"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Ratites: tinamous to kiwis

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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ORDER TINAMIFORMES PHY Tinamous (with moas) are the outgroup to the traditional ratites (Baker et al 2010, Haddrath and Baker 2012; cf Hackett et al. 2008)

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47 Tinamous Family Tinamidae

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Tinamus Hermann, 1783

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Grey Tinamou Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815 SA : Amazonia

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T. t. larensis Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1949 c Colombia, nw Venezuela

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T. t. septentrionalis Brabourne & Chubb, C, 1913 ne Venezuela, nw Guyana

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T. t. tao Temminck, 1815 nc Brazil

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T. t. kleei (Tschudi, 1843) sc Colombia to e Bolivia and w Brazil

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Solitary Tinamou Tinamus solitarius (Vieillot, 1819) SA : se

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T. s. pernambucensis Berla, 1946 ec Brazil

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T. s. solitarius (Vieillot, 1819) e Brazil, Paraguay, ne Argentina

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Black Tinamou Tinamus osgoodi Conover, 1949 SA : sc Colombia, se Peru

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T. o. hershkovitzi Blake, 1953 sc Colombia

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T. o. osgoodi Conover, 1949 se Peru

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Great Tinamou Tinamus major (Gmelin, JF, 1789) LA : s Mexico through Amazonia

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T. m. robustus Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1868 se Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras

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T. m. percautus van Tyne, 1935 s Mexico, n Guatemala, Belize

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T. m. fuscipennis Salvadori, 1895 n Nicaragua to w Panama

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T. m. brunneiventris Aldrich, 1937 sc Panama

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T. m. castaneiceps Salvadori, 1895 sw Costa Rica, w Panama

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T. m. saturatus Griscom, 1929 e Panama, nw Colombia

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T. m. zuliensis Osgood & Conover, 1922 ne Colombia, n Venezuela

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T. m. latifrons Salvadori, 1895 sw Colombia, w Ecuador

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T. m. major (Gmelin, JF, 1789) e Venezuela to ne Brazil

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T. m. serratus (von Spix, 1825) nw Brazil

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T. m. olivascens Conover, 1937 Amazonian Brazil

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T. m. peruvianus Bonaparte, 1856 se Colombia to Bolivia and w Brazil

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White-throated Tinamou Tinamus guttatus Pelzeln, 1863 SA : Amazonia

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Nothocercus Bonaparte, 1856

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Highland Tinamou Nothocercus bonapartei (Gray, GR, 1867) LA : Costa Rica to Peru

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N. b. frantzii (Lawrence, 1868) Costa Rica, w Panama

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N. b. bonapartei (Gray, GR, 1867) nc Colombia, w Venezuela

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N. b. intercedens Salvadori, 1895 w Colombia

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N. b. discrepans Friedmann, 1947 e Colombia

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N. b. plumbeiceps Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1922 e Ecuador, n Peru

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Tawny-breasted Tinamou Nothocercus julius (Bonaparte, 1854) SA : c Colombia and w Venezuela to sc Peru

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Hooded Tinamou Nothocercus nigrocapillus (Gray, GR, 1867) SA : Peru, Bolivia

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N. n. cadwaladeri Carriker, 1933 nw Peru

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N. n. nigrocapillus (Gray, GR, 1867) c Peru to n Bolivia

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Crypturellus Brabourne & Chubb, C, 1914

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Berlepsch's Tinamou Crypturellus berlepschi (Rothschild, 1897) SA : w Colombia and nw Ecuador

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Cinereous Tinamou Crypturellus cinereus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : Amazonia

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Little Tinamou Crypturellus soui (Hermann, 1783) LA : s Mexico to e Brazil

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C. s. meserythrus (Sclater, PL, 1860) s Mexico to se Nicaragua

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C. s. modestus (Cabanis, 1869) Costa Rica, w Panama

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C. s. capnodes Wetmore, 1963 nw Panama

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C. s. poliocephalus (Aldrich, 1937) Panama (Pacific Slope)

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C. s. panamensis (Carriker, 1910) Panama

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C. s. mustelinus (Bangs, 1905) ne Colombia, nw Venezuela

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C. s. soui (Hermann, 1783) e Colombia to ne Brazil

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C. s. andrei (Brabourne & Chubb, C, 1914) Trinidad, ne Venezuela

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C. s. caucae (Chapman, 1912) nc Colombia

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C. s. harterti (Brabourne & Chubb, C, 1914) w Colombia, w Ecuador

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C. s. caquetae (Chapman, 1915) se Colombia

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C. s. nigriceps (Chapman, 1923) e Ecuador, ne Peru

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C. s. albigularis (Brabourne & Chubb, C, 1914) n and e Brazil

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C. s. inconspicuus Carriker, 1935 c Peru to e Bolivia

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Tepui Tinamou Crypturellus ptaritepui Zimmer, JT & Phelps, 1945 SA : Venezuela

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Brown Tinamou Crypturellus obsoletus (Temminck, 1815) SA : Widespread

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C. o. cerviniventris (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1873) n Venezuela

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C. o. knoxi Phelps Jr, 1976 nw Venezuela

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C. o. castaneus (Sclater, PL, 1858) e Colombia to n Peru

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C. o. ochraceiventris (Stolzmann, 1926) c Peru

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C. o. traylori Blake, 1961 se Peru

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C. o. punensis (Chubb, C, 1918) se Peru, n Bolivia

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C. o. griseiventris (Salvadori, 1895) nc Brazil

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C. o. hypochraceus (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1938) sw Brazil

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C. o. obsoletus (Temminck, 1815) s Brazil, Paraguay, ne Argentina

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Undulated Tinamou Crypturellus undulatus (Temminck, 1815) SA : Amazonia, sc

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C. u. manapiare Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1952 s Venezuela

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C. u. simplex (Salvadori, 1895) s Guyana, nc Brazil

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C. u. yapura (von Spix, 1825) w Amazonia

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C. u. adspersus (Temminck, 1815) c Brazil

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C. u. vermiculatus (Temminck, 1825) e Brazil

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C. u. undulatus (Temminck, 1815) se Peru to n Argentina

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Pale-browed Tinamou Crypturellus transfasciatus (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1878) SA : w Ecuador, nw Peru

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Brazilian Tinamou Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) SA : e Peru and nw Bolivia through s Amazonian Brazil

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Grey-legged Tinamou Crypturellus duidae Zimmer, JT, 1938 SA : ec Colombia to s Venezuela

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Red-legged Tinamou Crypturellus erythropus (Pelzeln, 1863) SA : n

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C. e. cursitans Wetmore & Phelps Jr, 1956 n Colombia, nw Venezuela

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C. e. idoneus (Todd, 1919) ne Colombia, nw Venezuela

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C. e. columbianus (Salvadori, 1895) nc Colombia

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C. e. saltuarius Wetmore, 1950 Magdalena Prov. (nc Colombia)

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C. e. spencei (Brabourne & Chubb, C, 1914) n Venezuela

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C. e. margaritae Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1948 Margarita I. (off Venezuela)

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C. e. erythropus (Pelzeln, 1863) e Venezuela to ne Brazil

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Yellow-legged Tinamou Crypturellus noctivagus (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820) SA : e Brazil

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C. n. zabele (von Spix, 1825) ne Brazil

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C. n. noctivagus (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820) se Brazil

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Black-capped Tinamou Crypturellus atrocapillus (Tschudi, 1844) SA : Peru, Bolivia

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C. a. atrocapillus (Tschudi, 1844) se Peru

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C. a. garleppi (von Berlepsch, 1892) n Bolivia

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Thicket Tinamou Crypturellus cinnamomeus (Lesson, 1842) MA : wc Mexico to Costa Rica AS Crypturellus cinnamomeus is a split from C. erythropus, H&M,BLI, AOU (1998)

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C. c. occidentalis (Salvadori, 1895) wc Mexico

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C. c. mexicanus (Salvadori, 1895) ec Mexico

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C. c. soconuscensis Brodkorb, 1939 sw Mexico

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C. c. vicinior Conover, 1933 s Mexico to c Honduras

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C. c. sallaei (Bonaparte, 1856) s Mexico

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C. c. goldmani (Nelson, 1901) se Mexico, n Guatemala, n Belize

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C. c. cinnamomeus (Lesson, 1842) s Guatemala, El Salvador, s Honduras

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C. c. delattrii (Bonaparte, 1854) w Nicaragua

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C. c. praepes (Bangs & Peters, JL, 1927) nw Costa Rica

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Slaty-breasted Tinamou Crypturellus boucardi (Sclater, PL, 1860) MA : s Mexico to Costa Rica AS Crypturellus boucardi is split from C. erythropus; H&M, BLI, and AOU (1998)

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C. b. boucardi (Sclater, PL, 1860) s Mexico to nw Honduras

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C. b. costaricensis (Dwight & Griscom, 1924) n and e Honduras to Costa Rica

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Choco Tinamou Crypturellus kerriae (Chapman, 1915) LA : se Panama, nw Colombia

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Variegated Tinamou Crypturellus variegatus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : Amazonia, e Brazil

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Rusty Tinamou Crypturellus brevirostris (Pelzeln, 1863) SA : w and ne Amazonia

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Bartlett's Tinamou Crypturellus bartletti (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1873) SA : w Amazonia

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Small-billed Tinamou Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827) SA : se Peru and s Amazonian Brazil to ne Argentina

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Barred Tinamou Crypturellus casiquiare (Chapman, 1929) SA : e Colombia, s Venezuela

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Tataupa Tinamou Crypturellus tataupa (Temminck, 1815) SA : e, se, sc

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C. t. inops Bangs & Noble, 1918 sw Ecuador, nw Peru

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C. t. lepidotus (Swainson, 1837) ne Brazil

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C. t. peruvianus (Cory, 1915) c Peru

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C. t. tataupa (Temminck, 1815) n and e Bolivia to s Brazil, Paraguay and n Argentina

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Rhynchotus von Spix, 1825

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Red-winged Tinamou Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) SA : e, se, sc

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R. r. catingae Reiser, 1905 c and ne Brazil

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R. r. pallescens Kothe, 1907 ne and c Argentina

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R. r. rufescens (Temminck, 1815) n Bolivia to e Brazil, Paraguay, ne Argentina and Uruguay

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Huayco Tinamou Rhynchotus maculicollis Gray, GR, 1867 SA : nw Bolivia, nw Argentina

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Nothoprocta Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1873

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Taczanowski's Tinamou Nothoprocta taczanowskii Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1875 SA : sc Peru

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Ornate Tinamou Nothoprocta ornata (Gray, GR, 1867) SA : Peru to n Chile and nw Argentina TAX Nothoprocta kalinowskii is a synonym of N. ornata (Krabbe & Schulenberg 2005; SACC 246)

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N. o. branickii Taczanowski, 1875 c Peru

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N. o. ornata (Gray, GR, 1867) s Peru, w Bolivia, n Chile SSP Includes jimenezi and labradori. H&M 4:4, HBW 1

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N. o. rostrata von Berlepsch, 1907 s Bolivia, nw Argentina

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Chilean Tinamou Nothoprocta perdicaria (Kittlitz, 1830) SA : Chile

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N. p. perdicaria (Kittlitz, 1830) nc Chile

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N. p. sanborni Conover, 1924 sc Chile

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Brushland Tinamou Nothoprocta cinerascens (Burmeister, 1860) SA : Southern Cone

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N. c. cinerascens (Burmeister, 1860) se Bolivia to nw Paraguay and c Argentina

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N. c. parvimaculata Olrog, 1959 nw Argentina

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Andean Tinamou Nothoprocta pentlandii (Gray, GR, 1867) SA : Ecuador to c Argentina

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N. p. ambigua Cory, 1915 s Ecuador, nw Peru

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N. p. niethammeri Koepcke, 1968 wc Peru

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N. p. oustaleti von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1901 c and s Peru

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N. p. fulvescens von Berlepsch, 1902 se Peru

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N. p. pentlandii (Gray, GR, 1867) w Bolivia, nw Argentina, n Chile

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N. p. mendozae Banks & Bohl, 1968 wc Argentina

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N. p. doeringi Cabanis, 1878 c Argentina

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Curve-billed Tinamou Nothoprocta curvirostris Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1873 SA : Ecuador, Peru

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N. c. curvirostris Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1873 c Ecuador to n Peru

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N. c. peruviana Taczanowski, 1886 n and c Peru

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Nothura Wagler, 1827

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White-bellied Nothura Nothura boraquira (von Spix, 1825) SA : e Brazil to e Bolivia and ne Paraguay

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Lesser Nothura Nothura minor (von Spix, 1825) SA : se Brazil

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Darwin's Nothura Nothura darwinii Gray, GR, 1867 SA : Peru to sc Argentina

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N. d. peruviana von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1906 s Peru

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N. d. agassizii Bangs, 1910 se Peru, w Bolivia

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N. d. boliviana Salvadori, 1895 w Bolivia

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N. d. salvadorii Hartert, 1909 w Argentina

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N. d. darwinii Gray, GR, 1867 sc Argentina

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Spotted Nothura Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815) SA : se

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N. m. cearensis Naumburg, 1932 ne Brazil

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N. m. major (von Spix, 1825) ec Brazil

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N. m. paludivaga Conover, 1950 c Paraguay, nc Argentina

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N. m. maculosa (Temminck, 1815) se Brazil to e Paraguay, ne Argentina and Uruguay

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N. m. pallida Olrog, 1959 nw Argentina

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N. m. annectens Conover, 1950 e Argentina

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N. m. submontana Conover, 1950 sw Argentina

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N. m. nigroguttata Salvadori, 1895 sc Argentina

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Chaco Nothura Nothura chacoensis Conover, 1937 SA : nw Paraguay, nc Argentina

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Taoniscus Gloger, 1842

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Dwarf Tinamou Taoniscus nanus (Temminck, 1815) SA : se Brazil, ne Argentina

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Eudromia Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I, 1832

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Elegant Crested Tinamou Eudromia elegans Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I, 1832 SA : Southern Cone

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E. e. intermedia (Dabbene & Lillo, 1913) nw Argentina

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E. e. magnistriata Olrog, 1959 nc Argentina

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E. e. riojana Olrog, 1959 wc Argentina

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E. e. albida (Wetmore, 1921) wc Argentina

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E. e. wetmorei Banks, 1977 w Argentina

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E. e. numida Banks, 1977 c Argentina

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E. e. elegans Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I, 1832 sc Argentina

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E. e. multiguttata Conover, 1950 ec Argentina

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E. e. devia Conover, 1950 sw Argentina

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E. e. patagonica Conover, 1950 s Chile, s Argentina

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Quebracho Crested Tinamou Eudromia formosa (Lillo, 1905) SA : Paraguay, n Argentina

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Tinamotis Vigors, 1837

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Puna Tinamou Tinamotis pentlandii Vigors, 1837 SA : sc Peru, n Bolivia, n Chile and nw Argentina

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Patagonian Tinamou Tinamotis ingoufi Oustalet, 1890 SA : s Chile, sw Argentina

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ORDER STRUTHIONIFORMES

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2 Ostriches Family Struthionidae

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Struthio Linnaeus, 1758

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Common Ostrich Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758 AF : w, c, e, sw TAX See Miller et al (2010) re genetic structure and phylogeography of ostrich populations

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S. c. syriacus Rothschild, 1919 Syrian and Arabian Deserts

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S. c. camelus Linnaeus, 1758 s Morocco and Mauritania to s Egypt and n and w Ethiopia, south to Cameroon and n Uganda

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S. c. massaicus Neumann, 1898 s Kenya and c Tanzania

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S. c. australis Gurney, 1868 s Africa

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Somali Ostrich Struthio molybdophanes Reichenow, 1883 AF : Somalia, n Kenya AS Genetic analyses support species recognition of Somali Ostrich and perhaps other subspecies groups (Miller et al 2010)

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ORDER RHEIFORMES

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2 Rheas Family Rheidae

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Rhea Brisson, 1760

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Greater Rhea Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758) SA : se

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R. a. americana (Linnaeus, 1758) n and e Brazil

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R. a. intermedia Rothschild & Chubb, C, 1914 se Brazil, Uruguay

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R. a. nobilis Brodkorb, 1939 e Paraguay

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R. a. araneipes Brodkorb, 1938 sw Brazil, e Bolivia, w Paraguay

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R. a. albescens Lynch & Holmberg, 1878 ne and e Argentina

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Lesser Rhea Rhea pennata d'Orbigny, 1834 SA : Southern Cone TAX, ENG Genus Pterocnemia merged into Rhea (SACC 348); Change English name to Lesser Rhea to conform to general usage

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R. p. garleppi (Chubb, C, 1913) se Peru, sw Bolivia, nw Argentina

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R. p. tarapacensis (Chubb, C, 1913) n Chile

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R. p. pennata d'Orbigny, 1834 s Chile, wc and s Argentina

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ORDER CASUARIIFORMES

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3 Cassowaries Family Casuariidae

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Casuarius Brisson, 1760

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Southern Cassowary Casuarius casuarius (Linnaeus, 1758) AU : New Guinea, ne Australia, Aru Is.

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Dwarf Cassowary Casuarius bennetti Gould, 1857 AU : New Guinea, Yapen I., New Britain

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Northern Cassowary Casuarius unappendiculatus Blyth, 1860 AU : New Guinea, Yapen I., Sulawati I.

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1 Emu Family Dromaiidae

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Dromaius Vieillot, 1816

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Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae (Latham, 1790) AU : Australia

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D. n. rothschildi Mathews, 1912 sw Australia

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D. n. novaehollandiae (Latham, 1790) Australia except sw

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D. n. diemenensis Le Souef, 1907 Tasmania

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D. n. minor Spencer, 1906 King I. (Australia) SSP Treatment as subspecies rather than species follows Fuller 2001, Heupink et al 2011. Epithet minor replaces ater which is a nomen novum for Dromaius novaehollandiae. H&M 4:6

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D. n. baudinianus Parker, SA, 1984 Kangaroo I. (Australia) SSP Treatment as subspecies rather than species follows Fuller 2001

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ORDER APTERYGIFORMES

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5 Kiwis Family Apterygidae

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Apteryx Shaw, 1813

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Southern Brown Kiwi Apteryx australis Shaw, 1813 AU : New Zealand

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A. a. australis Shaw, 1813 sw South I.

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A. a. lawryi Rothschild, 1893 Stewart I.

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North Island Brown Kiwi Apteryx mantelli Bartlett, 1852 AU : North I. (New Zealand)

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Okarito Kiwi Apteryx rowi Tennyson, Palma, Robertson, Worthy & Gill, 2003 AU : w South I. (New Zealand)

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Little Spotted Kiwi Apteryx owenii Gould, 1847 AU : Kapiti I., South I. (New Zealand)

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Great Spotted Kiwi Apteryx haastii Potts, 1872 AU : w South I. (New Zealand)