Goose Chloephaga hybrida (Molina, 1782) SA : s

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C. h. hybrida (Molina, 1782) s Chile, s Argentina

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C. h. malvinarum Phillips, JC, 1916 Falkland Is.

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Ashy-headed Goose Chloephaga poliocephala Sclater, PL, 1857 SA : Southern Cone

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Ruddy-headed Goose Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater, PL, 1861 SA : s Chile, s Argentina and Falkland Is.

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Tadorna Boie, F, 1822

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Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, AF : w Europe to ne China

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Raja Shelduck Tadorna radjah (Lesson, 1828) AU : n Australia, New Guinea

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T. r. radjah (Lesson, 1828) Moluccas to New Guinea

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T. r. rufitergum Hartert, 1905 n and e Australia

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Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas, 1764) EU : s Europe to c Asia, nw Africa and Ethiopia

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South African Shelduck Tadorna cana (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : Namibia, Botswana and Suth Africa

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Australian Shelduck Tadorna tadornoides (Jardine & Selby, 1828) AU : s Australia. Tasmania

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Paradise Shelduck Tadorna variegata (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AU : New Zealand

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Crested Shelduck Tadorna cristata (Kuroda, 1917) EU : ne Asia

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Malacorhynchus Swainson, 1831

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Pink-eared Duck Malacorhynchus membranaceus (Latham, 1801) AU : Australia

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Salvadorina Rothschild & Hartert, 1894

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Salvadori's Teal Salvadorina waigiuensis Rothschild & Hartert, 1894 AU : New Guinea

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Cairina Fleming, J, 1822

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Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, LA : s Texas to n Argentina

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Asarcornis Salvadori, 1895

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White-winged Duck Asarcornis scutulata (Müller, S, 1842) OR : Southeast Asia, Sumatra

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Pteronetta Salvadori, 1895

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Hartlaub's Duck Pteronetta hartlaubii (Cassin, 1860) AF : Sierra Leone to sw Uganda and n Angola

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Aix Boie, F, 1828

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Wood Duck Aix sponsa (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : widespread

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Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : se Siberia, Korea, Japan and e China

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Chenonetta von Brandt, JF, 1836

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Maned Duck Chenonetta jubata (Latham, 1801) AU : Australia

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Nettapus von Brandt, JF, 1836

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African Pygmy Goose Nettapus auritus (Boddaert, 1783) AF : south of the Sahara

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Cotton Pygmy Goose Nettapus coromandelianus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : widespread

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N. c. coromandelianus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) India to s China, Indonesia and New Guinea

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N. c. albipennis Gould, 1842 ne Australia

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Green Pygmy Goose Nettapus pulchellus Gould, 1842 AU : New Guinea, n Australia

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Amazonetta von Boetticher, 1929

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Brazilian Teal Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : Amazonia, se

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A. b. brasiliensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) e Colombia to e Brazil

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A. b. ipecutiri (Vieillot, 1816) e Bolivia to s Brazil and n Argentina

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Callonetta Delacour, 1936

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Ringed Teal Callonetta leucophrys (Vieillot, 1816) SA : se Bolivia to se Brazil and Uruguay

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Lophonetta Riley, 1914

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Crested Duck Lophonetta specularioides (King, PP, 1828) SA : s

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L. s. alticola (Ménégaux, 1909) c Peru to c Chile and nw Argentina

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L. s. specularioides (King, PP, 1828) s Chile, s Argentina, Falkland Is.

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Speculanas von Boetticher, 1929

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Bronze-winged Duck Speculanas specularis (King, PP, 1828) SA : s Chile and s Argentina

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Anas Linnaeus, 1758

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Cape Teal Anas capensis Gmelin, JF, 1789 AF : Chad, Sudan and Ethiopia to South Africa

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Gadwall Anas strepera Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : widespread

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A. s. strepera Linnaeus, 1758 n, c EU, NA

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A. s. couesi (Streets, 1876) Tabuaeran Is. (Kiribati)

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Falcated Duck Anas falcata Georgi, 1775 EU : Mongolia, e Siberia and ne China

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Chiloe Wigeon Anas sibilatrix Poeppig, 1829 SA : Southern Cone

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Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope Linnaeus, 1758 EU : n Eurasia

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American Wigeon Anas americana Gmelin, JF, 1789 NA : Alaska, Canada, n USA

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Amsterdam Wigeon Anas marecula Olson & Jouventin, 1996 IO : Amsterdam I. EXT Olson, S.L. & Jouventin, P. 1996

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African Black Duck Anas sparsa Eyton, 1838 AF : widespread

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A. s. leucostigma Rüppell, 1845 Nigeria to DRCongo, Sudan and Ethiopia south to Zimbabwe and Angola

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A. s. sparsa Eyton, 1838 Namibia and s Zimbabwe to South Africa

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American Black Duck Anas rubripes Brewster, 1902 NA : e Canada and ne USA

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Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : widespread

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A. p. platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Europe, Asia, North America

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A. p. conboschas Brehm, CL, 1831 Greenland

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Mottled Duck Anas fulvigula Ridgway, 1874 NA : sc, se

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A. f. fulvigula Ridgway, 1874 Florida (se USA)

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A. f. maculosa Sennett, 1889 sc USA, ne Mexico

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Mexican Duck Anas diazi Ridgway, 1886 NA, MA : sw US to n,c Mexico highlands AS Mexican Duck Anas diazi is related to Black and Mottled Ducks and should be recognized ( McCracken et al 2001); Lump by AOU cites only Hubbard (1977)

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Hawaiian Duck Anas wyvilliana Sclater, PL, 1878 PO : Hawaiian Islands

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Laysan Duck Anas laysanensis Rothschild, 1892 PO : Laysan Island

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Philippine Duck Anas luzonica Fraser, 1839 OR : Philippines

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Pacific Black Duck Anas superciliosa Gmelin, JF, 1789 AU : widespread

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A. s. superciliosa Gmelin, JF, 1789 Sundas to w New Guinea, w Australia and Tasmania, New Zealand SSP Includes rogersi, poorly differentiated from the nominate. Marchant & Higgins, 1990b.

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A. s. pelewensis Hartlaub & Finsch, 1872 n and c New Guinea to Solomon Is. and French Polynesia

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Indian Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha Forster, JR, 1781 OR : s, se Asia from Pakistan, s to Sri Lanka, e to Laos and n to sw Yunnan

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A. p. poecilorhyncha Forster, JR, 1781 India, Sri Lanka

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A. p. haringtoni (Oates, 1907) Burma to s China and Laos

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Eastern Spot-billed Duck Anas zonorhyncha Swinhoe, 1866 OR : China, Southeast Asia

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Yellow-billed Duck Anas undulata Dubois, CF, 1839 AF : ec, sc, s

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A. u. ruppelli Blyth, 1855 e Sudan, Ethiopia, n Kenya

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A. u. undulata Dubois, CF, 1839 s Kenya to Angola and w South Africa

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Meller's Duck Anas melleri Sclater, PL, 1865 AF : Madagascar

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Blue-winged Teal Anas discors Linnaeus, 1766 NA : s Canada, USA

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Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, 1816 NA, LA : w NA to s SA

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A. c. septentrionalium Snyder & Lumsden, 1951 w North America

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A. c. tropica Snyder & Lumsden, 1951 nw Colombia

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A. c. borreroi Snyder & Lumsden, 1951 ec Colombia

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A. c. orinoma (Oberholser, 1906) Peru, Bolivia, n Chile, nw Argentina

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A. c. cyanoptera Vieillot, 1816 sw Peru to s Brazil and s Argentina, Falkland Is.

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Cape Shoveler Anas smithii (Hartert, 1891) AF : Namibia, Botswana, South Africa

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Red Shoveler Anas platalea Vieillot, 1816 SA : c Chile and s Brazil to Tierra del Fuego, s Peru

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Australasian Shoveler Anas rhynchotis Latham, 1801 AU : Australia, New Zealand

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A. r. rhynchotis Latham, 1801 s Australia, Tasmania

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A. r. variegata (Gould, 1856) New Zealand

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Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : widespread

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Bernier's Teal Anas bernieri (Hartlaub, 1860) AF : Madagascar

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Mascarene Teal Anas theodori Newton, E & Gadow, 1893 IO : Mauritius I., La Réunion Cheke, A & Hume, J. 2008.

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Sunda Teal Anas gibberifrons Müller, S, 1842 OR : Indonesia

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Andaman Teal Anas albogularis (Hume, 1873) OR : Andaman Is., Cocos Is. AS Anas albogularis is split from A. gibberifrons (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005. Followed in Clements 2007).

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Grey Teal Anas gracilis Buller, 1869 AU : widespread

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A. g. gracilis Buller, 1869 New Guinea to Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand

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A. g. remissa Ripley, 1942 Rennel I. (Solomon Islands)

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Chestnut Teal Anas castanea (Eyton, 1838) AU : Australia

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Auckland Teal Anas aucklandica (Gray, GR, 1844) AU : Auckland Islands ENG Change  English name of Anas aucklandica from Brown Teal to Auckland Teal with splits of A.nesiotis and A.chlorotis (now Brown Teal)

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Campbell Teal Anas nesiotis (Fleming, JH, 1935) AU : Campbell Islands AS Anas nesiotis is split from A.aucklandica (Daugherty et al. 1999, Kennedy and Spencer 2000)

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Brown Teal Anas chlorotis Gray, GR, 1845 AU : New Zealand AS Anas chlorotis is split from A.aucklandica (Daugherty et al. 1999, Kennedy and Spencer 2000)

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White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis Linnaeus, 1758 SA, NA : Widespread in South America, Caribbean

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A. b. bahamensis Linnaeus, 1758 West Indies, n South America

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A. b. rubrirostris Vieillot, 1816 s Ecuador and s Brazil to n Argentina and n Chile

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A. b. galapagensis (Ridgway, 1890) Galapagos Is.

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Red-billed Teal Anas erythrorhyncha Gmelin, JF, 1789 AF : s Sudan and Ethiopia to South Africa

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Yellow-billed Teal Anas flavirostris Vieillot, 1816 SA : w, s TAX; ENG Anas flavirostris includes subspecies oxyptera which may deserve recognition (Jaramillo 2003); Change English name to Yellow-billed Teal per SACC

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A. f. oxyptera Meyen, 1834 n Peru to n Chile and n Argentina

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A. f. flavirostris Vieillot, 1816 Southern Cone, Falkland Is., South Georgia Is.

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Andean Teal Anas andium (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1873) SA : Colombia, Ecuador AS Anas andium is split from A.flavirostris (Ridgely et al 2001, Hilty 2003, SACC 356)

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A. a. altipetens (Conover, 1941) e Colombia, w Venezuela

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A. a. andium (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1873) c and s Colombia to Ecuador

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Yellow-billed Pintail Anas georgica Gmelin, JF, 1789 SA : w, s TAX Anas georgica of South Georgia includes mainland subspecies spinicauda, which may deserve recognition (Jaramillo 2003, SACC needs proposal)

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A. g. niceforoi Wetmore & Borrero, 1946 ec Colombia

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A. g. spinicauda Vieillot, 1816 s Colombia to s Argentina and s Chile, Falkland Is.

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A. g. georgica Gmelin, JF, 1789 South Georgia Is.

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Northern Pintail Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : Widespread

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Eaton's Pintail Anas eatoni (Sharpe, 1875) IO : Kerguelen Islands

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A. e. drygalskii Reichenow, 1904 Crozet Is.

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A. e. eatoni (Sharpe, 1875) Kerguelen Is.

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Garganey Anas querquedula Linnaeus, 1758 EU : w Europe to Japan

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Baikal Teal Anas formosa Georgi, 1775 EU : e Siberia

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Eurasian Teal Anas crecca Linnaeus, 1758 EU : widespread

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A. c. crecca Linnaeus, 1758 n and c Europe and Asia

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A. c. nimia Friedmann, 1948 Aleutian Is.

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Green-winged Teal Anas carolinensis Gmelin, JF, 1789 NA : widespread

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Silver Teal Anas versicolor Vieillot, 1816 SA : s

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A. g. versicolor Vieillot, 1816 c Chile to s Brazil and s Argentina

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A. g. fretensis King, PP, 1831 s Chile and s Argentina, Falkland Is.

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Puna Teal Anas puna Tschudi, 1844 SA : Peru to nw Argentina

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Hottentot Teal Anas hottentota (Eyton, 1838) AF : Nigeria to Ethiopia and south to South Africa, Madagascar

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Marmaronetta Reichenbach, 1853

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Marbled Duck Marmaronetta angustirostris (Ménétries, 1832) EU : s Spain and nw Africa to Pakistan

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Rhodonessa Reichenbach, 1853

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Pink-headed Duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea (Latham, 1790) OR : ne, e India, Burma

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Netta Kaup, 1829

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Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina (Pallas, 1773) EU : c and s Europe to n China

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Rosy-billed Pochard Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816) SA : Brazil and Paraguay to c Argentina, c Chile

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Southern Pochard Netta erythrophthalma (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1833) AF, SA : e, se, s AF; Amazonia

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N. e. brunnea (Eyton, 1838) Ethiopia to South Africa

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N. e. erythrophthalma (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1833) Amazonia

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Aythya Boie, F, 1822

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Canvasback Aythya valisineria (Wilson, A, 1814) NA : widespread

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Redhead Aythya americana (Eyton, 1838) NA : widespread

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Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : w Europe to c Asia and n China

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Hardhead Aythya australis (Eyton, 1838) AU : Australia

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A. a. australis (Eyton, 1838) Australia, New Zealand

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A. a. extima Mayr, 1940 Vanuatu, New Caledonia

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Madagascan Pochard Aythya innotata (Salvadori, 1894) AF : Madagascar

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Baer's Pochard Aythya baeri (Radde, 1863) EU : se Siberia and n China

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Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca (Güldenstädt, 1770) EU : w Europe and nw Africa to c Asia

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New Zealand Scaup Aythya novaeseelandiae (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AU : New Zealand

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Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris (Donovan, 1809) NA : widespread

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Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread

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Greater Scaup Aythya marila (Linnaeus, 1761) NA, EU : widespread

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A. m. marila (Linnaeus, 1761) n Eurasia

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A. m. nearctica Stejneger, 1885 ne Asia, n North America

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Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis (Eyton, 1838) NA : widespread

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Polysticta Eyton, 1836

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Steller's Eider Polysticta stelleri (Pallas, 1769) NA, EU : Siberia, Alaska

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Somateria Leach, 1819

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Spectacled Eider Somateria fischeri (von Brandt, JF, 1847) NA, EU : Siberia, Alaska

.

King Eider Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : Arctic

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Common Eider Somateria mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : Arctic PS Some Common Eider subspecies including Pacific Eider S.m.v-nigrum may deserve species status (Livezey 1995, Garner & Millington 2010)

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S. m. v-nigrum Bonaparte & Gray, GR, 1855 ne Asia, Alaska

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S. m. borealis (Brehm, CL, 1824) ne Canada, Greenland, Iceland

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S. m. sedentaria Snyder, 1941 Hudson Bay, James Bay (Canada)

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S. m. dresseri Sharpe, 1871 se Canada, ne USA

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S. m. faeroeensis Brehm, CL, 1831 Faeroe Is.

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S. m. mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758) nw Eurasia

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Histrionicus Lesson, 1828

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Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : ne Siberia and nw NA; ne Canada, Greenland and Iceland

.

Camptorhynchus Bonaparte, 1838

.

Labrador Duck Camptorhynchus labradorius (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : Labrador? Gulf of St. Lawrence?

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Melanitta Boie, F, 1822

.

Surf Scoter Melanitta perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : Alaska, n and e Canada

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Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : n Europe, nw Siberia

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White-winged Scoter Melanitta deglandi (Bonaparte, 1850) EU, NA : c, e Siberia, n NA AS Melanitta deglandi is split from M. fusca (Livezey 1995, BOU-Sangster et al. 2005)

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M. d. stejnegeri (Ridgway, 1887) c and e Siberia

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M. d. deglandi (Bonaparte, 1850) Alaska, n Canada

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Common Scoter Melanitta nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : n Europe to nc Siberia

.

Black Scoter Melanitta americana (Swainson, 1832) EU, NA : ne Siberia and Alaska, ne Canada AS Melanitta americana is split from M. nigra (Livezey 1995;Collinson et al. 2006, Sangster 2009);  Accepted by BOU (Sangster et al. 2005) & AOU (2010, NACC Supplement 51, but English names were mixed up)

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Clangula Leach, 1819

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Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : Siberia to n Canada

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Bucephala Baird, SF, 1858

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Bufflehead Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : Alaska, Canada, nw USA

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Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : widespread

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B. c. clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) n Eurasia

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B. c. americana (Bonaparte, 1838) n North America

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Barrow's Goldeneye Bucephala islandica (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA, EU : Alaska through Canada and s to nw USA, Iceland

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Mergellus Selby, 1840

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Smew Mergellus albellus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : n Eurasia

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Lophodytes Reichenbach, 1853

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Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : Alaska to nw USA, se Canada to se USA

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Mergus Linnaeus, 1758

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Auckland Merganser Mergus australis Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841 AU : Auckland Is., New Zealand

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Brazilian Merganser Mergus octosetaceus Vieillot, 1817 SA : sc Brazil, e Paraguay, ne Argentina

.

Common Merganser Mergus merganser Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : widespread

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M. m. merganser Linnaeus, 1758 Iceland, n Eurasia

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M. m. orientalis Gould, 1845 c Asia

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M. m. americanus Cassin, 1852 Canada, w USA

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Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : widespread

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Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamatus Gould, 1864 EU : e Siberia, Korea, ne China

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Heteronetta Salvadori, 1865

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Black-headed Duck Heteronetta atricapilla (Merrem, 1841) SA : c Chile to Paraguay and south to c Argentina

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Nomonyx Ridgway, 1880

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Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766) LA : widespread

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Oxyura Bonaparte, 1828

.

Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA, MA : widespread

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O. j. rubida (Wilson, A, 1814) s Canada, n USA

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O. j. jamaicensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) West Indies

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Andean Duck Oxyura ferruginea (Eyton, 1838) SA : Colombia to Southern Cone AS Oxyura ferruginea is split from O. jamaicensis (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001; Jaramillo 2003, Dickinson 2003); SACC does not

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Lake Duck Oxyura vittata (Philippi, 1860) SA : Southern Cone

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Blue-billed Duck Oxyura australis Gould, 1837 AU : Australia

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Maccoa Duck Oxyura maccoa (Eyton, 1838) AF : Ethiopia to South Africa

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White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala (Scopoli, 1769) EU : s Europe and n Africa to c Asia and nw China

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Biziura Stephens, 1824

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Musk Duck Biziura lobata (Shaw, 1796) AU : sw, se Australia