"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

New World warblers & oropendolas

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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119 New World Warblers Family Parulidae PHY, TAX Genera and species sequences follow Lovette et al 2010 and AOU/NACC 2011 (supplement)

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Seiurus Swainson, 1827

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Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : n, c, e

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S. a. aurocapilla (Linnaeus, 1766) c and se Canada and e USA

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S. a. cinereus Miller, AH, 1942 wc USA

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S. a. furvior Batchelder, 1918 Newfoundland (se Canada)

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Helmitheros Rafinesque, 1819

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Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorum (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : e USA

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Parkesia Sangster, 2008 TAX Northern and Louisiana Waterthrushes are not closely related to the Ovenbird Seiurus of NA, moved to own genus Parkesia (NACC 2010)

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Louisiana Waterthrush Parkesia motacilla (Vieillot, 1809) NA : e USA

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Northern Waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : n, c

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Vermivora Swainson, 1827

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Bachman's Warbler Vermivora bachmanii (Audubon, 1833) NA : se USA

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Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : e

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Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora cyanoptera Olson & Reveal, 2009 NA : e TAX Change species name of Blue-winged Warbler from pinus to cyanoptera (Olson & Reveal 2009, NACC 2010)

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Mniotilta Vieillot, 1816

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Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : n, e

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Protonotaria Baird, SF, 1858

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Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert, 1783) NA : e, se USA

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Limnothlypis Stone, 1914

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Swainson's Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834) NA : se USA

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Oreothlypis Ridgway, 1884 TAX Move majority of traditional Vermivora warblers to Oreothlypis; also Flame-throated and Crescent-chested warblers from Parula (NACC 2010)

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Crescent-chested Warbler Oreothlypis superciliosa (Hartlaub, 1844) MA : Mexico to Nicaragua

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O. s. sodalis (Moore, RT, 1941) nw and w Mexico

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O. s. mexicana (Bonaparte, 1850) e Mexico

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O. s. palliata (van Rossem, 1939) sw Mexico

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O. s. superciliosa (Hartlaub, 1844) s Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and w Honduras

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O. s. parva (Miller, W & Griscom, 1925) e Honduras and Nicaragua

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Flame-throated Warbler Oreothlypis gutturalis (Cabanis, 1861) MA : Costa Rico, Panama

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Leiothlypis Sangster, 2008 PHY, TAX Separate 6 species of Oreothlypis {previously Vermivora) to Leiothlypis (Lovette et al 2010, SACC 453)

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Tennessee Warbler Leiothlypis peregrina (Wilson, A, 1811) NA : n

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Orange-crowned Warbler Leiothlypis celata (Say, 1822) NA : w, n

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L. c. celata (Say, 1822) c Alaska to s Canada

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L. c. lutescens (Ridgway, 1872) w Canada and w USA

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L. c. orestera (Oberholser, 1905) wc Canada and wc USA

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L. c. sordida (Townsend, CH, 1890) s California (sw USA) and nw Mexico

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Colima Warbler Leiothlypis crissalis (Salvin & Godman, 1889) NA : sw USA

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Lucy's Warbler Leiothlypis luciae (Cooper, JG, 1861) NA, MA : sw USA, nw Mexico

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Nashville Warbler Leiothlypis ruficapilla (Wilson, A, 1811) NA : w, n

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L. r. ridgwayi (van Rossem, 1929) sw Canada and w USA

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L. r. ruficapilla (Wilson, A, 1811) s and se Canada and ne USA

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Virginia's Warbler Leiothlypis virginiae (Baird, SF, 1860) NA : sw USA

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Leucopeza Sclater, PL, 1876

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Semper's Warbler Leucopeza semperi Sclater, PL, 1876 NA : St. Lucia

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Oporornis Baird, SF, 1858 PHY, TAX Move three species (tolmiei, philadelphia, formosa) from Oporornis to Geothlypis Lovette et al 2010

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Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis (Wilson, A, 1812) NA : nc

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Geothlypis Cabanis, 1847

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Grey-crowned Yellowthroat Geothlypis poliocephala Baird, SF, 1865 MA : widespread TAX Merge Chamaethlypis with Geothlypis (NACC, Dickinson 2003)

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G. p. poliocephala Baird, SF, 1865 w Mexico

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G. p. ralphi Ridgway, 1894 ne Mexico

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G. p. palpebralis Ridgway, 1887 ec Mexico to n Costa Rica

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G. p. caninucha Ridgway, 1872 sw Mexico to s Honduras

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G. p. icterotis Ridgway, 1889 w Nicaragua and w Costa Rica

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G. p. pontilis (Brodkorb, 1943) Morelos (sc Mexico)

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G. p. ridgwayi (Griscom, 1930) sw Costa Rica and w Panama

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Masked Yellowthroat Geothlypis aequinoctialis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : n

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Chiriqui Yellowthroat Geothlypis chiriquensis Salvin, 1872 MA : sw Costa Rica, Panama AS Geothlypis chiriquensis is split from G. aequinoctialis (Escalante-Pliego 1992, Curson et al 1994, Escalente et al 2009; cf NACC 2010-B-9, split 7/5 vote)

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Black-lored Yellowthroat Geothlypis auricularis Salvin, 1883 SA : w Ecuador, w Peru AS Geothlypis auricularis is split from G.aequinoctialis (Escalante-Pliego 1992; Curson et al 1994); SACC 70 needs more documentation

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G. a. auricularis Salvin, 1883 w Ecuador and nw Peru

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G. a. peruviana Taczanowski, 1884 n Peru

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Southern Yellowthroat Geothlypis velata (Vieillot, 1809) SA : sc AS Geothlypis velata is split from G.aequinoctialis (Escalante-Pliego 1992; Curson et al 1994); SACC 70 needs more documentation

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MacGillivray's Warbler Geothlypis tolmiei (Townsend, JK, 1839) NA : w, also n Mexico PHY, TAX MacGillivray's Warbler is moved from Oporornis to Geothlypis (Lovette et al 2010, AOU 2011)

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G. t. tolmiei (Townsend, JK, 1839) se Alaska, w Canada and nw USA

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G. t. monticola (Phillips, AR, 1947) sc Canada and wc USA

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Mourning Warbler Geothlypis philadelphia (Wilson, A, 1810) NA : n, ne PHY, TAX Mourning Warbler is moved from Oporornis to Geothlypis (Lovette et al 2010, AOU 2011)

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Kentucky Warbler Geothlypis formosa (Wilson, A, 1811) NA : e, se USA PHY, TAX Kentucky Warbler is moved from Oporornis to Geothlypis (Lovette et al 2010, AOU 2011)

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Olive-crowned Yellowthroat Geothlypis semiflava Sclater, PL, 1860 LA : Honduras to Ecuador

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G. s. bairdi Ridgway, 1884 Honduras to Panama

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G. s. semiflava Sclater, PL, 1860 w Colombia and w Ecuador

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Black-polled Yellowthroat Geothlypis speciosa Sclater, PL, 1859 MA : Mexico

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G. s. speciosa Sclater, PL, 1859 state of Mexico (c Mexico)

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G. s. limnatis Dickerman, 1970 s Guanajuato and n Michoacán (c Mexico)

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Belding's Yellowthroat Geothlypis beldingi Ridgway, 1882 MA : Baja California

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G. b. goldmani Oberholser, 1917 c Baja California (nw Mexico)

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G. b. beldingi Ridgway, 1882 s Baja California (nw Mexico)

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Bahama Yellowthroat Geothlypis rostrata Bryant, H, 1867 NA : Bahamas

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G. r. exigua Ridgway, 1902 Andros I. (wc Bahamas)

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G. r. tanneri Ridgway, 1886 Grand Bahama and Abaco Is. (n Bahamas)

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G. r. rostrata Bryant, H, 1867 New Providence I. (wc Bahamas)

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G. r. coryi Ridgway, 1886 Eleuthera and Cat Is. (c Bahamas)

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Altamira Yellowthroat Geothlypis flavovelata Ridgway, 1896 MA : e Mexico

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Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus, 1766) NA, MA : widespread

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G. t. trichas (Linnaeus, 1766) se Canada and e USA (excluding the se)

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G. t. typhicola Burleigh, 1934 inland se USA

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G. t. ignota Chapman, 1890 coastal se USA

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G. t. insperata van Tyne, 1933 s Texas (sc USA)

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G. t. campicola Behle & Aldrich, 1947 interior w Canada, nw and nc USA

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G. t. arizela Oberholser, 1899 coastal w Canada, w USA and nw Mexico

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G. t. occidentalis Brewster, 1883 wc USA

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G. t. sinuosa Grinnell, 1901 n California (w USA)

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G. t. scirpicola Grinnell, 1901 sw USA and nw Mexico

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G. t. chryseola van Rossem, 1930 sw to sc USA and wc Mexico

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G. t. melanops Baird, SF, 1865 c Mexico

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G. t. modesta Nelson, 1900 w Mexico

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G. t. chapalensis Nelson, 1903 Lake Chapala in Jalisco (wc Mexico)

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G. t. riparia van Rossem, 1941 s Sonora (nw Mexico)

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Hooded Yellowthroat Geothlypis nelsoni Richmond, 1900 MA : Mexico

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G. n. nelsoni Richmond, 1900 e Mexico

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G. n. karlenae Moore, RT, 1946 sw Mexico

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Catharopeza Sclater, PL, 1880

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Whistling Warbler Catharopeza bishopi (Lawrence, 1878) NA : St Vincent

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Setophaga Swainson, 1827 TAX Replace Dendroica with Setophaga (36 species + 2 Parula sp) (AOU 2011)

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Plumbeous Warbler Setophaga plumbea (Lawrence, 1877) NA : Lesser Antilles

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Elfin Woods Warbler Setophaga angelae (Kepler & Parkes, 1972) NA : Puerto Rico

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Arrowhead Warbler Setophaga pharetra (Gosse, 1847) NA : Jamaica

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Hooded Warbler Setophaga citrina (Boddaert, 1783) NA : e, se PHY, TAX Hooded Warbler belongs in Setophaga [Dendroica], not Wilsonia (Lovette et al 2010, AOU 2011)

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American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : n, c, e

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Kirtland's Warbler Setophaga kirtlandii (Baird, SF, 1852) NA : Michigan

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Cape May Warbler Setophaga tigrina (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : nc, ne

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Cerulean Warbler Setophaga cerulea (Wilson, A, 1810) NA : c, e USA

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Northern Parula Setophaga americana (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : e PHY, TAX Move two species of Parula (americana, pitiayumi) to Setophaga (previously Dendroica) (Lovette et al 2010, AOU 2011))

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Tropical Parula Setophaga pitiayumi (Vieillot, 1817) LA : widespread, also s Texas

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S. p. nigrilora (Coues, 1878) extreme sc USA and e Mexico

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S. p. pulchra (Brewster, 1889) w Mexico

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S. p. insularis (Lawrence, 1871) Tres Marias Is. (off w Mexico)

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S. p. graysoni (Ridgway, 1887) Socorro and Revillagigedo Is. (off w Mexico)

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S. p. inornata (Baird, SF, 1864) s Mexico to n Honduras

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S. p. speciosa (Ridgway, 1902) s Honduras to Panama

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S. p. cirrha (Wetmore, 1957) Coiba I. (sw of Panama)

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S. p. nana (Griscom, 1927) e Panama and nw Colombia

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S. p. elegans (Todd, 1912) n Colombia, n Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago

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S. p. pacifica (von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884) sw Colombia to nw Peru

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S. p. roraimae (Chapman, 1929) s Venezuela, the Guianas and n Brazil

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S. p. alarum (Chapman, 1924) e Ecuador and n Peru

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S. p. melanogenys (Todd, 1924) c Peru to w Bolivia

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S. p. pitiayumi (Vieillot, 1817) c and e Brazil to e Bolivia, Paraguay, n Argentina and Uruguay

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Magnolia Warbler Setophaga magnolia (Wilson, A, 1811) NA : n, ne

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Bay-breasted Warbler Setophaga castanea (Wilson, A, 1810) NA : s and se Canada, ne USA

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Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga fusca (Statius Müller, 1776) NA : n, ne, ec

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American Yellow Warbler Setophaga aestiva (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA, MA : widespread in NA through central plateau of Mexico TAX Correct: Species name of American Yellow Warbler to aestiva, with continued recognition of the Mangrove Warbler

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S. a. rubiginosa (Pallas, 1811) s Alaska and w Canada

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S. a. banksi (Browning, 1994) c Alaska and nw Canada

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S. a. parkesi (Browning, 1994) n Alaska and n Canada

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S. a. amnicola (Batchelder, 1918) wc to e Canada

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S. a. aestiva (Gmelin, JF, 1789) sc to e Canada and south through e and c USA

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S. a. morcomi (Coale, 1887) interior sw Canada and wc USA

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S. a. brewsteri (Grinnell, 1903) coastal w USA and nw Mexico

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S. a. sonorana (Brewster, 1888) interior sw USA and n to nw Mexico

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S. a. dugesi (Coale, 1887) c Mexico

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Mangrove Warbler Setophaga petechia (Linnaeus, 1766) NA, LA : extreme s US through West Indies to coastal MA and SA TAX Mangrove Warbler here includes "Golden Warbler" petechia and "Mangrove Warbler" erythachorides groups of AOU

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S. p. oraria (Parkes & Dickerman, 1967) e Mexico

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S. p. bryanti (Ridgway, 1873) se Mexico to s Nicaragua

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S. p. erithachorides (Baird, SF, 1858) e Costa Rica to n Colombia

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S. p. chrysendeta (Wetmore, 1946) ne Colombia and extreme nw Venezuela

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S. p. paraguanae (Phelps & Gilliard, 1941) Paraguaná Pen. (nw Veneuela)

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S. p. cienagae (Zimmer, JT & Phelps, 1944) nw to n Venezuela and nearby islands

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S. p. castaneiceps (Ridgway, 1885) s Baja California (nw Mexico)

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S. p. rhizophorae (van Rossem, 1935) Sonora and Sinaloa (nw Mexico)

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S. p. phillipsi (Browning, 1994) w Mexico to Honduras

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S. p. xanthotera (Todd, 1924) w Nicaragua and w Costa Rica

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S. p. aithocorys (Olson, 1980) sw Panama and Coiba I.

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S. p. iguanae (Olson, 1980) Iguana I. (off s Panama)

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S. p. aequatorialis (Sundevall, 1869) sc Panama

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S. p. jubaris (Olson, 1980) se Panama to wc Colombia

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S. p. peruviana (Sundevall, 1869) sw Colombia to nw Peru

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S. p. aureola (Gould, 1839) Coco and Galapagos Is.

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S. p. ruficapilla (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Martinique (sc Lesser Antilles)

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S. p. rufivertex (Ridgway, 1885) Cozumel I. (off se Mexico)

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S. p. armouri (Greenway, 1933) Providencia I. (east of Nicaragua)

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S. p. flavida (Cory, 1887) San Andrés I. (east of Nicaragua)

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S. p. eoa (Gosse, 1847) Cayman Is. and Jamaica

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S. p. gundlachi (Baird, SF, 1865) Florida Keys (extreme se USA), Cuba and Isle of Pines

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S. p. flaviceps (Chapman, 1892) Bahama Is.

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S. p. albicollis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Hispaniola and nearby islands

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S. p. chlora (Browning, 1994) Seven Brothers Keys (off n Hispaniola)

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S. p. solaris (Wetmore, 1929) Gonave Is. (off w Hispaniola)

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S. p. bartholemica (Sundevall, 1869) Puerto Rico, Virgin Is. and the n Lesser Antilles

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S. p. melanoptera (Lawrence, 1879) c Lesser Antilles

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S. p. babad (Bond, 1927) St. Lucia (sc Lesser Antilles)

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S. p. petechia (Linnaeus, 1766) Barbados

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S. p. alsiosa (Peters, JL, 1926) Grenadine Is. (s Lesser Antilles)

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S. p. rufopileata (Ridgway, 1884) Aruba, Netherland Antilles and other islands off n Venezuela

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S. p. obscura (Cory, 1909) Las Aves, Los Roques and La Orchila Is. (off n Venezuela)

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S. p. aurifrons (Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1950) ne Venezuela and nearby islands

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Chestnut-sided Warbler Setophaga pensylvanica (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : e

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Blackpoll Warbler Setophaga striata (Forster, JR, 1772) NA : Alaska to e and se Canada, ne USA

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Black-throated Blue Warbler Setophaga caerulescens (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : ne

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S. c. caerulescens (Gmelin, JF, 1789) s and se Canada, ne USA

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S. c. cairnsi (Coues, 1897) ec USA

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Palm Warbler Setophaga palmarum (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : n

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S. p. palmarum (Gmelin, JF, 1789) c and sc Canada

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S. p. hypochrysea (Ridgway, 1876) se Canada and ne USA

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Olive-capped Warbler Setophaga pityophila (Gundlach, 1855) NA : Cuba, Bahamas

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Pine Warbler Setophaga pinus (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : e

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S. p. pinus (Linnaeus, 1766) se Canada and e USA

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S. p. florida (Maynard, 1906) s Florida

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S. p. achrustera (Bangs, 1900) Bahamas

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S. p. chrysoleuca (Griscom, 1923) Hispaniola

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Myrtle Warbler Setophaga coronata (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : c,e USA and Canada TAX Brelsford and Irwin (2009) demonstrate lack of free interbreeding betw Audubon's and Myrtle Warblers in the narrow and stable hybrid zone; confirm validity of original split.

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Audubon's Warbler Setophaga auduboni (Townsend, JK, 1837) NA, MA : n,w and nc Mexico AS Milá et al 2007a, Brelsford and Irwin 2009, Brelsford et al 2011 (hybrid origin)

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S. a. auduboni (Townsend, JK, 1837) n,w

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S. a. nigrifrons (Brewster, 1889) nc Mexico AL Broad clines of genetic markers suggest that nigrifrons is conspecific with auduboni (Brelsford et al 2011)

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Goldman's Warbler Setophaga goldmani (Nelson, 1897) MA : w Guatemala AS Milá et al 2007a

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Yellow-throated Warbler Setophaga dominica (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : e, se USA

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S. d. albilora (Ridgway, 1873) ec USA

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S. d. dominica (Linnaeus, 1766) e and se USA

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S. d. stoddardi (Sutton, 1951) nw Florida and s Alabama (se USA)

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Bahama Warbler Setophaga flavescens (Todd, 1909) NA : Bahamas AS Bahama Warbler is split from Yellow-throated Warbler; best English name under discussion (McKay et al 2010, NACC 2010-B-8)

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Vitelline Warbler Setophaga vitellina (Cory, 1886) NA : Cayman Islands, Swan Islands

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S. v. crawfordi (Nicoll, 1904) Little Cayman I. and Cayman Brac

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S. v. vitellina (Cory, 1886) Grand Cayman I.

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S. v. nelsoni (Bangs, 1919) Swan I. (north of Honduras)

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Prairie Warbler Setophaga discolor (Vieillot, 1809) NA : e, se USA

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S. d. discolor (Vieillot, 1809) se Canada and e USA

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S. d. paludicola (Howell, AH, 1930) s Florida (extreme se USA)

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Adelaide's Warbler Setophaga adelaidae (Baird, SF, 1865) NA : Puerto Rico

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Barbuda Warbler Setophaga subita (Riley, 1904) NA : Barbuda

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St. Lucia Warbler Setophaga delicata (Ridgway, 1883) NA : St Lucia

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Grace's Warbler Setophaga graciae (Baird, SF, 1865) NA : sw USA and Mexico to Nicaragua

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S. g. graciae (Baird, SF, 1865) sw USA and nw Mexico

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S. g. yaegeri (Phillips, AR & Webster, JD, 1961) w Mexico

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S. g. remota (Griscom, 1935) s Mexico to w Nicaragua

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S. g. decora (Ridgway, 1873) Belize to ne Nicaragua

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Black-throated Grey Warbler Setophaga nigrescens (Townsend, JK, 1837) NA : w

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S. n. nigrescens (Townsend, JK, 1837) sw Canada and coastal w USA

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S. n. halseii (Giraud Jr, 1841) inland w USA, n and nw Mexico

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Townsend's Warbler Setophaga townsendi (Townsend, JK, 1837) NA : w

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Hermit Warbler Setophaga occidentalis (Townsend, JK, 1837) NA : w USA

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Golden-cheeked Warbler Setophaga chrysoparia (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1860) NA : sc Texas

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Black-throated Green Warbler Setophaga virens (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : n, ne, ec

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Myiothlypis Cabanis, 1850 PHY, TAX Assign 16 species from Basileuterus, Phaeothlypis, Euthlypis to Myiothlypis  (Lovette et al 2010)

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Citrine Warbler Myiothlypis luteoviridis (Bonaparte, 1845) SA : Venezuela to n Bolivia

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M. l. luteoviridis (Bonaparte, 1845) e Colombia, sw Venezuela and e Ecuador

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M. l. quindiana (Meyer de Schauensee, 1946) c Colombia

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M. l. richardsoni (Chapman, 1912) w Colombia

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M. l. striaticeps Cabanis, 1873 n and c Peru

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M. l. euophrys (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1876) s Peru to c Bolivia

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Santa Marta Warbler Myiothlypis basilica (Todd, 1913) SA : ne Colombia PHY, TAX Move Santa Marta Warbler from Basileuterus to Myiothlypis ( (Gutiérrez-Pinto et al 2012)

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White-striped Warbler Myiothlypis leucophrys (Pelzeln, 1868) SA : sc Brazil

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Flavescent Warbler Myiothlypis flaveola Baird, SF, 1865 SA : Colombia and Venezuela to nw Argentina

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M. f. pallidirostris (Oren, 1985) ne Colombia and n Venezuela

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M. f. flaveola Baird, SF, 1865 Amazonia

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White-rimmed Warbler Myiothlypis leucoblephara (Vieillot, 1817) SA : se

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M. l. leucoblephara (Vieillot, 1817) se Brazil to ne Argentina

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M. l. lemurum (Olson, 1975) Uruguay

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Pale-legged Warbler Myiothlypis signata (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1906) SA : Peru to nw Argentina

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M. s. signata (von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1906) sc Peru

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M. s. flavovirens (Todd, 1929) s Peru, Bolivia and n Argentina

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Black-crested Warbler Myiothlypis nigrocristata (Lafresnaye, 1840) SA : Venezuela to Peru

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Buff-rumped Warbler Myiothlypis fulvicauda (von Spix, 1825) LA : Honduras to n Bolivia PS See Lovette 2004 re species structure in the Buff-rumped Warbler complex

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M. f. leucopygia (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1873) Honduras to w Panama

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M. f. veraguensis (Sharpe, 1885) sw Costa Rica to c Panama

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M. f. semicervina (Sclater, PL, 1860) e Panama to nw Peru

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M. f. motacilla (Miller, AH, 1952) n Colombia

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M. f. fulvicauda (von Spix, 1825) w Amazonia

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M. f. significans (Zimmer, JT, 1949) se Peru and nw Bolivia

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Riverbank Warbler Myiothlypis rivularis (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1821) SA : n, se, sc

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M. r. mesoleuca (Sclater, PL, 1865) e Venezuela, the Guianas and n Brazil

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M. r. rivularis (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1821) se Brazil, e Paraguay and ne Argentina

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M. r. boliviana (Sharpe, 1885) ec Bolivia

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Two-banded Warbler Myiothlypis bivittata (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) SA : Peru to nw Argentina

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M. b. bivittata (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) s Peru to c Bolivia

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M. b. argentinae (Zimmer, JT, 1949) s Bolivia and n Argentina

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Roraiman Warbler Myiothlypis roraimae (Sharpe, 1885) SA : se Venezuela, w Guyana and n Brazil AS Restore Roraiman Warbler to species status (Hilty 2003, IOC 1.0); SACC 67, 630.

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Cuzco Warbler Myiothlypis chrysogaster (Tschudi, 1844) SA : Peru

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Choco Warbler Myiothlypis chlorophrys (von Berlepsch, 1907) SA : Colombia, Ecuador PL Myiothlypis [Basileuterus] chlorophrys is split from M. chrysogaster (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001); SACC 67 needs more publ data

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White-lored Warbler Myiothlypis conspicillata (Salvin & Godman, 1880) SA : n Colombia

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Grey-throated Warbler Myiothlypis cinereicollis (Sclater, PL, 1864) SA : Venezuela, Colombia

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M. c. pallidula (Wetmore, 1941) extreme nw of Sierra de Perijá (n Colombia)

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M. c. zuliensis (Aveledo & Perez, 1994) Sierra de Perijá (n Colombia and nw Venezuela)

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M. c. cinereicollis (Sclater, PL, 1864) c Colombia to w Venezuela

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Grey-and-gold Warbler Myiothlypis fraseri (Sclater, PL, 1884) SA : Ecuador, Peru

.

M. f. ochraceicrista (Chapman, 1921) w Ecuador

.

M. f. fraseri (Sclater, PL, 1884) sw Ecuador and nw Peru

.

Russet-crowned Warbler Myiothlypis coronata (Tschudi, 1844) SA : Venezuela to c Bolivia

.

M. c. regulus (Todd, 1929) n and w Colombia, nw Venezuela

.

M. c. elata (Todd, 1929) sw Colombia and w Ecuador

.

M. c. orientalis (Chapman, 1924) ec Ecuador

.

M. c. castaneiceps (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1877) sw Ecuador and Piura (extreme nw Peru)

.

M. c. chapmani (Todd, 1929) Cajamarca (nw Peru)

.

M. c. inaequalis (Zimmer, JT, 1949) Amazonas and San Martin (nc Peru)

.

M. c. coronata (Tschudi, 1844) c Peru to w Bolivia

.

M. c. notia (Todd, 1929) c Bolivia

.

Grey-headed Warbler Myiothlypis griseiceps (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1868) SA : n Venezuela

.

Basileuterus Cabanis, 1849

.

Fan-tailed Warbler Basileuterus lachrymosus (Bonaparte, 1850) MA : Mexico to Nicaragua PHY, TAX Assign Fan-tailed Warbler (Euthlypis lachrymosa to Basileuterus (Lovette et al 2010, AOU 2011)

.

B. l. tephrus (Ridgway, 1902) w Mexico

.

B. l. schistaceus (Dickey & van Rossem, 1926) sw Mexico

.

B. l. lachrymosus (Bonaparte, 1850) s Mexico to Nicaragua

.

Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons (Swainson, 1838) LA : Mexico, Guatemala s to Venezuela TAX Chestnut-capped Warbler Basileuterus delattrii intergrades and is considered conspecific with Rufous-capped Warbler B.rufifrons (Monroe 1968, AOU 1998)

.

B. r. caudatus Nelson, 1899 nw Mexico

.

B. r. dugesi Ridgway, 1892 w and c Mexico

.

B. r. jouyi Ridgway, 1892 ne and e Mexico

.

B. r. rufifrons (Swainson, 1838) s Mexico and c Guatemala

.

B. r. salvini Cherrie, 1891 se Mexico, Belize and n Guatemala

.

B. r. delattrii Bonaparte, 1854 s Guatemala to c Costa Rica

.

B. r. mesochrysus Sclater, PL, 1860 s Costa Rica to n Colombia and w Venezuela

.

B. r. actuosus Wetmore, 1957 Coiba I. (off s Panama)

.

Black-cheeked Warbler Basileuterus melanogenys Baird, SF, 1865 MA : Costa Rica, Panama

.

B. m. melanogenys Baird, SF, 1865 c and s Costa Rica

.

B. m. eximius Nelson, 1912 Chiriqui (w Panama)

.

B. m. bensoni Griscom, 1927 Veraguas (w Panama)

.

Pirre Warbler Basileuterus ignotus Nelson, 1912 LA : Panama, Colombia

.

Golden-browed Warbler Basileuterus belli (Giraud Jr, 1841) MA : Mexico to Honduras

.

B. b. bateli Moore, RT, 1946 w Mexico

.

B. b. belli (Giraud Jr, 1841) e Mexico

.

B. b. clarus Ridgway, 1902 sw Mexico

.

B. b. scitulus Nelson, 1900 se Mexico to w Honduras and nw El Salvador

.

B. b. subobscurus Wetmore, 1940 c Honduras

.

Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus (Deppe, 1830) LA : widespread ENG, TAX Correct: English name for Basileuterus culicivorus is Golden-crowned Warbler, not Stripe-crowned Warbler (AOU 1998);  includes White-bellied Warbler B.hypoleucus Vilaça and dos Santos 2010, SACC 493, IOC v2.11)

.

B. c. flavescens Ridgway, 1902 wc Mexico

.

B. c. brasierii (Giraud Jr, 1841) ne and ec Mexico

.

B. c. culicivorus (Deppe, 1830) sc Mexico to n Costa Rica

.

B. c. godmani von Berlepsch, 1888 c Costa Rica to w Panama

.

B. c. occultus Zimmer, JT, 1949 w Colombia

.

B. c. austerus Zimmer, JT, 1949 c Colombia

.

B. c. indignus Todd, 1916 n Colombia

.

B. c. cabanisi von Berlepsch, 1879 ne Colombia and nw Venezuela

.

B. c. olivascens Chapman, 1893 n and ne Venezuela and Trinidad

.

B. c. segrex Zimmer, JT & Phelps, 1949 s Venezuela, w Guyana and n Brazil

.

B. c. auricapilla (Swainson, 1838) c and e Brazil

.

B. c. azarae Zimmer, JT, 1949 se and s Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and n Argentina

.

B. c. viridescens Todd, 1913 e Bolivia

.

B. c. hypoleucus Bonaparte, 1850 sw Brazil and ne Paraguay

.

Black-eared Warbler Basileuterus melanotis Lawrence, 1868 MA : Costa Rica and w Panama AS, TAX Black-eared Warbler is split from Three-striped Warbler (Gutiérrez-Pinto et al 2012, Donegan 2014); Includes chitrensis Griscom, 1927 as a junior synonym. Wetmore et al, 1984, Curson, 2010 (HBW 15).

.

Tacarcuna Warbler Basileuterus tacarcunae Chapman, 1924 LA : e Panama and nw Colombia AS Tacarcuna Warbler is split from Three-striped Warbler (Gutiérrez-Pinto et al 2012, Donegan 2014)

.

Three-banded Warbler Basileuterus trifasciatus Taczanowski, 1880 SA : Ecuador, Peru

.

B. t. nitidior Chapman, 1924 sw Ecuador and Tumbes (extreme nw Peru)

.

B. t. trifasciatus Taczanowski, 1880 Piura to La Libertad (nw Peru)

.

Yungas Warbler Basileuterus punctipectus Chapman, 1924 SA : se Peru to sc Bolivia AS Yungas Warbler is split from Three-striped Warbler (Gutiérrez-Pinto et al 2012, Donegan 2014)

.

B. p. inconspicuus Zimmer, JT, 1949 se Peru and nw Bolivia

.

B. p. punctipectus Chapman, 1924 c Bolivia

.

B. p. canens Zimmer, JT, 1949 sc Bolivia

.

Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus (Tschudi, 1844) SA : Venezuela to c Peru TAX See Gutiérrez-Pinto et al 2012, Donegan 2014 analyses of this species complex

.

B. t. daedalus Bangs, 1908 w Colombia and w Ecuador

.

B. t. auricularis Sharpe, 1885 c Colombia to w Venezuela

.

B. t. meridanus Sharpe, 1885 nw Venezuela

.

B. t. bessereri Hellmayr, 1922 n Venezuela

.

B. t. pariae Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1949 ne Venezuela

.

B. t. baezae Chapman, 1924 ec Ecuador

.

B. t. tristriatus (Tschudi, 1844) s Ecuador to c Peru

.

Cardellina Bonaparte, 1850 PHY, TAX Move two species (canadensis, pusilla) from Wilsonia to Cardellina and also two species (ruber, versicolor) of Ergaticus

.

Canada Warbler Cardellina canadensis (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : n, ne, ec

.

Wilson's Warbler Cardellina pusilla (Wilson, A, 1811) NA : w, n

.

C. p. pileolata (Pallas, 1811) Alaska, wc Canada and interior w USA

.

C. p. chryseola (Ridgway, 1902) coastal sw Canada and coastal w USA

.

C. p. pusilla (Wilson, A, 1811) c and s Canada, ne USA

.

Red-faced Warbler Cardellina rubrifrons (Giraud Jr, 1841) NA, MA : sw USA and nw Mexico

.

Red Warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson, 1827) MA : Mexico

.

C. r. melanauris (Moore, RT, 1937) nw Mexico

.

C. r. rubra (Swainson, 1827) w and c Mexico

.

C. r. rowleyi (Orr & Webster, JD, 1968) s Mexico

.

Pink-headed Warbler Cardellina versicolor Salvin, 1863 MA : s Mexico, Guatemala

.

Myioborus Baird, SF, 1865

.

Painted Whitestart Myioborus pictus (Swainson, 1829) NA, MA : sw USA to Nicaragua

.

M. p. pictus (Swainson, 1829) sw USA to sc Mexico

.

M. p. guatemalae (Sharpe, 1885) s Mexico to n Nicaragua

.

Slate-throated Whitestart Myioborus miniatus (Swainson, 1827) LA : Mexico to Bolivia and Guyana

.

M. m. miniatus (Swainson, 1827) w and sw Mexico

.

M. m. molochinus Wetmore, 1942 e Mexico

.

M. m. intermedius (Hartlaub, 1852) s Mexico and e Guatemala

.

M. m. hellmayri van Rossem, 1936 s Guatemala and sw El Salvador

.

M. m. connectens Dickey & van Rossem, 1928 El Salvador and Honduras to nc Nicaragua

.

M. m. comptus Wetmore, 1944 w and c Costa Rica

.

M. m. aurantiacus (Baird, SF, 1865) e Costa Rica and w Panama

.

M. m. ballux Wetmore & Phelps, 1944 e Panama to n Ecuador and w Venezuela

.

M. m. sanctaemartae Zimmer, JT, 1949 n Colombia

.

M. m. pallidiventris (Chapman, 1899) n Venezuela

.

M. m. subsimilis Zimmer, JT, 1949 sw Ecuador and nw Peru

.

M. m. verticalis (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) s Ecuador to c Bolivia, se Venezuela, w Guyana and n Brazil

.

Brown-capped Whitestart Myioborus brunniceps (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) SA : Bolivia, n Argentina

.

Yellow-crowned Whitestart Myioborus flavivertex (Salvin, 1887) SA : ne Colombia

.

White-fronted Whitestart Myioborus albifrons (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1871) SA : w Venezuela

.

Golden-fronted Whitestart Myioborus ornatus (Boissonneau, 1840) SA : Colombia, Venezuela

.

M. o. ornatus (Boissonneau, 1840) e Colombia and w Venezuela

.

M. o. chrysops (Salvin, 1878) c Colombia to n Ecuador

.

Spectacled Whitestart Myioborus melanocephalus (Tschudi, 1844) SA : s Colombia to n Bolivia

.

M. m. ruficoronatus (Kaup, 1852) sw Colombia and Ecuador

.

M. m. griseonuchus Chapman, 1927 nw Peru

.

M. m. malaris Zimmer, JT, 1949 n Peru

.

M. m. melanocephalus (Tschudi, 1844) c Peru

.

M. m. bolivianus Chapman, 1919 s Peru and w Bolivia

.

Collared Whitestart Myioborus torquatus (Baird, SF, 1865) MA : Costa Rica, Panama

.

Paria Whitestart Myioborus pariae Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1949 SA : ne Venezuela

.

White-faced Whitestart Myioborus albifacies Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1946 SA : s Venezuela

.

Guaiquinima Whitestart Myioborus cardonai Zimmer, JT & Phelps, 1945 SA : se Venezuela

.

Tepui Whitestart Myioborus castaneocapilla (Cabanis, 1849) SA : Tepuis TAX Correct spelling of species name; castaneocapilla is a noun not subject to gender agreement (Dickinson 2003, A Peterson Zoonomen)

.

M. c. castaneocapilla (Cabanis, 1849) se Venezuela, w Guyana and n Brazil

.

M. c. duidae Chapman, 1929 sc Venezuela

.

M. c. maguirei Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1961 extreme s Venezuela

.

.

6 Family Uncertain Family Incertae Sedis 2

.

Microligea Cory, 1884 PHY Relationships of Microligea to Parulidae uncertain (Lovette et al 2010)

.

Green-tailed Warbler Microligea palustris (Cory, 1884) NA : Hispaniola

.

M. p. palustris (Cory, 1884) highlands of Hispaniola

.

M. p. vasta Wetmore & Lincoln, 1931 sw Dominican Republic

.

Teretistris Cabanis, 1855

.

Yellow-headed Warbler Teretistris fernandinae (Lembeye, 1850) NA : Cuba PHY Relationships of Teretistris to Parulidae uncertain (Lovette et al 2010)

.

Oriente Warbler Teretistris fornsi Gundlach, 1858 NA : Cuba

.

T. f. fornsi Gundlach, 1858 n Cuba

.

T. f. turquinensis Garrido, 2000 se Cuba

.

Zeledonia Ridgway, 1889 PHY Relationships of Zeledonia to Parulidae uncertain (Lovette et al 2010)

.

Wrenthrush Zeledonia coronata Ridgway, 1889 MA : Costa Rica, Panama

.

Icteria Vieillot, 1808 PHY Relationships of Icteria to Parulidae uncertain (Lovette et al 2010)

.

Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, MA : widespread

.

I. v. auricollis (Deppe, 1830) sw Canada and w USA

.

I. v. virens (Linnaeus, 1758) se Canada and e USA to ne Mexico

.

I. v. tropicalis van Rossem, 1939 nw Mexico

.

Xenoligea Bond, 1967 PHY Relationships of Xenoligea to Parulidae uncertain (Lovette et al 2010)

.

White-winged Warbler Xenoligea montana (Chapman, 1917) NA : Hispaniola

.

.

109 Oropendolas, Orioles and Blackbirds Family Icteridae PHY, TAX Icteridae classification follows Powell et al 2014

.

Xanthocephalus Bonaparte, 1850

.

Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte, 1826) NA, MA : w

.

Dolichonyx Swainson, 1827

.

Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : n, c

.

Sturnella Vieillot, 1816

.

Western Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta Audubon, 1844 NA, MA : w

.

Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, LA : se Canada to ne Brazil

.

S. m. magna (Linnaeus, 1758) se Canada, c and e USA

.

S. m. argutula Bangs, 1899 sc and se USA

.

S. m. hoopesi Stone, 1897 s Texas (sc USA) and ne Mexico

.

S. m. auropectoralis Saunders, GB, 1934 wc Mexico

.

S. m. saundersi Dickerman & Phillips, AR, 1970 se Oaxaca (s Mexico)

.

S. m. alticola Nelson, 1900 s Mexico to Costa Rica

.

S. m. mexicana Sclater, PL, 1861 se Mexico to Belize and Guatemala

.

S. m. griscomi van Tyne & Trautman, 1941 n Yucatan (se Mexico)

.

S. m. inexspectata Ridgway, 1888 Honduras and ne Nicaragua

.

S. m. subulata Griscom, 1934 Panama

.

S. m. meridionalis Sclater, PL, 1861 nc Colombia to nw Venezuela

.

S. m. paralios Bangs, 1901 n Colombia, n and c Venezuela

.

S. m. praticola Chubb, C, 1921 e Colombia, s Venezuela and Guyana

.

S. m. quinta Dickerman, 1989 Suriname, French Guiana and ne Brazil

.

S. m. hippocrepis (Wagler, 1832) Cuba

.

S. m. lilianae Oberholser, 1930 sw USA and nw Mexico PS Lillian's Meadowlark may include (magna ssp) auropectoralis (Lanyon 1995, Barker et al. 2008, HBW 16, Powell et al 2014)

.

Red-breasted Blackbird Sturnella militaris (Linnaeus, 1758) LA : Costa Rica through c SA

.

White-browed Blackbird Sturnella superciliaris (Bonaparte, 1850) SA : sc

.

Peruvian Meadowlark Sturnella bellicosa de Filippi, 1847 SA : Ecuador to n Chile

.

S. b. bellicosa de Filippi, 1847 w Ecuador and nw Peru

.

S. b. albipes (Philippi & Landbeck, 1861) sw Peru and n Chile

.

Long-tailed Meadowlark Sturnella loyca (Molina, 1782) SA : Southern Cone

.

S. l. loyca (Molina, 1782) s Chile and s Argentina

.

S. l. catamarcana (Zotta, 1937) nw Argentina

.

S. l. obscura Nores & Yzurieta, 1979 c Argentina

.

S. l. falklandica (Leverkühn, 1889) Falkland Is.

.

Pampas Meadowlark Sturnella defilippii (Bonaparte, 1850) SA : se

.

Amblycercus Cabanis, 1851

.

Yellow-billed Cacique Amblycercus holosericeus (Deppe, 1830) LA : Mexico to n Bolivia

.

A. h. holosericeus (Deppe, 1830) se Mexico to nw Colombia

.

A. h. flavirostris Chapman, 1915 w Colombia to n Peru

.

A. h. australis Chapman, 1919 n Colombia and nw Venezuela to e Peru and n Bolivia PS Chapman's Y-b Cacique (australis) exhibits deep divergence from Prevost's Y-b Cacique ( holosericeus+flavirostris) (Powell et al 2014)

.

Cassiculus Swainson, 1827

.

Mexican Cacique Cassiculus melanicterus (Bonaparte, 1825) MA : w Mexico to se Guatemala TAX, ENG Separate Mexican Cacique from Cacicus to monotypic genus Cassiculus (Fraga 2011, Powell et al 2014). Change English name to Yellow-winged Cacique?

.

Psarocolius Wagler, 1827

.

Chestnut-headed Oropendola Psarocolius wagleri (Gray, GR, 1845) LA : Mexico to Ecuador TAX Zarhynchus wagleri is now assigned to Psarocolius (SACC, AOU 1998)

.

P. w. wagleri (Gray, GR, 1845) se Mexico to ne Nicaragua

.

P. w. ridgwayi (van Rossem, 1934) s Nicaragua to sw Ecuador

.

Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons (von Spix, 1824) SA : w, n

.

P. a. salmoni (Sclater, PL, 1883) w and c Colombia

.

P. a. atrocastaneus (Cabanis, 1873) w Ecuador

.

P. a. sincipitalis (Cabanis, 1873) nc Colombia

.

P. a. neglectus (Chapman, 1914) ne Colombia and nw Venezuela

.

P. a. oleagineus (Sclater, PL, 1883) nc Venezuela

.

P. a. angustifrons (von Spix, 1824) nw Amazonia

.

P. a. alfredi (Des Murs, 1856) se Ecuador to c Bolivia

.

Dusky-green Oropendola Psarocolius atrovirens (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) SA : Peru, Bolivia

.

Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus (Pallas, 1769) SA : n, sc, also Costa Rica and Panama

.

P. d. melanterus (Todd, 1917) s Costa Rica to w Colombia

.

P. d. insularis (Dalmas, 1900) Trinidad and Tobago

.

P. d. decumanus (Pallas, 1769) n South America

.

P. d. maculosus (Chapman, 1920) e Peru and Bolivia to n Argentina

.

Green Oropendola Psarocolius viridis (Statius Müller, 1776) SA : Amazonia

.

Olive Oropendola Psarocolius bifasciatus (von Spix, 1824) SA : e, s Amazonia ENG English name  of P. bifasciatus reverts from Para Oropendola to Olive Oropendola with inclusion of  P.yuracares (SACC 2007)

.

P. b. yuracares (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) se Colombia, s Venezuela, w Amazonian Brazil and e Bolivia

.

P. b. neivae (Snethlage, E, 1925) nc Brazil south of the Amazon

.

P. b. bifasciatus (von Spix, 1824) ne Brazil south of the Amazon

.

Montezuma Oropendola Psarocolius montezuma (Lesson, 1830) MA : s Mexico to Panama

.

Black Oropendola Psarocolius guatimozinus (Bonaparte, 1853) LA : Panama, Colombia

.

Baudo Oropendola Psarocolius cassini (Richmond, 1898) SA : nw Colombia

.

Cacicus Lacépède, 1799

.

Solitary Cacique Cacicus solitarius Vieillot, 1816 SA : c Amazonia to n Argentina TAX Stet Cacicus not Procacicus (SACC 200, Powell et al 2014; cf Fraga 2005).

.

Golden-winged Cacique Cacicus chrysopterus (Vigors, 1825) SA : sc

.

Selva Cacique Cacicus koepckeae Lowery & O'Neill, 1965 SA : Peru

.

Ecuadorian Cacique Cacicus sclateri (Dubois, AJC, 1887) SA : Ecuador, Peru

.

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela (Linnaeus, 1758) LA : Panama to se SA

.

C. c. vitellinus Lawrence, 1864 c Panama to n and c Colombia PS Western group of Yellow-rumped Caciques (vitellinus and flavicrissus) possibly represents a separate species differing from single-species cela group in plumage, color and voice (Fraga 2011, SACC 624 did not pass)

.

C. c. flavicrissus (Sclater, PL, 1860) w Ecuador and nw Peru

.

C. c. cela (Linnaeus, 1758) e Colombia and Venezuela, the Guianas south to c Bolivia and s Brazil

.

Scarlet-rumped Cacique Cacicus microrhynchus (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1865) LA : Honduras to Ecuador AS Cacicus microrhynchus is split from C. uropygialis (Jaramillo & Burke 1999 ; Ridgely & Greenfield 2001; Hilty 2003); SACC 73 requested formal analysis

.

C. m. microrhynchus (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1865) e Honduras to e Panama

.

C. m. pacificus Chapman, 1915 e Panama to sw Ecuador PS See SACC 73 re possible split of "Pacific Cacique" Mitochondrial DNA suggests that pacificus is more closely related to C. u. uropygialis.

.

Subtropical Cacique Cacicus uropygialis Lafresnaye, 1843 LA : Panama to Peru

.

Northern Mountain Cacique Cacicus leucoramphus (Bonaparte, 1845) SA : Venezuela to Ecuador, n Peru AS Cacicus leucoramphus is split from C.chrysonotus (Jaramillo & Burke 1999, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Hilty 2003, cf SACC 616)

.

C. l. leucoramphus (Bonaparte, 1845) Colombia and w Venezuela to se Ecuador

.

C. l. peruvianus Zimmer, JT, 1924 n and c Peru

.

Southern Mountain Cacique Cacicus chrysonotus d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 SA : Peru, n Bolivia

.

Band-tailed Oropendola Cacicus latirostris Swainson, 1838 SA : w Amazonia TAX Move Band-tailed Oropendola from Ocyalus to Cacicus (Powell et al 2014)

.

Casqued Oropendola Cacicus oseryi Deville, 1849 SA : w Amazonia TAX Move Casqued Oropendola from Clypicterus to Cacicus (Powell et al 2014)

.

Red-rumped Cacique Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766) SA : Colombia to e Brazil and n Argentina

.

C. h. haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766) e Colombia and e Ecuador, s Venezuela, the Guianas and n Brazil

.

C. h. pachyrhynchus von Berlepsch, 1889 Amazon Basin in Brazil, e Peru and n Bolivia

.

C. h. affinis Swainson, 1834 e Paraguay, e Brazil and ne Argentina

.

Icterus Brisson, 1760

.

Scott's Oriole Icterus parisorum Bonaparte, 1838 NA, MA : sc USA, Mexico

.

Yellow-backed Oriole Icterus chrysater (Lesson, 1844) LA : s Mexico to Venezuela and Ecuador

.

I. c. chrysater (Lesson, 1844) c and s Yucatan (se Mexico) and s Mexico to n Nicaragua

.

I. c. mayensis van Rossem, 1938 n Yucatan Pen. (se Mexico)

.

I. c. giraudii Cassin, 1848 Panama to nw Venezuela, c and s Colombia and sw Ecuador

.

I. c. hondae Chapman, 1914 Magdalena Valley (nc Colombia)

.

Audubon's Oriole Icterus graduacauda Lesson, 1839 NA, MA : s Texas, Mexico

.

I. g. audubonii Giraud Jr, 1841 s Texas (sc USA) and ne Mexico

.

I. g. nayaritensis van Rossem, 1938 wc Mexico

.

I. g. dickeyae van Rossem, 1938 sw Mexico

.

I. g. graduacauda Lesson, 1839 e Mexico

.

Jamaican Oriole Icterus leucopteryx (Wagler, 1827) NA : Jamaica, Cayman Islands

.

I. l. lawrencii Cory, 1887 San Andrés I. (e of Nicaragua)

.

I. l. bairdi Cory, 1886 Grand Cayman I.

.

I. l. leucopteryx (Wagler, 1827) Jamaica

.

Orange Oriole Icterus auratus Bonaparte, 1850 MA : se Mexico

.

Altamira Oriole Icterus gularis (Wagler, 1829) NA, MA : s Texas to Honduras

.

I. g. tamaulipensis Ridgway, 1901 s Texas (sc USA) to e Mexico

.

I. g. yucatanensis von Berlepsch, 1888 se Mexico and n Belize

.

I. g. flavescens Phillips, AR, 1966 Guerrero (sw Mexico)

.

I. g. gularis (Wagler, 1829) Oaxaca (sw Mexico) to El Salvador

.

I. g. troglodytes Griscom, 1930 s Mexico to w Guatemala

.

I. g. gigas Griscom, 1930 s Guatemala and Honduras

.

Yellow Oriole Icterus nigrogularis (Hahn, 1819) SA : n

.

I. n. nigrogularis (Hahn, 1819) n Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and n Brazil

.

I. n. curasoensis Ridgway, 1884 Netherland Antilles

.

I. n. helioeides Clark, AH, 1902 Margarita I. (off n Venezuela)

.

I. n. trinitatis Hartert, 1913 Trinidad and Paria Pen. (ne Venezuela)

.

Bullock's Oriole Icterus bullockii (Swainson, 1827) NA : w

.

Streak-backed Oriole Icterus pustulatus (Wagler, 1829) MA : widespread

.

I. p. microstictus Griscom, 1934 nw Mexico

.

I. p. pustulatus (Wagler, 1829) Colima to n Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracruz (sw Mexico)

.

I. p. graysonii Cassin, 1867 Tres Marias Is. (off w Mexico) PS Tres Marias Oriole I. graysoni previously treated as species (see Navarro-Sigüenza & Peterson 2004, Cortes-Rodriguez et al. 2008). Morphologically, vocally and genetically distinct (344 control region nucleotides only).

.

I. p. formosus Lawrence, 1872 Oaxaca and Chiapas (s Mexico) to nw Guatemala

.

I. p. maximus Griscom, 1930 Rio Negro valley (nc Guatemala)

.

I. p. alticola Miller, W & Griscom, 1925 Guatemala to ne Honduras

.

I. p. pustuloides van Rossem, 1927 San Miquel Volcano (ec El Salvador)

.

I. p. sclateri Cassin, 1867 s El Salvador to Costa Rica

.

Black-backed Oriole Icterus abeillei (Lesson, 1839) MA : sc Mexico

.

Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : e

.

Yellow-tailed Oriole Icterus mesomelas (Wagler, 1829) LA : Mexico to Peru

.

I. m. mesomelas (Wagler, 1829) s Mexico to Honduras

.

I. m. salvinii Cassin, 1867 Nicaragua to w Panama

.

I. m. carrikeri Todd, 1917 e Panama to c Colombia and nw Venezuela

.

I. m. taczanowskii Ridgway, 1901 w Ecuador and nw Peru

.

Spot-breasted Oriole Icterus pectoralis (Wagler, 1829) MA : widespread

.

I. p. carolynae Dickerman, 1981 sw Mexico

.

I. p. pectoralis (Wagler, 1829) se Mexico

.

I. p. guttulatus Lafresnaye, 1844 s Mexico to Nicaragua

.

I. p. espinachi Ridgway, 1882 s Nicaragua to nw Costa Rica

.

White-edged Oriole Icterus graceannae Cassin, 1867 SA : Ecuador, Peru

.

Campo Troupial Icterus jamacaii (Gmelin, JF, 1788) SA : e Brazil SEQ Campo Troupial is basal to Venezuelan Troupial and Orange-backed Troupial (Powell et al 2014).

.

Venezuelan Troupial Icterus icterus (Linnaeus, 1766) SA : Colombia, Venezuela

.

I. i. icterus (Linnaeus, 1766) nc Venezuela

.

I. i. ridgwayi (Hartert, 1902) n Colombia, coastal n Venezuela and nearby islands

.

I. i. metae Phelps Jr & Aveledo, 1966 ne Colombia and w Venezuela

.

Orange-backed Troupial Icterus croconotus (Wagler, 1829) SA : n, w, sw Amazonia to n Argentina

.

I. c. croconotus (Wagler, 1829) w Amazonia

.

I. c. strictifrons Todd, 1924 e Bolivia and Paraguay to sc Brazil and n Argentina

.

Bar-winged Oriole Icterus maculialatus Cassin, 1848 MA : s Mexico to El Salvador

.

Black-vented Oriole Icterus wagleri Sclater, PL, 1857 MA : Mexico to Nicaragua

.

I. w. castaneopectus Brewster, 1888 nw Mexico

.

I. w. wagleri Sclater, PL, 1857 c Mexico to Nicaragua

.

Hooded Oriole Icterus cucullatus Swainson, 1827 NA, MA : sw USA, Mexico, Belize

.

I. c. nelsoni Ridgway, 1885 sw USA and nw Mexico

.

I. c. trochiloides Grinnell, 1927 c and s Baja California (nw Mexico)

.

I. c. sennetti Ridgway, 1901 s Texas (sc USA) to e Mexico

.

I. c. cucullatus Swainson, 1827 sw Texas (sc USA) to c Mexico

.

I. c. igneus Ridgway, 1885 se Mexico and Belize

.

Black-cowled Oriole Icterus prosthemelas (Strickland, 1850) MA : s Mexico to Panama

.

I. p. prosthemelas (Strickland, 1850) se Mexico to c Costa Rica

.

I. p. praecox Phillips, AR & Dickerman, 1965 se Costa Rica to w Panama

.

Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius (Linnaeus, 1766) NA, MA : se Canada to c Mexico

.

I. s. spurius (Linnaeus, 1766) s Canada and c and e USA

.

I. s. phillipsi Dickerman & Warner, 1962 c Mexico

.

Ochre Oriole Icterus fuertesi Chapman, 1911 MA : ne Mexico PL Icterus fuertesi is split from I. spurius (Baker et al. 2003; Kiere et al. 2007); AOU and BLI do not yet recognize

.

Cuban Oriole Icterus melanopsis (Wagler, 1829) NA : Cuba AS Cuban Oriole is split from Greater Antillean (Hispaniolan) Oriole (Sturge et al 2009)

.

Bahama Oriole Icterus northropi Allen, JA, 1890 NA : Bahamas AS Bahama Oriole is split from Greater Antillean (Hispaniolan) Oriole (Sturge et al 2009)

.

Martinique Oriole Icterus bonana (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : Martinique

.

Puerto Rican Oriole Icterus portoricensis Bryant, H, 1866 NA : Puerto Rico AS Puerto Rican Oriole is split from Greater Antillean (Hispaniolan) Oriole (Sturge et al 2009)

.

Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi Lawrence, 1880 NA : Montserrat

.

St. Lucia Oriole Icterus laudabilis Sclater, PL, 1871 NA : St. Lucia

.

Hispaniolan Oriole Icterus dominicensis (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : Hispaniola ENG Change English name of Greater Antillean Oriole to Hispaniolan Oriole with splits of other island species

.

Orange-crowned Oriole Icterus auricapillus Cassin, 1848 LA : Panama to Venezuela

.

Variable Oriole Icterus pyrrhopterus (Vieillot, 1819) SA : sc AS Variable Oriole is split from Epaulet Oriole (D´Horta et al 2008, SACC 418)

.

I. p. periporphyrus (Bonaparte, 1850) ec Bolivia to sc Brazil

.

I. p. pyrrhopterus (Vieillot, 1819) se Bolivia to s Brazil, Uruguay and n Argentina

.

I. p. tibialis Swainson, 1838 e Brazil

.

I. p. valenciobuenoi von Ihering, H, 1902 se Brazil

.

Epaulet Oriole Icterus cayanensis (Linnaeus, 1766) SA : n, c

.

I. c. cayanensis (Linnaeus, 1766) the Guianas south through much of s Amazonia to e Peru, n Bolivia and ne Brazil

.

I. c. chrysocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) Trinidad, se Colombia and ne Peru, s Venezuela, the Guianas and n Brazil

.

Nesopsar Sclater, PL, 1859

.

Jamaican Blackbird Nesopsar nigerrimus (Osburn, 1859) NA : Jamaica

.

Agelaius Vieillot, 1816

.

Yellow-shouldered Blackbird Agelaius xanthomus (Sclater, PL, 1862) NA : Puerto Rico

.

A. x. xanthomus (Sclater, PL, 1862) Puerto Rico

.

A. x. monensis Barnes Jr, 1945 Mona I. (w of Puerto Rico)

.

Tawny-shouldered Blackbird Agelaius humeralis (Vigors, 1827) NA : Hispaniola, Cuba

.

A. h. humeralis (Vigors, 1827) Cuba and nw Haiti

.

A. h. scopulus Garrido, 1970 Cayo Cantiles (east of Isle of Pines off sw Cuba)

.

Tricolored Blackbird Agelaius tricolor (Audubon, 1837) NA : California

.

Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus, 1766) NA, MA : widespread

.

A. p. arctolegus Oberholser, 1907 se Alaska, wc and c Canada and nc USA

.

A. p. fortis Ridgway, 1901 wc and sc USA

.

A. p. nevadensis Grinnell, 1914 inland sw Canada and nw and w USA

.

A. p. caurinus Ridgway, 1901 coastal sw Canada and nw and w USA

.

A. p. sonoriensis Ridgway, 1887 sw USA and nw Mexico

.

A. p. nyaritensis Dickey & van Rossem, 1925 w Mexico to w El Salvador

.

A. p. grinnelli Howell, AB, 1917 El Salvador to nw Costa Rica

.

A. p. phoeniceus (Linnaeus, 1766) se Canada and e USA

.

A. p. littoralis Howell, AH & van Rossem, 1928 coastal se USA from Texas to Florida

.

A. p. mearnsi Howell, AH & van Rossem, 1928 se Georgia to sc Florida (se USA)

.

A. p. floridanus Maynard, 1895 s Florida (se USA)

.

A. p. megapotamus Oberholser, 1919 s Texas (sc USA) to e Mexico

.

A. p. nelsoni Dickerman, 1965 sc Mexico

.

A. p. richmondi Nelson, 1897 se and s Mexico to n Costa Rica

.

A. p. arthuralleni Dickerman, 1974 n Guatemala

.

A. p. brevirostris Monroe, 1963 ne Honduras to se Nicaragua

.

A. p. bryanti Ridgway, 1887 nw Bahamas

.

A. p. aciculatus Mailliard, 1915 Kern County (s California in sw USA)

.

A. p. neutralis Ridgway, 1901 s California (sw USA) and nw Mexico

.

A. p. mailliardorum van Rossem, 1926 coastal c California (w USA)

.

A. p. californicus Nelson, 1897 inland c California (w USA)

.

A. p. gubernator (Wagler, 1832) c Mexico

.

Red-shouldered Blackbird Agelaius assimilis Lembeye, 1850 NA : Cuba

.

A. a. assimilis Lembeye, 1850 w Cuba

.

A. a. subniger Bangs, 1913 Isle of Pines

.

Molothrus Swainson, 1832

.

Screaming Cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris Cassin, 1866 SA : sc

.

Giant Cowbird Molothrus oryzivorus (Gmelin, JF, 1788) LA : e Mexico through n SA

.

M. o. impacifus (Peters, JL, 1929) e Mexico to w Panama

.

M. o. oryzivorus (Gmelin, JF, 1788) c Panama to Peru, Bolivia and n Argentina

.

Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA, SA : se USA though c SA

.

M. b. minimus Dalmas, 1900 s Florida (se USA), West Indies, the Guianas and n Brazil

.

M. b. cabanisii Cassin, 1866 e Costa Rica to w Colombia

.

M. b. venezuelensis Stone, 1891 e Colombia and n Venezuela

.

M. b. aequatorialis Chapman, 1915 sw Colombia and w Ecuador

.

M. b. occidentalis von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1892 sw Ecuador and w Peru

.

M. b. riparius Griscom & Greenway, 1937 e Ecuador, e Peru and w Brazil

.

M. b. bonariensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) c and e Brazil to Chile, Bolivia and Argentina

.

Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus aeneus (Wagler, 1829) NA, MA : sw USA to Panama

.

M. a. loyei Parkes & Blake, 1965 sw USA and nw Mexico

.

M. a. assimilis (Nelson, 1900) sw Mexico

.

M. a. aeneus (Wagler, 1829) s Texas (sc USA) and e Mexico to c Panama

.

Bronze-brown Cowbird Molothrus armenti Cabanis, 1851 SA : Colombia PL Molothrus armenti is split from M. aeneus (AOU 1983, Jaramillo & Burke 1999); SACC and NACC (1998) treat as subspecies, based on comments by Dugand & Eisenmann 1983).

.

Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater (Boddaert, 1783) NA, MA : s Canada to s Mexico

.

M. a. artemisiae Grinnell, 1909 interior w Canada and w USA

.

M. a. obscurus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) coastal Alaska, Canada, USA and nw Mexico

.

M. a. ater (Boddaert, 1783) se Canada, e and c USA and ne Mexico

.

Dives Cassin, 1867

.

Scrub Blackbird Dives warczewiczi (Cabanis, 1861) SA : Ecuador, Peru

.

D. w. warczewiczi (Cabanis, 1861) w Ecuador and nw Peru

.

D. w. kalinowskii von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1892 w Peru

.

Melodious Blackbird Dives dives (Deppe, 1830) MA : Mexico to Nicaragua

.

Ptiloxena Chapman, 1892

.

Cuban Blackbird Ptiloxena atroviolaceus (d'Orbigny, 1839) NA : Cuba PHY, TAX Move Cuban Blackbird from Dives to monotypic Ptiloxena (Fraga 2011, Powell et al 2014)

.

Euphagus Cassin, 1867

.

Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus (Statius Müller, 1776) NA : n

.

E. c. carolinus (Statius Müller, 1776) Alaska and n Canada to Labrador (e Canada) and ne USA

.

E. c. nigrans Burleigh & Peters, HS, 1948 se Canada

.

Brewer's Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler, 1829) NA : w, c

.

Quiscalus Vieillot, 1816

.

Common Grackle Quiscalus quiscula (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : c, e

.

Q. q. versicolor Vieillot, 1819 sc and se Canada, c USA

.

Q. q. stonei Chapman, 1935 ec USA

.

Q. q. quiscula (Linnaeus, 1758) se USA

.

Nicaraguan Grackle Quiscalus nicaraguensis Salvin & Godman, 1891 MA : Nicaragua and n Costa Rica

.

Carib Grackle Quiscalus lugubris Swainson, 1838 NA, SA : Lesser Antilles, n SA

.

Q. l. guadeloupensis Lawrence, 1879 nc Lesser Antilles

.

Q. l. inflexirostris Swainson, 1838 St. Lucia (c Lesser Antilles)

.

Q. l. luminosus Lawrence, 1878 Grenadines and Granada (s Lesser Antilles), Los Testigos (off ne Venezuela)

.

Q. l. orquillensis (Cory, 1909) Los Hermanos (off ne Venezuela)

.

Q. l. insularis Richmond, 1896 Margarita I. and Los Frailes (off ne Venezuela)

.

Q. l. lugubris Swainson, 1838 Trinidad, n Venezuela, the Guianas and ne Brazil

.

Q. l. contrusus (Peters, JL, 1925) St. Vincent (s Lesser Antilles) PS, SEQ If recognized, Barbados Grackle would include ssp contrusus and fortirostris; move it next to fortirostris and place both at end of sequence.

.

Q. l. fortirostris Lawrence, 1868 Barbados (s Lesser Antilles), introduced to Antigua, Barbuda, St. Kitts (c Lesser Antilles)

.

Greater Antillean Grackle Quiscalus niger (Boddaert, 1783) NA : Greater Antilles

.

Q. n. caribaeus (Todd, 1916) w Cuba and Isle of Pines

.

Q. n. gundlachii Cassin, 1867 c and e Cuba

.

Q. n. caymanensis Cory, 1886 Grand Cayman I.

.

Q. n. bangsi (Peters, JL, 1921) Little Cayman I.

.

Q. n. crassirostris Swainson, 1838 Jamiaca

.

Q. n. niger (Boddaert, 1783) Hispaniola

.

Q. n. brachypterus Cassin, 1867 Puerto Rico

.

Boat-tailed Grackle Quiscalus major Vieillot, 1819 NA : e, se USA

.

Q. m. torreyi (Harper, 1934) ec USA

.

Q. m. westoni (Sprunt Jr, 1934) Florida (se USA)

.

Q. m. alabamensis Stevenson, HM, 1978 coastal se USA from Mississippi to Florida

.

Q. m. major Vieillot, 1819 coastal se USA from Texas to Mississippi

.

Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus (Gmelin, JF, 1788) NA, LA : s USA through w, n SA

.

Q. m. nelsoni (Ridgway, 1901) sw USA and nw Mexico

.

Q. m. graysoni Sclater, PL, 1884 w Mexico

.

Q. m. obscurus Nelson, 1900 sw Mexico

.

Q. m. monsoni (Phillips, AR, 1950) wc USA to nc Mexico

.

Q. m. prosopidicola (Lowery, 1938) c and sc USA to ne Mexico

.

Q. m. mexicanus (Gmelin, JF, 1788) c Mexico to Nicaragua

.

Q. m. loweryi (Dickerman & Phillips, AR, 1966) Yucatan Pen. (se Mexico), Belize and nearby islands

.

Q. m. peruvianus Swainson, 1838 Costa Rica to Peru and Venezuela

.

Slender-billed Grackle Quiscalus palustris (Swainson, 1827) MA : c Mexico

.

Hypopyrrhus Bonaparte, 1850

.

Red-bellied Grackle Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster (de Tarragon, 1847) SA : Colombia

.

Lampropsar Cabanis, 1847

.

Velvet-fronted Grackle Lampropsar tanagrinus (von Spix, 1824) SA : w, sw Amazonia, Tepuis

.

L. t. guianensis Cabanis, 1849 e Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and n Brazil

.

L. t. tanagrinus (von Spix, 1824) s Colombia, e Ecuador, ne Peru and w Brazil

.

L. t. macropterus Gyldenstolpe, 1945 w Brazil

.

L. t. violaceus Hellmayr, 1906 wc Brazil

.

L. t. boliviensis Gyldenstolpe, 1941 e Bolivia

.

Gymnomystax Reichenbach, 1850

.

Oriole Blackbird Gymnomystax mexicanus (Linnaeus, 1766) SA : Amazonia

.

Macroagelaius Cassin, 1866

.

Colombian Mountain Grackle Macroagelaius subalaris (Boissonneau, 1840) SA : Colombia

.

Golden-tufted Mountain Grackle Macroagelaius imthurni (Sclater, PL, 1881) SA : Tepuis

.

Curaeus Sclater, PL, 1862

.

Austral Blackbird Curaeus curaeus (Molina, 1782) SA : Southern Cone

.

C. c. curaeus (Molina, 1782) c Chile and sw Argentina

.

C. c. recurvirostris Markham, 1971 Reisco Is. (s Chile)

.

C. c. reynoldsi (Sclater, WL, 1939) Tierra del Fuego (s Chile and s Argentina)

.

Amblyramphus Leach, 1814

.

Scarlet-headed Blackbird Amblyramphus holosericeus (Scopoli, 1786) SA : se, sc

.

Anumara Powell et al, 2014

.

Forbes's Blackbird Anumara forbesi (Sclater, PL, 1886) SA : e Brazil PHY, TAX Forbes's Blackbird (Curaeus forbesi) is assigned to a new, monotypic genus Anumara (Powell et al 2014)

.

Gnorimopsar Richmond, 1908

.

Chopi Blackbird Gnorimopsar chopi (Vieillot, 1819) SA : e, se, sc

.

G. c. sulcirostris (von Spix, 1824) ne Brazil

.

G. c. chopi (Vieillot, 1819) se Bolivia to c and se Brazil, Uruguay and ne Argentina

.

G. c. megistus (Leverkühn, 1889) se Peru to e Bolivia

.

Oreopsar Sclater, WL,1939

.

Bolivian Blackbird Oreopsar bolivianus Sclater, WL,1939 SA : Bolivia PHY, TAX Oreopsar bolivianus, not Agelaioides oreopsar (Powell et al 2014, Remsen et al Zootaxa ms)

.

Agelaioides Cassin, 1866

.

Greyish Baywing Agelaioides badius (Vieillot, 1819) SA : sc ENG Change English name of Agelaioides badius to Greyish Baywing with split of Pale Baywing

.

A. b. badius (Vieillot, 1819) e Bolivia and s Brazil to Uruguay and s Argentina

.

A. b. bolivianus (Hellmayr, 1917) c and s Bolivia

.

Pale Baywing Agelaioides fringillarius (von Spix, 1824) SA : ne Brazil AS Pale Baywing is split from [Greyish] Baywing (Jaramillo & Burke 1999, Fraga 2008, 2011(HBW), CBRO 2011)

.

Agelasticus Cabanis, 1851

.

Yellow-winged Blackbird Agelasticus thilius (Molina, 1782) SA : sw, sc

.

A. t. alticola (Todd, 1932) se Peru and w Bolivia

.

A. t. thilius (Molina, 1782) Chile

.

A. t. petersii (Laubmann, 1934) se Brazil, Uruguay and n Argentina

.

Pale-eyed Blackbird Agelasticus xanthophthalmus (Short, 1969) SA : Ecuador, Peru

.

Unicolored Blackbird Agelasticus cyanopus (Vieillot, 1819) SA : sc, e Brazil

.

A. c. xenicus (Parkes, 1966) ne Brazil

.

A. c. atroolivaceus (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1831) e Brazil

.

A. c. beniensis (Parkes, 1966) ne Bolivia

.

A. c. cyanopus (Vieillot, 1819) e Bolivia and sc Brazil to Paraguay, n Argentina and Uruguay

.

Chrysomus Swainson, 1837

.

Chestnut-capped Blackbird Chrysomus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1819) SA : ne, sc

.

C. r. frontalis (Vieillot, 1819) French Guiana and e Brazil

.

C. r. ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1819) e Bolivia and s Brazil to n Argentina and Uruguay

.

Yellow-hooded Blackbird Chrysomus icterocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) SA : n, c

.

C. i. bogotensis (Chapman, 1914) nc Colombia

.

C. i. icterocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) n Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, n and w Brazil and ne Peru

.

Xanthopsar Ridgway, 1901

.

Saffron-cowled Blackbird Xanthopsar flavus (Gmelin, JF, 1788) SA : sc

.

Pseudoleistes Sclater, PL, 1862

.

Brown-and-yellow Marshbird Pseudoleistes virescens (Vieillot, 1819) SA : se

.

Yellow-rumped Marshbird Pseudoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot, 1819) SA : se