"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Swallows

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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88 Swallows, Martins Family Hirundinidae

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Pseudochelidon Hartlaub, 1861

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African River Martin Pseudochelidon eurystomina Hartlaub, 1861 AF : Congo region

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White-eyed River Martin Pseudochelidon sirintarae Thonglongya, 1968 OR : Southeast Asia

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Psalidoprocne Cabanis, 1850

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Square-tailed Saw-wing Psalidoprocne nitens (Cassin, 1857) AF : c, w

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P. n. nitens (Cassin, 1857) Guinea to c DR Congo and nw Angola

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P. n. centralis Neumann, 1904 ne DR Congo

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Mountain Saw-wing Psalidoprocne fuliginosa Shelley, 1887 AF : w Cameroon, Bioko

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White-headed Saw-wing Psalidoprocne albiceps Sclater, PL, 1864 AF : e, c

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P. a. albiceps Sclater, PL, 1864 se Sudan and Uganda to n Zambia and n Malawi

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P. a. suffusa Ripley, 1960 n Angola

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Black Saw-wing Psalidoprocne pristoptera (Rüppell, 1840) AF : widespread PS Black Saw-wing complex comprises multiple species that await comprehensive revision

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P. p. pristoptera (Rüppell, 1840) Eritrea and n Ethiopia

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P. p. blanfordi Blundell & Lovat, 1899 wc Ethiopia

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P. p. antinorii Salvadori, 1884 c and s Ethiopia

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P. p. oleaginea Neumann, 1904 se Sudan and sw Ethiopia

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P. p. mangbettorum Chapin, 1923 s Sudan and ne DR Congo

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P. p. chalybea Reichenow, 1892 n and c Cameroon to w Sudan and n and c DR Congo

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P. p. petiti Sharpe & Bouvier, 1876 e Nigeria to nw Angola

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P. p. ruwenzori Chapin, 1932 e DR Congo

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P. p. orientalis Reichenow, 1889 e Zambia and s Tanzania to e Zimbabwe and c Mozambique

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P. p. reichenowi Neumann, 1904 Angola, s DR Congo and Zambia

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P. p. massaica Neumann, 1904 Kenya, n and c Tanzania

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P. p. holomelas (Sundevall, 1850) s Zimbabwe and s Mozambique to e and s South Africa

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Fanti Saw-wing Psalidoprocne obscura (Hartlaub, 1855) AF : w

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Pseudhirundo Roberts, 1922

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Grey-rumped Swallow Pseudhirundo griseopyga (Sundevall, 1850) AF : widespread

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P. g. melbina (Verreaux, J & Verreaux, E, 1851) Gambia and Senegal to nw Angola

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P. g. griseopyga (Sundevall, 1850) Nigeria to Ethiopia and w Kenya south to South Africa

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Cheramoeca Cabanis, 1850

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White-backed Swallow Cheramoeca leucosterna (Gould, 1841) AU : Australia

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Phedina Bonaparte, 1855

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Mascarene Martin Phedina borbonica (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : Madagascar region

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P. b. madagascariensis Hartlaub, 1860 Madagascar

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P. b. borbonica (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Mauritius and Reunion

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Brazza's Martin Phedina brazzae Oustalet, 1886 AF : wc

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Riparia Forster, T, 1817

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Brown-throated Martin Riparia paludicola (Vieillot, 1817) AF : Widespread ENG English name changed from Plain Martin to Brown-throated Martin with split of R. chinensis; Plain Martin reserved for superspecies

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R. p. mauritanica (Meade-Waldo, 1901) w Morocco

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R. p. minor (Cabanis, 1850) Senegal and Gambia to n Ethiopia

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R. p. schoensis Reichenow, 1920 c Ethiopia

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R. p. newtoni Bannerman, 1937 ne Nigeria and w Cameroon

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R. p. ducis Reichenow, 1908 e DR Congo, Uganda, Kenya and n and c Tanzania

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R. p. paludicola (Vieillot, 1817) Angola to s Tanzania and south to South Africa

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R. p. cowani (Sharpe, 1882) Madagascar

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Grey-throated Martin Riparia chinensis (Gray, JE, 1830) OR : c, e, se Asia AS Riparia chinensis is split from R. paludicola (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005).

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R. c. chinensis (Gray, JE, 1830) Tajikistan and n Afghanistan to s China, Indochina and Taiwan

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R. c. tantilla Riley, 1935 Luzon (n Philippines)

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Congo Martin Riparia congica (Reichenow, 1888) AF : Congo region

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Sand Martin Riparia riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) Worldwide : widespread

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R. r. riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) North America, Europe to c Asia

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R. r. innominata Zarudny, 1916 se Kazakhstan

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R. r. taczanowskii Stegmann, 1925 s Siberia and c Mongolia to e Siberia

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R. r. ijimae (Lönnberg, 1908) Sakhalin I. Kuril Is. and Japan

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R. r. shelleyi (Sharpe, 1885) Egypt

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R. r. eilata Shirihai & Colston, 1992 sw Asia?

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Pale Martin Riparia diluta (Sharpe & Wyatt, 1893) EU : c AS BOU accepts split of Pale Martin from Sand Martin (Sangster et al 2011)

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R. d. gavrilovi Loskot, 2001 c and sw Siberia

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R. d. transbaykalica Goroshko, 1993 sc Siberia

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R. d. diluta (Sharpe & Wyatt, 1893) s and se Kazakhstan

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R. d. indica Ticehurst, 1916 Pakistan and n India

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R. d. tibetana Stegmann, 1925 sw China

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R. d. fohkienensis (La Touche, 1908) c and e China

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Banded Martin Riparia cincta (Boddaert, 1783) AF : widespread

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R. c. erlangeri Reichenow, 1905 Ethiopia

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R. c. suahelica van Someren, 1922 s Sudan and w Kenya to n Zimbabwe and w Mozambique

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R. c. parvula Amadon, 1954 n Angola, sw DR Congo and nw Zambia

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R. c. xerica Clancey & Irwin, 1966 w and s Angola, n Namibia and n Botswana

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R. c. cincta (Boddaert, 1783) se Botswana, s Zimbabwe and South Africa

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Tachycineta Cabanis, 1850

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Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot, 1808) NA : widespread

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Mangrove Swallow Tachycineta albilinea (Lawrence, 1863) MA : widespread

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Tumbes Swallow Tachycineta stolzmanni (Philippi, 1902) SA : sw Ecuador, nw Peru

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White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer (Boddaert, 1783) SA : Colombia to n Argentina

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White-rumped Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa (Vieillot, 1817) SA : c, se

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Chilean Swallow Tachycineta leucopyga (Meyen, 1834) SA : Southern Cone TAX T. leucopyga has priority over T. meyeni (Mlíkovsky & Frahnert 2009, SACC needs proposal)

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Golden Swallow Tachycineta euchrysea (Gosse, 1847) NA : Hispaniola, Jamaica

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T. e. euchrysea (Gosse, 1847) Jamaica

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T. e. sclateri (Cory, 1884) Hispaniola

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Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta thalassina (Swainson, 1827) NA, MA : w USA, w Canada

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T. t. thalassina (Swainson, 1827) c Alaska, w Canada, w USA and nw Mexico

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T. t. brachyptera Brewster, 1902 c and s Baja California and w Sonora (nw Mexico)

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Bahama Swallow Tachycineta cyaneoviridis (Bryant, H, 1859) NA : Bahamas, Cuba

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Progne Boie, F, 1826

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Purple Martin Progne subis (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, MA : widespread

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P. s. subis (Linnaeus, 1758) s Canada, e USA and e Mexico

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P. s. hesperia Brewster, 1889 sw USA and nw Mexico

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P. s. arboricola Behle, 1968 w USA and n Mexico

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Cuban Martin Progne cryptoleuca Baird, SF, 1865 NA : Cuba

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Caribbean Martin Progne dominicensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : Caribbean islands

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Sinaloa Martin Progne sinaloae Nelson, 1898 MA : w Mexico

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Grey-breasted Martin Progne chalybea (Gmelin, JF, 1789) LA : widespread

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P. c. chalybea (Gmelin, JF, 1789) e Mexico through n South America

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P. c. warneri Phillips, AR, 1986 w Mexico

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P. c. macrorhamphus Brooke, 1974 c and sc South America

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Galapagos Martin Progne modesta Gould, 1838 SA : Galápagos Islands

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Peruvian Martin Progne murphyi Chapman, 1925 SA : w Peru, n Chile

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Southern Martin Progne elegans Baird, SF, 1865 SA : widespread

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Brown-chested Martin Progne tapera (Linnaeus, 1766) SA : widespread, also Panama

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P. t. tapera (Linnaeus, 1766) Colombia through Amazonia to ne Brazil, also sw Ecuador and nw Peru

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P. t. fusca (Vieillot, 1817) e Bolivia to e Brazil and c Argentina

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Notiochelidon Baird, SF, 1865

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Blue-and-white Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca (Vieillot, 1817) SA : widespread, also Panama

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N. c. cyanoleuca (Vieillot, 1817) Costa Rica through n and c South America

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N. c. peruviana (Chapman, 1922) w Peru

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N. c. patagonica (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) s South America

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Brown-bellied Swallow Notiochelidon murina (Cassin, 1853) SA : w Venezuela to c Bolivia

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N. m. meridensis (Zimmer, JT & Phelps, 1947) w Venezuela

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N. m. murina (Cassin, 1853) Colombia to c Peru

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N. m. cyanodorsalis (Carriker, 1935) s Peru to c Bolivia

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Pale-footed Swallow Notiochelidon flavipes (Chapman, 1922) SA : w Venezuela to c Bolivia

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Black-capped Swallow Notiochelidon pileata (Gould, 1858) MA : s Mexico to w El Salvador

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Haplochelidon Todd, 1929

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Andean Swallow Haplochelidon andecola (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) SA : c Peru to nw Argentina

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H. a. oroyae (Chapman, 1924) c Peru

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H. a. andecola (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) s Peru to n Chile, s Bolivia and nw Argentina

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Atticora Boie, F, 1844

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White-banded Swallow Atticora fasciata (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : Amazonia

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Black-collared Swallow Atticora melanoleuca (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820) SA : se Amazonia

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Neochelidon Sclater, PL, 1862

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White-thighed Swallow Neochelidon tibialis (Cassin, 1853) LA : Panama to w Ecuador, w Amazonia

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N. t. minima Chapman, 1924 e Panama to w Ecuador

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N. t. griseiventris Chapman, 1924 w Amazonia

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N. t. tibialis (Cassin, 1853) se Brazil

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Stelgidopteryx Baird, SF, 1858

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Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Audubon, 1838) NA, MA : widespread

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S. s. serripennis (Audubon, 1838) se Alaska, s Canada to wc, sc and se USA

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S. s. psammochrous Griscom, 1929 sw USA to sw Mexico

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S. s. fulvipennis (Sclater, PL, 1860) c Mexico to Costa Rica

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S. s. ridgwayi Nelson, 1901 n Yucatan Pen. (se Mexico) PS Navarro-Sigüenza & Peterson 2004, Babin 2005. Larger, darker w whitish supraloral spots and black undertail coverts, forked tail; sympatric w Northern Rough-wings, different (cliff) nest sites. Await documentation

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S. s. stuarti Brodkorb, 1942 Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas (se Mexico) to e Guatemala

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S. s. burleighi Phillips, AR, 1986 s Yucatan Pen. (se Mexico) and Belize

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Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) LA : Costa Rica to se SA

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S. r. decolor Griscom, 1929 w Costa Rica and w Panama

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S. r. uropygialis (Lawrence, 1863) e Honduras to e Panama through w Colombia and w Ecuador to nw Peru

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S. r. aequalis Bangs, 1901 n Colombia, w Venezuela and Trinidad

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S. r. ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) se Colombia and e Venezuela through e and c South America to n Argentina

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Alopochelidon Ridgway, 1903

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Tawny-headed Swallow Alopochelidon fucata (Temminck, 1822) SA : c, se

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Hirundo Linnaeus, 1758

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Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, 1758 Worldwide : widespread

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H. r. rustica Linnaeus, 1758 Europe, w and c Asia and n Africa

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H. r. transitiva (Hartert, 1910) Lebanon, Syria, Israel and Jodan

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H. r. savignii Stephens, 1817 Egypt

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H. r. gutturalis Scopoli, 1786 e Himalayas to Korea and Japan, e and s China and Taiwan

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H. r. tytleri Jerdon, 1864 sc Siberia

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H. r. saturata Ridgway, 1883 e Siberia

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H. r. erythrogaster Boddaert, 1783 Alaska, Canada and the USA to s Mexico

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Red-chested Swallow Hirundo lucida Hartlaub, 1858 AF : c, w, ne

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H. l. lucida Hartlaub, 1858 sw Mauritania and Senegal to Togo and Benin

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H. l. subalaris Reichenow, 1905 Congo and DR Congo

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H. l. rothschildi Neumann, 1904 Ethiopia

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Angolan Swallow Hirundo angolensis Barboza du Bocage, 1868 AF : sc, sw

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Pacific Swallow Hirundo tahitica Gmelin, JF, 1789 OR, AU : se Asia to New Guinea and Society Islands

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H. t. javanica Sparrman, 1789 s Burma to s Vietnam east to the Philippines and s to the Moluccas and the Sundas

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H. t. namiyei (Stejneger, 1887) Ryukyu Is. and Taiwan

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H. t. frontalis Quoy & Gaimard, 1832 n and w New Guinea

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H. t. albescens Schodde & Mason, 1999 s and e New Guinea

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H. t. ambiens Mayr, 1934 New Britain (Bismarck Arch.)

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H. t. subfusca Gould, 1856 New Ireland (Bismarck Arch.) through the Solomons, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu to Fiji and Tonga

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H. t. tahitica Gmelin, JF, 1789 Society Is.

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Hill Swallow Hirundo domicola Jerdon, 1841 OR : s India, Sri Lanka AS Hirundo domicola is split from H. tahitica (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005); BLI recognizes

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Welcome Swallow Hirundo neoxena Gould, 1842 AU : Australia, New Zealand

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H. n. carteri (Mathews, 1912) sw Australia

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H. n. neoxena Gould, 1842 sc and e Australia, New Zealand and islands

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White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis Strickland, 1849 AF : s, sc

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Ethiopian Swallow Hirundo aethiopica Blanford, 1869 AF : ne, c

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H. a. aethiopica Blanford, 1869 Senegal and Gambia to w Ethiopia, se Kenya and ne Tanzania

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H. a. amadoni White, CMN, 1956 e Ethiopia, Somalia and ne Kenya

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Wire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii Leach, 1818 AF, OR : widespread

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H. s. smithii Leach, 1818 subsaharan Africa

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H. s. filifera Stephens, 1826 sc and se Asia

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Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea Sundevall, 1850 AF : c, se

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White-bibbed Swallow Hirundo nigrita Gray, GR, 1845 AF : c, w

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Pied-winged Swallow Hirundo leucosoma Swainson, 1837 AF : w

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White-tailed Swallow Hirundo megaensis Benson, 1942 AF : s Ethiopia

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Black-and-rufous Swallow Hirundo nigrorufa Barboza du Bocage, 1877 AF : sc

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Pearl-breasted Swallow Hirundo dimidiata Sundevall, 1850 AF : s, sc

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H. d. marwitzi Reichenow, 1903 Angola and s DR Congo to ne South Africa and w Mozambique

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H. d. dimidiata Sundevall, 1850 Namibia and Botswana to s South Africa

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Ptyonoprogne Reichenbach, 1850

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Eurasian Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris (Scopoli, 1769) EU : sw, s

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Pale Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne obsoleta (Cabanis, 1850) EU : sc, also n Africa

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P. o. spatzi (Geyr von Schweppenburg, 1916) s Algeria, sw Libya and n Chad

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P. o. presaharica (Vaurie, 1953) s Morocco, n Mauritania and nc Algeria

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P. o. buchanani (Hartert, 1921) Niger

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P. o. obsoleta (Cabanis, 1850) Egypt to Turkey and Iran

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P. o. arabica (Reichenow, 1905) n Chad to n Sudan, sw Arabia, n Somalia and Socotra

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P. o. perpallida (Vaurie, 1951) ne Saudi Arabia and s Iraq

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P. o. pallida Hume, 1872 e Iran, s Afghanistan and Pakistan

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Rock Martin Ptyonoprogne fuligula (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1842) AF : widespread

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P. f. pusilla (Zedlitz, 1908) s Mali tp Ethiopia and Eritrea

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P. f. bansoensis (Bannerman, 1923) Sierra Leone to Nigeria and Cameroon

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P. f. rufigula (Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884) n Nigeria and Chad to Ethiopia south to n Tanzania

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P. f. pretoriae Roberts, 1922 sw Zimbabwe and s Mozambique to e South Africa

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P. f. anderssoni (Sharpe & Wyatt, 1887) sw Angola , n and c Namibia

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P. f. fuligula (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1842) s Namibia and w South Africa

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Dusky Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne concolor (Sykes, 1832) OR : India, Southeast Asia

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P. c. concolor (Sykes, 1832) India

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P. c. sintaungensis (Baker, ECS, 1933) Burma and n Thailand to s China and n Indochina

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Delichon Moore, F, 1854

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Common House Martin Delichon urbicum (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread

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D. u. urbicum (Linnaeus, 1758) w, c and n Europe to w Siberia

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D. u. meridionale (Hartert, 1910) n Africa and s Europe to sc Asia

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D. u. lagopodum (Pallas, 1811) e Asia

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Asian House Martin Delichon dasypus (Bonaparte, 1850) EU : s, e

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D. d. cashmeriense (Gould, 1858) Himalayas to sc China

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D. d. nigrimentale (Hartert, 1910) s and e China, Taiwan

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D. d. dasypus (Bonaparte, 1850) sc Siberia to ne China, Korea and Japan

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Nepal House Martin Delichon nipalense Moore, F, 1854 OR : Himalayas to nw Vietnam

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D. n. nipalense Moore, F, 1854 Himalayas to nw Burma

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D. n. cuttingi Mayr, 1941 ne Burma to nw Vietnam

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Cecropis Boie, F, 1826

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Greater Striped Swallow Cecropis cucullata (Boddaert, 1783) AF : s, sc

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Lesser Striped Swallow Cecropis abyssinica (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) AF : widespread

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C. a. puella (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845) Senegal and Gambia to n Cameroon

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C. a. maxima (Bannerman, 1923) se Nigeria to sw Central African Republic

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C. a. bannermani (Grant, CHB & Mackworth-Praed, 1942) ne Central African Republic and sw Sudan

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C. a. abyssinica (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) e Sudan to Somalia

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C. a. unitatis (Sclater, WL & Mackworth-Praed, 1918) Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to s Somalia and south to Angola, Botswana and e South Africa

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C. a. ampliformis (Clancey, 1969) s Angola and n Namibia to w Zambia and nw Zimbabwe

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Red-breasted Swallow Cecropis semirufa (Sundevall, 1850) AF : widespread

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C. s. gordoni (Jardine, 1852) Senegal and Gambia to Sudan and south to n Angola, c DR Congo and n Tanzania

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C. s. semirufa (Sundevall, 1850) s and e Angola to Malawi and ne South Africa

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Mosque Swallow Cecropis senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : widespread

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C. s. senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766) s Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia east to sw Sudan

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C. s. saturatior (Bannerman, 1923) s Ghana to s Sudan, Ethiopia, and n Kenya

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C. s. monteiri (Hartlaub, 1862) Angola and s DR Congo to s Kenya and south to ne South Afrca

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Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica (Laxmann, 1769) EU, OR, AF : widespread

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C. d. daurica (Laxmann, 1769) ne Kazakhstan and Mongolia to sc China

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C. d. japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845) se Siberia, Korea and Japan to s China

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C. d. nipalensis (Hodgson, 1837) Himalayas to n Burma

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C. d. erythropygia (Sykes, 1832) c India

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C. d. rufula (Temminck, 1835) s Europe and n Africa east to Iran, Pakistan and nw India

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C. d. melanocrissus Rüppell, 1845 Ethiopia and Eritrea

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C. d. kumboensis (Bannerman, 1923) Sierra Leone and w Cameroon

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C. d. emini (Reichenow, 1892) se Sudan, Uganda and Kenya to Malawi and n Zambia

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Sri Lanka Swallow Cecropis hyperythra (Blyth, 1849) OR : Sri Lanka AS Cecropis hyperythra is split from C. daurica (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005).

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West African Swallow Cecropis domicella (Heuglin, 1869) AF : w Africa from Senegambia to e Sudan

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Striated Swallow Cecropis striolata (Schlegel, 1844) OR : widespread

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C. s. striolata (Schlegel, 1844) Taiwan and the Philippines to the Greater and Lesser Sundas

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C. s. mayri (Hall, BP, 1953) ne Bangladesh, ne India, n Burma and s China

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C. s. stanfordi (Mayr, 1941) e Burma, n Thailand and Indochina

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C. s. vernayi (Kinnear, 1924) s Burma and w Thailand

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Rufous-bellied Swallow Cecropis badia Cassin, 1853 OR : Malay Peninsula

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Petrochelidon Cabanis, 1850

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Red-throated Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon rufigula (Barboza du Bocage, 1878) AF : sc, w

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Preuss's Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon preussi (Reichenow, 1898) AF : c, w

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Red Sea Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon perdita (Fry & Smith, DA, 1985) AF : e Sudan

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South African Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon spilodera (Sundevall, 1850) AF : s, sc

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Forest Swallow Petrochelidon fuliginosa (Chapin, 1925) AF : w

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Streak-throated Swallow Petrochelidon fluvicola (Blyth, 1855) OR : Pakistan, India

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Fairy Martin Petrochelidon ariel (Gould, 1842) AU : Australia

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Tree Martin Petrochelidon nigricans (Vieillot, 1817) AU : widespread

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P. n. timoriensis Sharpe, 1885 e Lesser Sundas

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P. n. neglecta Mathews, 1912 Australia

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P. n. nigricans (Vieillot, 1817) Tasmania

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American Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieillot, 1817) NA, MA : widespread

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P. p. pyrrhonota (Vieillot, 1817) c Alaska, c and e Canada and w to ec USA

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P. p. ganieri (Phillips, AR, 1986) sc USA

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P. p. hypopolia Oberholser, 1920 Alaska and w Canada to wc USA

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P. p. tachina Oberholser, 1903 sw USA and n Baja California (nw Mexico)

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P. p. melanogaster (Swainson, 1827) extreme se Arizona and sw New Mexico (sw USA) to w and s Mexico

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Cave Swallow Petrochelidon fulva (Vieillot, 1808) NA, MA : s USA, Caribbean, Mexico

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P. f. pallida Nelson, 1902 s USA to nc Mexico

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P. f. citata van Tyne, 1938 s Mexico

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P. f. fulva (Vieillot, 1808) Hispaniola

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P. f. cavicola Barbour & Brooks, WS, 1917 se USA and Cuba

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P. f. poeciloma (Gosse, 1847) Jamaica

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P. f. puertoricensis Garrido, Peterson, AT & Komar, 1999 Puerto Rico

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Chestnut-collared Swallow Petrochelidon rufocollaris (Peale, 1848) SA : Ecuador, Peru

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P. r. aequatorialis Chapman, 1924 sw Ecuador

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P. r. rufocollaris (Peale, 1848) w Peru