"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Thrushes

.

#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

.

166 Thrushes Family Turdidae

.

Neocossyphus Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884

.

Red-tailed Ant Thrush Neocossyphus rufus (Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884) AF : c, e ENG Change English name of Red-tailed Rufous Thrush to Red-tailed Ant Thrush (N. Borrow, BoWA)

.

N. r. gabunensis Neumann, 1908 s Cameroon and Gabon to n DR Congo and w Uganda

.

N. r. rufus (Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884) e Kenya and e Tanzania

.

White-tailed Ant Thrush Neocossyphus poensis (Strickland, 1844) AF : w, c ENG Change English name of White-tailed Rufous Thrush to White-tailed Ant Thrush (N. Borrow, BoWA)

.

N. p. poensis (Strickland, 1844) Sierra Leone to Cameroon, Congo and Gabon, Bioko I.

.

N. p. praepectoralis Jackson, 1906 w DR Congo and w Angola to Uganda and w Kenya

.

Stizorhina Oberholser, 1899

.

Fraser's Rufous Thrush Stizorhina fraseri (Strickland, 1844) AF : c

.

S. f. fraseri (Strickland, 1844) Bioko I.

.

S. f. rubicunda (Hartlaub, 1860) se Nigeria to n DR Congo, nw Zambia and Angola

.

S. f. vulpina Reichenow, 1902 s Sudan, ne DR Congo and Uganda

.

Finsch's Rufous Thrush Stizorhina finschi (Sharpe, 1870) AF : w

.

Geokichla Müller, S, 1836 TAX 21 species of Zoothera thrushes are assigned to Geokichla (Voelker and Klicka 2008, Voelker and Outlaw 2008))

.

Slaty-backed Thrush Geokichla schistacea Meyer, AB, 1884 AU : Tanimbar Islands

.

Buru Thrush Geokichla dumasi Rothschild, 1899 AU : Buru Is. , s. Moluccas. ENG Change  English name of Geokichla [Zoothera] dumasi from Moluccan Thrush to Buru Thrush with split of G. joiceyi

.

Seram Thrush Geokichla joiceyi (Rothschild & Hartert, 1921) AU : Seram Is., s Moluccas AS Geokichla [Zoothera] joiceyi is split from g.dumasi (Collar 2004); BLI recognizes

.

Chestnut-capped Thrush Geokichla interpres (Temminck, 1828) OR : s Thailand to s Philippines

.

Enggano Thrush Geokichla leucolaema Salvadori, 1892 OR : Enggano Is, off w Sumatra AS Geokichla [Zoothera] leucolaema is split from g.interpres (Collar 2004); BLI recognizes

.

Red-backed Thrush Geokichla erythronota Sclater, PL, 1859 AU : Sulawesi

.

G. e. erythronota Sclater, PL, 1859 Sulawesi

.

G. e. kabaena (Robinson-Dean et al, 2002) Kabaena I. (off se Sulawesi) TAX Authority Citation: Robinson-Dean, Willmott, Catterall, Kelly, Whittington, Phalan, Marples & Boeadi, 2002

.

Red-and-black Thrush Geokichla mendeni (Neumann, 1939) AU : Peleng Island ENG Change English name of Geokichla [Zoothera] mendeni from inaccurate Peleng Thrush to Red-and-black Thrush recommended by Collar (2004)

.

Chestnut-backed Thrush Geokichla dohertyi Hartert, 1896 AU : Lesser Sundas

.

Pied Thrush Geokichla wardii (Blyth, 1843) OR : Himalayas to Sri Lanka

.

Ashy Thrush Geokichla cinerea Bourns & Worcester, 1894 OR : Philippines

.

Orange-sided Thrush Geokichla peronii (Vieillot, 1818) AU : Lesser Sundas

.

G. p. peronii (Vieillot, 1818) Roti and w Timor

.

G. p. audacis Hartert, 1899 e Timor and Wetar to Babar

.

Orange-headed Thrush Geokichla citrina (Latham, 1790) OR : widespread

.

G. c. citrina (Latham, 1790) Himalayas to n Burma

.

G. c. cyanota (Jardine & Selby, 1828) c and s India

.

G. c. innotata Blyth, 1846 e Burma and extreme s China to s Indochina

.

G. c. melli (Stresemann, 1923) s China

.

G. c. courtoisi (Hartert, 1919) e China

.

G. c. aurimacula (Hartert, 1910) Hainan I. (off se China), ne and c Indochina

.

G. c. andamanensis Walden, 1874 Andaman Is.

.

G. c. albogularis Blyth, 1847 Nicobar Is.

.

G. c. gibsonhilli Deignan, 1950 c and se Burma, sw Thailand

.

G. c. aurata Sharpe, 1888 n Borneo

.

G. c. rubecula Gould, 1836 Java and Bali

.

Siberian Thrush Geokichla sibirica (Pallas, 1776) EU : e

.

G. s. sibirica (Pallas, 1776) c and e Siberia to n Mongolia and ne China

.

G. s. davisoni (Hume, 1877) Sakhalin, s Kuril Is. and Japan

.

Abyssinian Ground Thrush Geokichla piaggiae (Bouvier, 1877) AF : c, e

.

G. p. piaggiae (Bouvier, 1877) Boma Hills (se Sudan) to Ethiopia, e DR Congo and n and w Kenya

.

G. p. hadii Macdonald, 1940 se Sudan

.

G. p. ruwenzorii (Prigogine, 1984) Ruwenzori Mts (w Uganda)

.

G. p. kilimensis Neumann, 1900 c and s Kenya, Mt Kilimanjaro (n Tanzania)

.

G. p. tanganjicae Sassi, 1914 e DR Congo, sw Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi

.

G. p. rowei Grant, CHB & Mackworth-Praed, 1937 Loliondo and Magaidu forests (n Tanzania)

.

Crossley's Ground Thrush Geokichla crossleyi (Sharpe, 1871) AF : c, wc

.

G. c. crossleyi (Sharpe, 1871) e Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo and w DR Congo

.

G. c. pilettei Schouteden, 1918 e DR Congo

.

Orange Ground Thrush Geokichla gurneyi (Hartlaub, 1864) AF : e, s

.

G. g. chuka van Someren, 1931 Mt. Kenya and Kikuyu escarpment (c Kenya)

.

G. g. raineyi Mearns, 1913 se Kenya

.

G. g. otomitra Reichenow, 1904 w Angola, se DR Congo to Tanzania and n Malawi

.

G. g. gurneyi (Hartlaub, 1864) e South Africa

.

G. g. disruptans (Clancey, 1955) c Malawi to ne South Africa

.

Oberländer's Ground Thrush Geokichla oberlaenderi Sassi, 1914 AF : ec

.

Black-eared Ground Thrush Geokichla camaronensis Sharpe, 1905 AF : c TAX Black-eared Ground Thrush includes Kibale Ground Thrush G.kibalensis as a little known subspecies.

.

G. c. camaronensis Sharpe, 1905 Cameroon and Gabon

.

G. c. graueri Sassi, 1914 ne DR Congo and w Uganda

.

G. c. kibalensis (Prigogine, 1978) Kibale Forest (w Uganda)

.

Grey Ground Thrush Geokichla princei (Sharpe, 1874) AF : w, c

.

G. p. princei (Sharpe, 1874) Sierra Leone and Liberia to Ghana

.

G. p. batesi Sharpe, 1905 se Nigeria and sw Cameroon to w Uganda

.

Spotted Ground Thrush Geokichla guttata (Vigors, 1831) AF : e, se

.

G. g. maxis (Nikolaus, 1982) s Sudan

.

G. g. fischeri (Hellmayr, 1901) e Kenya and e Tanzania

.

G. g. belcheri (Benson, 1950) s Malawi

.

G. g. lippensi (Prigogine & Louette, 1984) se DR Congo

.

G. g. guttata (Vigors, 1831) e South Africa

.

Spot-winged Thrush Geokichla spiloptera (Blyth, 1847) OR : Sri Lanka

.

Zoothera Vigors, 1832

.

Geomalia Zoothera heinrichi (Stresemann, 1931) AU : Sulawesi PHY, TAX Geomalia heinrichi is confirmed to be a thrush, not a babbler; reassign to Zoothera (Olsson & Alström 2013)

.

Everett's Thrush Zoothera everetti (Sharpe, 1892) OR : Borneo

.

Sunda Thrush Zoothera andromedae (Temminck, 1826) OR : Sumatra, Java, Philippines, also Lesser Sundas

.

Plain-backed Thrush Zoothera mollissima (Blyth, 1842) OR : Himalayas through Southeast Asia

.

Z. m. whiteheadi (Baker, ECS, 1913) nw Himalayas

.

Z. m. mollissima (Blyth, 1842) c and e Himalayas to s China

.

Z. m. griseiceps (Delacour, 1930) sc China and nw Vietnam

.

Long-tailed Thrush Zoothera dixoni (Seebohm, 1881) OR : Tibet to Thailand

.

White's Thrush Zoothera aurea (Holandre, 1825) EU : e

.

Z. a. aurea (Holandre, 1825) e European Russia to e Siberia and n Mongolia

.

Z. a. toratugumi (Momiyama, 1940) se Russia, Korea, Sakhalin, Kuril Is. and Japan

.

Amami Thrush Zoothera major (Ogawa, 1905) EU : Ryukyu Islands

.

Scaly Thrush Zoothera dauma (Latham, 1790) OR : Himalayas to Sumatra and Java TAX Zoothera dauma includes Z.horsfieldi (Collar 2004; Dickinson 2003); genetic studies needed to reconsider

.

Z. d. dauma (Latham, 1790) w Himalayas to sc China, n Indochina and n Thailand

.

Z. d. horsfieldi (Bonaparte, 1857) Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa

.

Z. d. iriomotensis Nishiumi & Morioka, 2009 Iriomote Jima (s Ryukyu Is.)

.

Bonin Thrush Zoothera terrestris (Kittlitz, 1830) EU : Bonin Islands (Japan)

.

Nilgiri Thrush Zoothera neilgherriensis (Blyth, 1847) OR : sw India

.

Sri Lanka Thrush Zoothera imbricata Layard, EL, 1854 OR : Sri Lanka

.

Fawn-breasted Thrush Zoothera machiki (Forbes, HO, 1884) OR : Tanimbar Islands

.

Russet-tailed Thrush Zoothera heinei (Cabanis, 1850) AU : New Guineas to Solomon Islands, ne Australia

.

Z. h. papuensis (Seebohm, 1881) wc to se New Guinea

.

Z. h. eichhorni (Rothschild & Hartert, 1924) St. Matthias Is. (Bismarck Arch.)

.

Z. h. choiseuli (Hartert, 1924) Coiseul I. (Solomon Is.)

.

Z. h. heinei (Cabanis, 1850) ne and e Australia

.

Bassian Thrush Zoothera lunulata (Latham, 1801) AU : n, ne Australia

.

Z. l. cuneata (De Vis, 1889) ne Australia

.

Z. l. lunulata (Latham, 1801) se Australia, Tasmania and the islands in the Bass Strait

.

Z. l. halmaturina (Campbell, AG, 1906) s Australia and Kangaroo I.

.

Black-backed Thrush Zoothera talaseae (Rothschild & Hartert, 1926) AU : Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands

.

Z. t. talaseae (Rothschild & Hartert, 1926) New Britain (Bismarck Arch.)

.

Z. t. atrigena Ripley & Hadden, 1982 Bougainville (n Solomons)

.

White-bellied Thrush Zoothera margaretae (Mayr, 1935) AU : Solomon Islands

.

Guadalcanal Thrush Zoothera turipavae Cain & Galbraith, ICJ, 1955 AU : Guadalcanal Is. in the Solomon Islands. AS Zoothera turipavae is split from Z. margaretae (Collar 2005, BLI 1.0) though little known

.

Long-billed Thrush Zoothera monticola Vigors, 1832 OR : Himalayas, Burma and Vietnam

.

Z. m. monticola Vigors, 1832 Himalayas to nw Burma

.

Z. m. atrata Delacour & Greenway, 1939 nw Vietnam

.

Dark-sided Thrush Zoothera marginata Blyth, 1847 OR : Himalayas to Thailand

.

Ixoreus Bonaparte, 1854

.

Varied Thrush Ixoreus naevius (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : w

.

I. n. meruloides (Swainson, 1832) s Alaska and nw Canada

.

I. n. naevius (Gmelin, JF, 1789) se Alaska and w Canada to wc USA

.

I. n. carlottae (Phillips, AR, 1991) Queen Charlotte Is. (off w Canada)

.

I. n. godfreii (Phillips, AR, 1991) interior w Canada to interior nw USA

.

Ridgwayia Stejneger, 1883

.

Aztec Thrush Ridgwayia pinicola (Sclater, PL, 1859) MA : w Mexico

.

R. p. maternalis (Phillips, AR, 1991) sw USA and nw Mexico

.

R. p. pinicola (Sclater, PL, 1859) sw Mexico

.

Cataponera Hartert, 1896

.

Sulawesi Thrush Cataponera turdoides Hartert, 1896 OR : Sulawesi

.

C. t. abditiva Riley, 1918 nc Sulawesi

.

C. t. tenebrosa Stresemann, 1938 s Sulawesi

.

C. t. turdoides Hartert, 1896 sw Sulawesi

.

C. t. heinrichi Stresemann, 1938 se Sulawesi

.

Grandala Hodgson, 1843

.

Grandala Grandala coelicolor Hodgson, 1843 OR : Himalayas to c China PHY,TAX Transfer Grandala from Muscicapidae to Turdidae, but relation to Sialia and position uncertain (Jønsson and Fjeldså 2006a, HBW)

.

Sialia Swainson, 1827

.

Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, MA : e, c NA to Nicaragua

.

S. s. sialis (Linnaeus, 1758) s and se Canada, e and c USA and ne Mexico

.

S. s. grata Bangs, 1898 s Florida (se USA)

.

S. s. bermudensis Verrill, AH, 1901 Bermuda

.

S. s. nidificans Phillips, AR, 1991 ec Mexico

.

S. s. fulva Brewster, 1885 sw USA to c Mexico

.

S. s. guatemalae Ridgway, 1882 se Mexico and Guatemala

.

S. s. meridionalis Dickey & van Rossem, 1930 El Salvador, Honduras and n Nicaragua

.

S. s. caribaea Howell, TR, 1965 e Honduras and ne Nicaragua

.

Western Bluebird Sialia mexicana Swainson, 1832 NA, MA : w NA to c Mexico

.

S. m. occidentalis Townsend, JK, 1837 sw Canada to n Baja California (nw Mexico)

.

S. m. bairdi Ridgway, 1894 interior w USA to Sonora and Chihuahua (nw Mexico)

.

S. m. jacoti Phillips, AR, 1991 sc USA and ne Mexico

.

S. m. amabilis Moore, RT, 1939 nc Mexico

.

S. m. nelsoni Phillips, AR, 1991 c Mexico

.

S. m. mexicana Swainson, 1832 sc Mexico

.

Mountain Bluebird Sialia currucoides (Bechstein, 1798) NA : w

.

Myadestes Swainson, 1838

.

Omao Myadestes obscurus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands)

.

Kamao Myadestes myadestinus (Stejneger, 1887) PO : Kauai (Hawaiian Islands)

.

Puaiohi Myadestes palmeri (Rothschild, 1893) PO : Kauai (Hawaiian Islands)

.

Olomao Myadestes lanaiensis (Wilson, SB, 1891) PO : Hawaiian Islands

.

M. l. woahensis (Bloxam, A, 1899) Oahu

.

M. l. lanaiensis (Wilson, SB, 1891) Lanai I. TAX Treatment of Myadestes woahensis as a subspecies of M. lanaiensis follows Olson, 1996. See Wakelee & Fancy, 1999

.

M. l. rutha (Bryan, 1908) Molokai I.

.

Townsend's Solitaire Myadestes townsendi (Audubon, 1838) NA, MA : w Canada to c Mexico

.

M. t. townsendi (Audubon, 1838) ec Alaska to w USA

.

M. t. calophonus Moore, RT, 1937 n and c Mexico

.

Brown-backed Solitaire Myadestes occidentalis Stejneger, 1882 MA : nw Mexico to Honduras

.

M. o. occidentalis Stejneger, 1882 nw Mexico

.

M. o. insularis Stejneger, 1882 Tres Marias I. (off w Mexico)

.

M. o. oberholseri Dickey & van Rossem, 1925 c and s Mexico to El Salvador and Honduras

.

Cuban Solitaire Myadestes elisabeth (Lembeye, 1850) NA : Cuba

.

M. e. elisabeth (Lembeye, 1850) w and e Cuba

.

M. e. retrusus Bangs & Zappey, 1905 Isle of Pines

.

Rufous-throated Solitaire Myadestes genibarbis Swainson, 1838 NA : West Indies

.

M. g. solitarius Baird, SF, 1866 Jamiaca

.

M. g. montanus Cory, 1881 Hispaniola

.

M. g. dominicanus Stejneger, 1882 Dominica

.

M. g. genibarbis Swainson, 1838 Martinique

.

M. g. sanctaeluciae Stejneger, 1882 St. Lucia

.

M. g. sibilans Lawrence, 1878 St. Vincent

.

Black-faced Solitaire Myadestes melanops Salvin, 1865 MA : Costa Rica, Panama

.

Varied Solitaire Myadestes coloratus Nelson, 1912 MA : Panama

.

Andean Solitaire Myadestes ralloides (d'Orbigny, 1840) SA : n Venezuela to w Bolivia

.

M. r. plumbeiceps Hellmayr, 1921 w Colombia and w Ecuador

.

M. r. candelae Meyer de Schauensee, 1947 nc Colombia

.

M. r. venezuelensis Sclater, PL, 1856 n and w Venezuela and e Colombia to n Peru

.

M. r. ralloides (d'Orbigny, 1840) c and s Peru, w Bolivia

.

Slate-colored Solitaire Myadestes unicolor Sclater, PL, 1857 MA : s Mexico to Honduras

.

M. u. unicolor Sclater, PL, 1857 s Mexico, Guatemala and n Honduras

.

M. u. pallens Miller, W & Griscom, 1925 e Honduras and Nicaragua

.

Cichlopsis Cabanis, 1850

.

Rufous-brown Solitaire Cichlopsis leucogenys Cabanis, 1850 SA : w, n, se

.

C. l. gularis Salvin & Godman, 1882 se Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname

.

C. l. chubbi Chapman, 1924 sw Colombia and nw Ecuador

.

C. l. peruviana Hellmayr, 1930 c Peru

.

C. l. leucogenys Cabanis, 1850 e Brazil

.

Catharus Bonaparte, 1850

.

Black-billed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus gracilirostris Salvin, 1865 MA : Costa Rica, Panama

.

C. g. gracilirostris Salvin, 1865 Costa Rica

.

C. g. accentor Bangs, 1902 Panama

.

Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus aurantiirostris (Hartlaub, 1850) LA : nw Mexico to N Colombia and c Venezuela

.

C. a. aenopennis Moore, RT, 1937 nw Mexico

.

C. a. clarus Jouy, 1894 nc Mexico

.

C. a. melpomene (Cabanis, 1850) c and s Mexico

.

C. a. bangsi Dickey & van Rossem, 1925 Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras

.

C. a. costaricensis Hellmayr, 1902 Costa Rica

.

C. a. russatus Griscom, 1924 sw Costa Rica and w Panama

.

C. a. griseiceps Salvin, 1866 wc and c Panama

.

C. a. phaeopleurus Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1876 nc Colombia

.

C. a. aurantiirostris (Hartlaub, 1850) ne Colombia and nw Venezuela

.

C. a. birchalli Seebohm, 1881 ne Venezuela and Trinidad

.

C. a. barbaritoi Aveledo & Ginés, 1952 Perijá Mts (nw Venezuela)

.

C. a. sierrae Hellmayr, 1919 Santa Marta Mts. (n Colombia)

.

C. a. inornatus Zimmer, JT, 1944 ec Colombia

.

C. a. insignis Zimmer, JT, 1944 n Colombia

.

Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus fuscater (Lafresnaye, 1845) LA : Costa Rica to n Bolivia

.

C. f. hellmayri von Berlepsch, 1902 Costa Rica and w Panama

.

C. f. mirabilis Nelson, 1912 e Panama

.

C. f. sanctaemartae Ridgway, 1904 n Colombia

.

C. f. fuscater (Lafresnaye, 1845) e Panama, Colombia to w Ecuador, w Venezuela

.

C. f. opertaneus Wetmore, 1955 w Colombia

.

C. f. caniceps Chapman, 1924 nw and c Peru

.

C. f. mentalis Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1876 se Peru and nw Bolivia

.

Russet Nightingale-Thrush Catharus occidentalis Sclater, PL, 1859 MA : Mexico

.

C. o. olivascens Nelson, 1899 nw Mexico

.

C. o. lambi Phillips, AR, 1969 w and c Mexico

.

C. o. fulvescens Nelson, 1897 sw Mexico

.

C. o. occidentalis Sclater, PL, 1859 s Mexico

.

Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush Catharus frantzii Cabanis, 1861 MA : s Mexico to Panama

.

C. f. omiltemensis Ridgway, 1905 sw Mexico

.

C. f. nelsoni Phillips, AR, 1969 sc Mexico

.

C. f. chiapensis Phillips, AR, 1969 s Mexico to w Guatemala

.

C. f. alticola Salvin & Godman, 1879 se Chiapas (s Mexico) to s Guatemala

.

C. f. juancitonis Stone, 1931 El Salvador and Honduras

.

C. f. waldroni Phillips, AR, 1969 n Nicaragua

.

C. f. frantzii Cabanis, 1861 Costa Rica

.

C. f. wetmorei Phillips, AR, 1969 w Panama

.

Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus mexicanus (Bonaparte, 1856) MA : ec Mexico to Panama

.

C. m. mexicanus (Bonaparte, 1856) ec Mexico

.

C. m. cantator Griscom, 1930 s Mexico and e Guatemala

.

C. m. yaegeri Phillips, AR, 1991 Honduras

.

C. m. carrikeri Phillips, AR, 1991 Nicaragua, Costa Rica and w Panama SSP Synonymous with C. m. fumosus considered an invalid taxon. HBW 10, p. 701

.

Spotted Nightingale-Thrush Catharus dryas (Gould, 1855) LA : s Mexico to n Argentina

.

C. d. harrisoni Phillips, AR & Rook, 1965 Oaxaca (sw Mexico)

.

C. d. ovandensis Brodkorb, 1938 Chiapas (s Mexico)

.

C. d. dryas (Gould, 1855) w Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras

.

C. d. maculatus (Sclater, PL, 1858) e Colombia and w Venezuela to w Bolivia

.

C. d. ecuadoreanus Carriker, 1935 w Ecuador

.

C. d. blakei Olrog, 1973 s Bolivia to n Argentina

.

Veery Catharus fuscescens (Stephens, 1817) NA : widespread

.

C. f. salicicola (Ridgway, 1882) sw and sc Canada, w USA SSP Includes C. f. levyi. Dickinson, 2003, HBW 10, p. 702.

.

C. f. subpallidus (Burleigh & Duvall, 1959) nw USA

.

C. f. fuscescens (Stephens, 1817) se Canada and e USA SSP Includes C. f. pulichorum. Dickinson, 2003, HBW 10, p. 702.

.

C. f. fuliginosus (Howe, 1900) extreme e Canada

.

Grey-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus (Lafresnaye, 1848) NA : n

.

C. m. minimus (Lafresnaye, 1848) ne Siberia, Alaska and Canada

.

C. m. aliciae (Baird, SF, 1858) e Canada

.

Bicknell's Thrush Catharus bicknelli (Ridgway, 1882) NA : ne

.

Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus (Nuttall, 1840) NA : widespread

.

C. u. incanus (Godfrey, 1952) c and e Alaska and w Canada

.

C. u. ustulatus (Nuttall, 1840) se Alaska to wc USA

.

C. u. phillipsi Ramos, 1991 Queen Charlotte Is. (off w Canada)

.

C. u. oedicus (Oberholser, 1899) sw USA

.

C. u. swainsoni (Tschudi, 1845) c and e Canada, n USA

.

C. u. appalachiensis Ramos, 1991 e USA

.

Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus (Pallas, 1811) NA : widespread

.

C. g. guttatus (Pallas, 1811) s Alaska and w Canada

.

C. g. nanus (Audubon, 1839) se Alaska and coastal w Canada

.

C. g. munroi Phillips, AR, 1962 wc Canada and n Montana (nc USA)

.

C. g. jewetti Phillips, AR, 1962 coastal nw USA

.

C. g. slevini (Grinnell, 1901) coastal sw USA

.

C. g. sequoiensis (Belding, 1889) mountains of sw USA

.

C. g. polionotus (Grinnell, 1918) Rocky Mts. of wc USA

.

C. g. auduboni (Baird, SF, 1864) Rocky Mts. of nw USA and sw Canada

.

C. g. faxoni (Bangs & Penard, TE, 1921) ec and e Canada, e USA SSP Includes crymophilus. Dickinson 2003, BNA Online.

.

Hylocichla Baird, SF, 1864

.

Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : e

.

Entomodestes Stejneger, 1883

.

Black Solitaire Entomodestes coracinus (von Berlepsch, 1897) SA : Colombia, Ecuador

.

White-eared Solitaire Entomodestes leucotis (Tschudi, 1844) SA : Peru, Bolivia

.

Turdus Linnaeus, 1758

.

Groundscraper Thrush Turdus litsitsirupa (Smith, A, 1836) AF : e, s PHY,TAX Groundscraper Thrush is a basal lineage of Turdus thrushes, and sister to Chinese Thrush (Turdus mupinensis) (Voelker et al 2007, Nylander et al 2008)

.

T. l. simensis (Rüppell, 1837) Eritrea and Ethjiopia

.

T. l. litsitsirupa (Smith, A, 1836) c Namibia and s Zambia to n South Africa and s Mozambique

.

T. l. pauciguttatus Clancey, 1956 s Angola and n Namibia to w Zimbabwe

.

T. l. stierlingi (Reichenow, 1900) c Angola to Tanzania

.

Yellow-legged Thrush Turdus flavipes Vieillot, 1818 SA : n, se TAX Move Yellow-legged Thrush and Pale-eyed Thrush from Platycichla to Turdus (Voelker et al 2007, SACC 247)

.

T. f. venezuelensis (Sharpe, 1900) n and e Colombia, n and w Venezuela

.

T. f. melanopleurus (Sharpe, 1900) ne Venezuela, Trinidad

.

T. f. xanthoscelus Jardine, 1847 Tobago

.

T. f. polionotus (Sharpe, 1900) s Venezuela, Guyana and n Brazil

.

T. f. flavipes Vieillot, 1818 se Brazil to e Paraguay and ne Argentina

.

Pale-eyed Thrush Turdus leucops Taczanowski, 1877 SA : Venezuela and Colombia to Bolivia

.

African Thrush Turdus pelios Bonaparte, 1850 AF : w, c

.

T. p. chiguancoides Seebohm, 1881 Senegal to n Ghana

.

T. p. saturatus (Cabanis, 1882) w Ghana to Cameroon, Congo and Gabon

.

T. p. nigrilorum Reichenow, 1892 Mt. Cameroon (sw Cameroon)

.

T. p. poensis Alexander, 1903 Bioko I.

.

T. p. pelios Bonaparte, 1850 e Cameroon to Sudan, Eritrea and e Ethiopia

.

T. p. bocagei (Cabanis, 1882) w DR Congo and w Angola

.

T. p. centralis Reichenow, 1905 e Congo and s Central African Republic to s Ethiopia, w Kenya, and nw Tanzania

.

T. p. graueri Neumann, 1908 e DR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda and w Tanzania

.

T. p. stormsi Hartlaub, 1886 se DR Congo, e Angola and n Zambia

.

Bare-eyed Thrush Turdus tephronotus Cabanis, 1878 AF : e ENG Change English name of Turdus tephronotus from "African Bare-eyed Thrush" back to "Bare-eyed Thrush" with adoption of Spectacled Thrush for Turdus nudigenis by SACC 295x

.

Kurrichane Thrush Turdus libonyana (Smith, A, 1836) AF : c, s

.

T. l. tropicalis Peters, W, 1881 Burundi and Tanzania to Mozambique

.

T. l. verreauxii Barboza du Bocage, 1869 Angola and s DR Congo to n Botswana and w Zimbabwe

.

T. l. libonyana (Smith, A, 1836) Botswana, n and ne South Africa

.

T. l. peripheris Clancey, 1952 s Mozambique and e South Africa

.

Sao Tome Thrush Turdus olivaceofuscus Hartlaub, 1852 AF : São Tomé ENG Change English name of Turdus olivaceofuscus from Gulf of Guinea Thrush to more restrictive Sao Tome Thrush with split of T.xanthorhynchus

.

Principe Thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus Salvadori, 1901 AF : Principe Is. AS Turdus xanthorhynchus is split from T.olivaceofuscus (Melo et al. 2010)

.

Olive Thrush Turdus olivaceus Linnaeus, 1766 AF : se

.

T. o. swynnertoni Bannerman, 1913 e Zimbabwe and w Mozambique

.

T. o. transvaalensis (Roberts, 1936) ne South Africa

.

T. o. culminans Clancey, 1982 e South Africa

.

T. o. olivaceus Linnaeus, 1766 sw South Africa

.

T. o. pondoensis Reichenow, 1917 se South Africa

.

Usambara Thrush Turdus roehli Reichenow, 1905 AF : Pare and Usambara Mts of n-central Tanzania

.

Abyssinian Thrush Turdus abyssinicus Gmelin, JF, 1789 AF : n Somalia to n Tanzania. AS Turdus abyssinicus is split from T.olivaceus (Bowie et al. 2005)

.

T. a. abyssinicus Gmelin, JF, 1789 Eritrea and Ethiopia to n, w and c Kenya, extreme n Tanzania, n Uganda and Sudan

.

T. a. deckeni Cabanis, 1868 n to ne Tanzania

.

T. a. oldeani Sclater, WL & Moreau, 1935 nc Tanzania

.

T. a. bambusicola Neumann, 1908 e DR Congo to sw Uganda and nw Tanzania

.

T. a. baraka (Sharpe, 1903) Virunga Park (e DR Congo) and sw Uganda

.

T. a. nyikae Reichenow, 1904 e and s Tanzania, n Malawi and ne Zimbabwe

.

T. a. milanjensis Shelley, 1893 s Malawi and nw Mozambique

.

Karoo Thrush Turdus smithi Bonaparte, 1850 AF : s

.

Somali Thrush Turdus ludoviciae (Lort Phillips, 1895) AF : n Somalia

.

Taita Thrush Turdus helleri (Mearns, 1913) AF : se Kenya

.

Yemen Thrush Turdus menachensis Ogilvie-Grant, 1913 EU : s, sw Arabian Peninsula

.

Comoros Thrush Turdus bewsheri Newton, E, 1877 AF : Comoros

.

T. b. comorensis Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, 1885 Grand Comoro

.

T. b. moheliensis Benson, 1960 Mohéli

.

T. b. bewsheri Newton, E, 1877 Anjouan

.

Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum Sclater, PL, 1863 EU : e

.

Tickell's Thrush Turdus unicolor Tickell, 1833 OR : w, c Himalayas

.

Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis Blyth, 1847 OR : ne India to n Vietnam

.

Japanese Thrush Turdus cardis Temminck, 1831 EU : e

.

White-collared Blackbird Turdus albocinctus Royle, 1840 OR : Himalayas to sc China

.

Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus Linnaeus, 1758 EU : w, sw

.

T. t. torquatus Linnaeus, 1758 w and n Europe

.

T. t. alpestris (Brehm, CL, 1831) n Spain and c Europe to Greece and w Turkey

.

T. t. amicorum Hartert, 1923 c Turkey to Turkmenistan and n Iran

.

Grey-winged Blackbird Turdus boulboul (Latham, 1790) OR : Himalayas to n Vietnam

.

Common Blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus, 1758 EU, OR : Widespread

.

T. m. merula Linnaeus, 1758 Europe (except se)

.

T. m. azorensis Hartert, 1905 Azores

.

T. m. cabrerae Hartert, 1901 Madeira and Canary Is.

.

T. m. mauritanicus Hartert, 1902 nw Africa

.

T. m. aterrimus (Madarász, 1903) se Europe, Turkey, the Caucasus and n Iran

.

T. m. syriacus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833 islands of s Greece, s Turkey to s Iran, n Iraq and Egypt

.

T. m. intermedius (Richmond, 1896) mountains of c Asia to n Afghanistan

.

T. m. sowerbyi Deignan, 1951 c China

.

T. m. mandarinus Bonaparte, 1850 e China PS Chinese Blackbird mandarinus incl intermedius, sowerbyi recognized by Rasmussen & Anderton (2005), Robson (2008); see also Collar 2005

.

Tibetan Blackbird Turdus maximus (Seebohm, 1881) OR : Himalayas from n Pakistan to se Tibet AS Turdus maximus is split from T. merula (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Collar 2005, Nylander et al 2008)

.

Indian Blackbird Turdus simillimus Jerdon, 1839 OR : India, Sri Lanka AS Turdus simillimus is split from T. merula (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Collar 2005, Nylander et al 2008)

.

T. s. nigropileus (Lafresnaye, 1840) w, c and se India

.

T. s. simillimus Jerdon, 1839 sw India

.

T. s. bourdilloni (Seebohm, 1881) s India

.

T. s. kinnisii (Blyth, 1851) Sri Lanka PS Sri Lankan Blackbird kinnisii may warrant species status (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Collar 2005)

.

Island Thrush Turdus poliocephalus Latham, 1801 OR, AU, PO : Sumatra and Philippines to Fiji Islands

.

T. p. erythropleurus Sharpe, 1887 Christmas I. (s of Java)

.

T. p. loeseri Meyer de Schauensee, 1939 n Sumatra

.

T. p. indrapurae Robinson & Kloss, 1916 sc Sumatra

.

T. p. fumidus Müller, S, 1844 w Java

.

T. p. javanicus Horsfield, 1821 c Java

.

T. p. stresemanni Bartels, 1938 ec Java

.

T. p. whiteheadi (Seebohm, 1893) e Java

.

T. p. seebohmi (Sharpe, 1888) n Borneo

.

T. p. niveiceps (Hellmayr, 1919) Taiwan

.

T. p. thomassoni (Seebohm, 1894) n Luzon (n Philippines)

.

T. p. mayonensis (Mearns, 1907) s Luzon (s Philippines)

.

T. p. mindorensis Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 Mindoro (nw Philippines)

.

T. p. nigrorum Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 Negros (sw Philippines)

.

T. p. malindangensis (Mearns, 1907) nw Mindanao (s Philippines)

.

T. p. katanglad Salomonsen, 1953 c Mindanao (s Philippines)

.

T. p. kelleri (Mearns, 1905) se Mindanao (s Philippines)

.

T. p. hygroscopus Stresemann, 1931 s Sulawesi

.

T. p. celebensis (Büttikofer, 1893) sw Sulawesi

.

T. p. schlegelii Sclater, PL, 1861 w Timor (s Lesser Sundas)

.

T. p. sterlingi Mayr, 1944 e Timor (s Lesser Sundas)

.

T. p. deningeri Stresemann, 1912 Seram (w of New Guinea)

.

T. p. versteegi Junge, 1939 w New Guinea

.

T. p. erebus Mayr & Gilliard, 1952 ec New Guinea SSP T. p. erebus Mayr & Gilliard, 1952 replaces preoccupied T. p. carbonarius Mayr & Gilliard, 1951. H&M corrigendum 5.

.

T. p. keysseri Mayr, 1931 ne New Guinea

.

T. p. papuensis (De Vis, 1890) se New Guinea

.

T. p. tolokiwae Diamond, 1989 Tolokiwa (Bismarck Arch.)

.

T. p. beehleri Ripley, 1977 New Ireland (Bismarck Arch.)

.

T. p. heinrothi Rothschild & Hartert, 1924 St. Matthias (Bismarck Arch.)

.

T. p. canescens (De Vis, 1894) Goodenough (D'Entrecasteaux Arch.)

.

T. p. bougainvillei Mayr, 1941 Bougainville (n Solomons)

.

T. p. kulambangrae Mayr, 1941 Kolombangara (c Solomons

.

T. p. sladeni Cain & Galbraith, ICJ, 1955 Guadalcanal (s Solomons)

.

T. p. rennellianus Mayr, 1931 Rennell (s Solomons)

.

T. p. vanikorensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1832 islands of n Vanuatu

.

T. p. placens Mayr, 1941 Ureparapara and Vanua Lava (Banks Islands in n Vanuatu)

.

T. p. whitneyi Mayr, 1941 Gaua I. (Banks Islands in n Vanuatu)

.

T. p. malekulae Mayr, 1941 Pentecost, Malekula and Ambrym Is. (c Vanuatu)

.

T. p. becki Mayr, 1941 Paama, Lopevi, Epi and Emae Is. (c Vanuatu)

.

T. p. efatensis Mayr, 1941 Efate and Nguna Is. (sc Vanuatu)

.

T. p. albifrons (Ramsay, EP, 1879) Erromanga I. (s Vanuatu)

.

T. p. pritzbueri Layard, EL, 1878 Tanna I. (s Vanuatu) and Lifou I. (Loyalty Is.)

.

T. p. mareensis Layard, EL & Tristram, 1879 Mare I. (Loyalty Is.)

.

T. p. xanthopus Forster, JR, 1844 New Caledonia

.

T. p. poliocephalus Latham, 1801 Norfolk I.

.

T. p. vinitinctus (Gould, 1855) Lord Howe I.

.

T. p. layardi (Seebohm, 1891) w Fiji Is.

.

T. p. ruficeps (Ramsay, EP, 1875) Kadavu I. (s Fiji)

.

T. p. vitiensis (Layard, EL, 1876) Vanua Levu (n Fiji)

.

T. p. hades Mayr, 1941 Gau I. (c Fiji(

.

T. p. tempesti Layard, EL, 1876 Taveuni I. (ne Fiji)

.

T. p. samoensis Tristram, 1879 Samoa

.

Chestnut Thrush Turdus rubrocanus Gray, JE & Gray, GR, 1847 OR : e Afghanistan to Burma

.

T. r. rubrocanus Gray, JE & Gray, GR, 1847 e Afghanistan, nw Himalayas and s Tibet

.

T. r. gouldii (Verreaux, J, 1871) e Tibet to c and sw China

.

Kessler's Thrush Turdus kessleri (Przewalski, 1876) OR : w China to se Tibet

.

Grey-sided Thrush Turdus feae (Salvadori, 1887) EU : ne China

.

Eyebrowed Thrush Turdus obscurus Gmelin, JF, 1789 EU : e

.

Pale Thrush Turdus pallidus Gmelin, JF, 1789 EU : e

.

Brown-headed Thrush Turdus chrysolaus Temminck, 1832 EU : e

.

Izu Thrush Turdus celaenops Stejneger, 1887 EU : islands s of Japan

.

Black-throated Thrush Turdus atrogularis Jarocki, 1819 EU : nc

.

Red-throated Thrush Turdus ruficollis Pallas, 1776 EU : ec

.

Naumann's Thrush Turdus naumanni Temminck, 1820 EU : e

.

Dusky Thrush Turdus eunomus Temminck, 1831 EU : e

.

Fieldfare Turdus pilaris Linnaeus, 1758 EU : c, w

.

Redwing Turdus iliacus Linnaeus, 1758 EU : c, w

.

T. i. coburni Sharpe, 1901 Iceland and Faroe Is.

.

T. i. iliacus Linnaeus, 1758 n and e Europe to c Siberia

.

Song Thrush Turdus philomelos Brehm, CL, 1831 EU : c, w

.

T. p. hebridensis Clarke, WE, 1913 Outer Hebrides, I. of Skye, w Scotland and w Ireland

.

T. p. clarkei Hartert, 1909 w Europe

.

T. p. philomelos Brehm, CL, 1831 Europe (except w), n Turkey, the Caucasus and n Iran

.

T. p. nataliae Buturlin, 1929 w and c Siberia

.

Chinese Thrush Turdus mupinensis Laubmann, 1920 EU : c China

.

Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus Linnaeus, 1758 EU : c, w, also n Africa

.

T. v. deichleri Erlanger, 1897 nw Africa, Corsica and Sardinia

.

T. v. viscivorus Linnaeus, 1758 Europe to w Siberia and n Iran

.

T. v. bonapartei Cabanis, 1860 Sc Asia to Turkmenistan and w Nepal

.

Great Thrush Turdus fuscater d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 SA : w Venezuela to w Bolivia

.

T. f. cacozelus (Bangs, 1898) Santa Marta (n Colombia)

.

T. f. clarus Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1953 Perijá Mts (ne Colombia and nw Venezuela)

.

T. f. quindio Chapman, 1925 s and w Colombia, n Ecuador

.

T. f. gigas Fraser, 1841 Andes of ne Colombia and nw Venezuela

.

T. f. gigantodes Cabanis, 1873 s Ecuador to c Peru

.

T. f. ockendeni Hellmayr, 1906 se Peru

.

T. f. fuscater d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 w Bolivia

.

Chiguanco Thrush Turdus chiguanco d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 SA : s Ecuador to w Argentina

.

T. c. chiguanco d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 coastal Peru, w Bolivia and extreme n Chile

.

T. c. conradi Salvadori & Festa, 1899 c Ecuador to c Peru

.

T. c. anthracinus Burmeister, 1858 s Bolivia, ne Chile to wc Argentina

.

Sooty Thrush Turdus nigrescens Cabanis, 1861 MA : Costa Rica, Panama

.

Black Thrush Turdus infuscatus (Lafresnaye, 1844) MA : Mexico to Honduras

.

Glossy-black Thrush Turdus serranus Tschudi, 1844 SA : Venezuela to nw Argentina

.

T. s. cumanensis (Hellmayr, 1919) ne Venezuela

.

T. s. atrosericeus (Lafresnaye, 1848) ne Colombia and n Venezuela

.

T. s. fuscobrunneus (Chapman, 1912) c and s Colombia and Ecuador

.

T. s. serranus Tschudi, 1844 Peru, w Bolivia and nw Argentina

.

Andean Slaty Thrush Turdus nigriceps Cabanis, 1874 SA : s Ecuador to n Argentina

.

Eastern Slaty Thrush Turdus subalaris (Seebohm, 1887) SA : se AS Turdus subalaris is split from T. nigriceps (Hellmayr 1934, Ridgely et al 2001); SACC needs proposal

.

Plumbeous-backed Thrush Turdus reevei Lawrence, 1869 SA : w Ecuador, nw Peru

.

Black-hooded Thrush Turdus olivater (Lafresnaye, 1848) SA : Colombia to s Guyana

.

T. o. sanctaemartae (Todd, 1913) n Colombia

.

T. o. caucae (Chapman, 1914) sw Colombia

.

T. o. olivater (Lafresnaye, 1848) e Colombia, n and w Venezuela

.

T. o. kemptoni Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1955 extreme s Venezuela

.

T. o. paraquensis Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1946 sw Venezuela

.

T. o. duidae Chapman, 1929 c Venezuela

.

T. o. roraimae Salvin & Godman, 1884 se Venezuela, w Guyana and n Brazil

.

T. o. ptaritepui Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1946 se Venezuela

.

Maranon Thrush Turdus maranonicus Taczanowski, 1880 SA : n Peru

.

Chestnut-bellied Thrush Turdus fulviventris Sclater, PL, 1858 SA : nw Venezuela to Peru

.

Rufous-bellied Thrush Turdus rufiventris Vieillot, 1818 SA : e, sc

.

T. r. juensis (Cory, 1916) ne Brazil

.

T. r. rufiventris Vieillot, 1818 e Bolivia to se Brazil and Uruguay

.

Austral Thrush Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 SA : Southern Cone

.

T. f. magellanicus King, PP, 1831 s Chile and s Argentina

.

T. f. falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 Falkland Is.

.

Pale-breasted Thrush Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 SA : n, sc

.

T. l. albiventer von Spix, 1824 n Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and ne Brazil

.

T. l. cautor Wetmore, 1946 Guajira Pen. (extreme n Colombia)

.

T. l. leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 e Peru and Bolivia to s Brazil and ne Argentina

.

Creamy-bellied Thrush Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis, 1850 SA : sc, se

.

Mountain Thrush Turdus plebejus Cabanis, 1861 MA : se Mexico to Panama

.

T. p. differens (Nelson, 1901) se Mexico and Guatemala

.

T. p. rafaelensis Miller, W & Griscom, 1925 Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and nw Costa Rica

.

T. p. plebejus Cabanis, 1861 Costa Rica and w Panama

.

Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis Sclater, PL, 1858 SA : n, w Amazonia

.

T. i. goodfellowi Hartert & Hellmayr, 1901 w Andes of Colombia

.

T. i. ignobilis Sclater, PL, 1858 e and c Andes of Colombia

.

T. i. debilis Hellmayr, 1902 e Colombia, w Venezuela and w Amazonia

.

T. i. murinus Salvin, 1885 Foothills of s Venezuela and Guyana

.

T. i. arthuri (Chubb, C, 1914) Lowlands of se Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname

.

Lawrence's Thrush Turdus lawrencii Coues, 1880 SA : w Amazonia

.

Cocoa Thrush Turdus fumigatus Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823 SA : s Lesser Antilles, n Amazonia

.

T. f. aquilonalis (Cherrie, 1909) ne Colombia, n Venezuela and Trinidad

.

T. f. orinocensis Zimmer, JT & Phelps, 1955 e Colombia and w Venezuela

.

T. f. fumigatus Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823 the Guianas, n and e Brazil

.

T. f. bondi Deignan, 1951 St. Vincent (s Lesser Antilles)

.

T. f. personus (Barbour, 1911) Grenada (s Lesser Antilles)

.

Pale-vented Thrush Turdus obsoletus Lawrence, 1862 LA : Costa Rica to Ecuador

.

T. o. obsoletus Lawrence, 1862 Costa Rica to nw Colombia

.

T. o. parambanus Hartert, 1920 w Colombia and w Ecuador

.

T. o. colombianus Hartert & Hellmayr, 1901 c Colombia

.

Hauxwell's Thrush Turdus hauxwelli Lawrence, 1869 SA : w Amazonia

.

Unicolored Thrush Turdus haplochrous Todd, 1931 SA : Bolivia

.

Clay-colored Thrush Turdus grayi Bonaparte, 1838 LA : Mexico to Colombia

.

T. g. tamaulipensis (Nelson, 1897) s Texas (s USA), ne and e Mexico

.

T. g. microrhynchus Lowery & Newman, RJ, 1949 c Mexico

.

T. g. lanyoni Dickerman, 1981 s Mexico, n Guatemala and s Belize

.

T. g. yucatanensis Phillips, AR, 1991 se Mexico and n Belize

.

T. g. linnaei Phillips, AR, 1966 Pacific s Mexico

.

T. g. grayi Bonaparte, 1838 extreme s Mexico and w Guatemala

.

T. g. megas Miller, W & Griscom, 1925 w Guatemala to Nicaragua

.

T. g. casius (Bonaparte, 1855) Costa Rica to nw Colombia

.

Spectacled Thrush Turdus nudigenis Lafresnaye, 1848 NA, SA : Lesser Antilles, n Amazonia ENG Change English name of Turdus nudigenis from "American Bare-eyed Thrush" to "Spectacled Thrush" (SACC 295x)

.

T. n. nudigenis Lafresnaye, 1848 Lesser Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas

.

T. n. extimus Todd, 1931 n Brazil

.

Varzea Thrush Turdus sanchezorum O'Neill, Lane & Naka, 2011 SA : w Amazonia NEW Varzea Thrush Turdus sanchezorum is split from Spectacled Thrush T.nudigenis (O'Niell et al 2011)

.

Ecuadorian Thrush Turdus maculirostris von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884 SA : w Ecuador, nw Peru AS Turdus maculirostris is split from T.nudigenis (Ridgely & Tudor 1989, Voelker et al. 2007, Nylander 2008; SACC 385)

.

White-eyed Thrush Turdus jamaicensis Gmelin, JF, 1789 NA : Jamaica

.

White-throated Thrush Turdus assimilis Cabanis, 1850 MA : widespread

.

T. a. calliphthongus Moore, RT, 1937 nw Mexico

.

T. a. lygrus Oberholser, 1921 c and s Mexico

.

T. a. suttoni Phillips, AR, 1991 e Mexico

.

T. a. assimilis Cabanis, 1850 c Mexico

.

T. a. leucauchen Sclater, PL, 1859 Atlantic slope of s Mexico to Costa Rica

.

T. a. hondurensis Phillips, AR, 1991 c Honduras

.

T. a. benti Phillips, AR, 1991 sw El Salvador

.

T. a. rubicundus (Dearborn, 1907) s Mexico, w Guatemala and El Salvador

.

T. a. atrotinctus Miller, W & Griscom, 1925 e Honduras and n Nicaragua

.

T. a. cnephosus (Bangs, 1902) sw Costa Rica and w Panama

.

T. a. campanicola Phillips, AR, 1991 c Panama

.

T. a. croizati Phillips, AR, 1991 Azuero Pen. (sc Panama)

.

T. a. coibensis Eisenmann, 1950 Coiba I. (off s Panama)

.

Dagua Thrush Turdus daguae von Berlepsch, 1897 LA : Panama to nw Ecuador AS Turdus daguae is split from T. assimilis (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001); SACC needs proposal

.

White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818 SA : Colombia to e Brazil and n Argentina

.

T. a. phaeopygoides Seebohm, 1881 ne Colombia, n Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago

.

T. a. phaeopygus Cabanis, 1849 e Colombia to the Guianas and n Brazil

.

T. a. spodiolaemus von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 e Ecuador and w Brazil to n Bolivia

.

T. a. contemptus Hellmayr, 1902 s Bolivia

.

T. a. crotopezus Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823 e Brazil

.

T. a. albicollis Vieillot, 1818 se Brazil and n Uruguay

.

T. a. paraguayensis (Chubb, C, 1910) sw Brazil, Paraguay and n Argentina

.

Rufous-backed Thrush Turdus rufopalliatus Lafresnaye, 1840 MA : Mexico ENG Change English name of Turdus rufopalliatus from Rufous-backed Robin to Rufous-backed Thrush to align with other New World Turdus, except one.

.

T. r. rufopalliatus Lafresnaye, 1840 w Mexico

.

T. r. interior Phillips, AR, 1991 sc Mexico

.

T. r. graysoni (Ridgway, 1882) Tres Marías Is (off w Mexico)

.

Rufous-collared Thrush Turdus rufitorques Hartlaub, 1844 MA : s Mexico to Honduras

.

American Robin Turdus migratorius Linnaeus, 1766 NA, MA : Alaska and Canada to Guatemala

.

T. m. nigrideus Aldrich & Nutt, 1939 e Canada

.

T. m. migratorius Linnaeus, 1766 Alaska (except se), Canada (except e and w) and c and ne USA

.

T. m. achrusterus (Batchelder, 1900) se USA

.

T. m. caurinus (Grinnell, 1909) se Alaska and coastal w Canada

.

T. m. propinquus Ridgway, 1877 interior sw Canada and interior w USA to c Mexico

.

T. m. phillipsi Bangs, 1915 sw Mexico

.

T. m. confinis Baird, SF, 1864 s Baja California (nw Mexico)

.

La Selle Thrush Turdus swalesi (Wetmore, 1927) NA : Hispaniola

.

T. s. dodae Graves, GR & Olson, 1986 c Dominican Republic

.

T. s. swalesi (Wetmore, 1927) s Haiti and sw Dominican Republic

.

White-chinned Thrush Turdus aurantius Gmelin, JF, 1789 NA : Jamaica

.

Grand Cayman Thrush Turdus ravidus (Cory, 1886) NA : Grand Cayman Island

.

Red-legged Thrush Turdus plumbeus Linnaeus, 1758 NA : West Indies

.

T. p. plumbeus Linnaeus, 1758 n Bahama Is.

.

T. p. schistaceus (Baird, SF, 1864) e Cuba

.

T. p. rubripes Temminck, 1826 c and w Cuba, I. of Pines

.

T. p. coryi (Sharpe, 1902) Cayman Is.

.

T. p. ardosiaceus Vieillot, 1822 Hispaniola and Puerto Rico

.

T. p. albiventris (Sclater, PL, 1889) Dominica

.

Forest Thrush Turdus lherminieri Lafresnaye, 1844 NA : Lesser Antilles TAX Cichlherminia (Forest Thrush) is merged into Turdus (AOU 2009)

.

T. l. dominicensis (Lawrence, 1880) Dominica

.

T. l. dorotheae (Wolters, 1980) Montserrat T. l. dorotheae (Wolters, 1980) has priority over T. l. montserrati Zuccon, 2011. Original subspecies epithet, lawrencei preoccupied by T. lawrencei. Kuziemko & Brammer, 2013.

.

T. l. lherminieri Lafresnaye, 1844 Guadeloupe

.

T. l. sanctaeluciae (Sclater, PL, 1880) St. Lucia

.

Tristan Thrush Turdus eremita (Gould, 1855) AO : Tristan da Cunha group PHY,TAX Formerly Nesocichla, the Tristan Thrush is nested within Turdus (Klicka et al 2005, Voelker et al 2007, Nylander et al 2008)

.

T. e. eremita (Gould, 1855) Tristan da Cunha I.

.

T. e. gordoni (Stenhouse, 1924) Inaccessible I.

.

T. e. procax (Elliott, HFI, 1954) Nightingale I.

.

Cochoa Hodgson, 1836

.

Purple Cochoa Cochoa purpurea Hodgson, 1836 OR : Himalayas to n Vietnam and n Thailand

.

Green Cochoa Cochoa viridis Hodgson, 1836 OR : Himalayas to Vietnam

.

Sumatran Cochoa Cochoa beccarii Salvadori, 1879 OR : Sumatra

.

Javan Cochoa Cochoa azurea (Temminck, 1824) OR : Java

.

Chlamydochaera Sharpe, 1887

.

Fruithunter Chlamydochaera jefferyi Sharpe, 1887 OR : Borneo