"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Rails, gallinules & cranes

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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154 Rails, Crakes and Coots Family Rallidae

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Himantornis Hartlaub, 1855

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Nkulengu Rail Himantornis haematopus Hartlaub, 1855 AF : Sierra Leone to Uganda and c DRCongo

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Canirallus Bonaparte, 1856

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Grey-throated Rail Canirallus oculeus (Hartlaub, 1855) AF : Sierra Leone to Ghana, s Nigeria to Uganda and DRCongo

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Madagascan Wood Rail Canirallus kioloides (Pucheran, 1845) AF : Madagascar

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C. k. berliozi (Salomonsen, 1934) nw Madagascar

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C. k. kioloides (Pucheran, 1845) e Madagascar

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Tsingy Wood Rail Canirallus beankaensis (Goodman, Raherilalao & Block, 2011) AF : w Madagascar AS Tsingy Wood Rail is split from Madagascar Wood Rail based on Goodman et al 2011)

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Coturnicops Gray, GR, 1855

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Swinhoe's Rail Coturnicops exquisitus (Swinhoe, 1873) EU : e Siberia and ne China

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Yellow Rail Coturnicops noveboracensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : e,c

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C. n. noveboracensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Canada, n USA

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C. n. goldmani (Nelson, 1904) c Mexico

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Speckled Rail Coturnicops notatus (Gould, 1841) SA : Paraguay and s Brazil to ec Argentina ENG Change English name of Coturnicops notatus to Speckled Rail, which is consistent with Yellow Rail per SACC

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Micropygia Bonaparte, 1856

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Ocellated Crake Micropygia schomburgkii (Schomburgk, 1848) SA : n, sc, se

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M. s. schomburgkii (Schomburgk, 1848) Colombia through the Guianas and to se Peru and Bolivia

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M. s. chapmani (Naumburg, 1930) c and se Brazil

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Rallicula Schlegel, 1871 TAX MOVE the following 4 rail species from Rallina to Rallicula (Christidis & Boles 2008)

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Chestnut Forest Rail Rallicula rubra Schlegel, 1871 AU : New Guinea ENG Change  English name of Rallicula (Rallina) rubra to Chestnut Forest Rail (Gregory 2009)

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R. r. rubra Schlegel, 1871 w New Guinea

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R. r. klossi Ogilvie-Grant, 1913 wc New Guinea

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R. r. telefolminensis Gilliard, 1961 c New Guinea

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White-striped Forest Rail Rallicula leucospila (Salvadori, 1876) AU : New Guinea ENG Change  English name of Rallicula (Rallina) leucospila to White-striped Forest Rail (Gregory 2009)

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Forbes's Forest Rail Rallicula forbesi Sharpe, 1887 AU : New Guinea ENG Change  English name of Rallicula (Rallina) forbesi to Forbes's Forest Rail (Gregory 2009)

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R. f. steini Rothschild, 1934 Weyland Mts to Bismarck Mts. (c NG)

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R. f. parva Pratt, 1982 Mt. Mengam in the Adelbert Mts. (nc NG)

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R. f. dryas Mayr, 1931 Saruwaged Mts on Huon Pen. (ne NG)

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R. f. forbesi Sharpe, 1887 Herzog Mts. to Owen Stanley Mts (se NG)

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Mayr's Forest Rail Rallicula mayri Hartert, 1930 AU : New Guinea ENG Change  English name of Rallicula (Rallina) mayri to Mayr's Forest Rail (Gregory 2009)

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R. m. mayri Hartert, 1930 Cyclops Mts. (nw NG)

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R. m. carmichaeli Diamond, 1969 Foja, Torricelli and Bewani Mts. (nc NG)

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Rallina Gray, GR, 1846

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Red-necked Crake Rallina tricolor Gray, GR, 1858 AU : widespread

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Andaman Crake Rallina canningi (Blyth, 1863) OR : Andaman Islands

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Red-legged Crake Rallina fasciata (Raffles, 1822) OR : ne India to Lesser Sundas, Philippines

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Slaty-legged Crake Rallina eurizonoides (Lafresnaye, 1845) OR : widespread

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R. e. amauroptera (Jerdon, 1864) nw Pakistan, India

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R. e. telmatophila Hume, 1878 Burma to se China and Indochina

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R. e. sepiaria (Stejneger, 1887) Ryukyu Is. (Japan)

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R. e. alvarezi Kennedy & Ross, CA, 1987 Batan Is. (Philippines)

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R. e. formosana Seebohm, 1894 Taiwan and Lanyu I.

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R. e. eurizonoides (Lafresnaye, 1845) Philippines (except Batan), Palau Is.

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R. e. minahasa Wallace, 1863 Sulawesi, Peleng, Sula Is.

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Anurolimnas Sharpe, 1893

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Chestnut-headed Crake Anurolimnas castaneiceps (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1869) SA : s Colombia to nw Bolivia

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A. c. coccineipes Olson, 1973 s Colombia, ne Ecuador

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A. c. castaneiceps (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1869) e Ecuador, e Peru, sw Brazil and nw Bolivia

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Laterallus Gray, GR, 1855

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Russet-crowned Crake Laterallus viridis (Statius Müller, 1776) SA : Amazonia

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L. v. brunnescens Todd, 1932 e Colombia

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L. v. viridis (Statius Müller, 1776) s Venezuela through the Guianas and Amazonian Brazil to c Peru and n Bolivia

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Black-banded Crake Laterallus fasciatus (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1868) SA : w Amazonia

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Rufous-sided Crake Laterallus melanophaius (Vieillot, 1819) SA : widespread

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L. m. oenops (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1880) se Colombia, e Ecuador and e Peru, w Brazil

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L. m. melanophaius (Vieillot, 1819) ne Venezuela to Suriname south to n Argentina

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Rusty-flanked Crake Laterallus levraudi (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1869) SA : Venezuela

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Ruddy Crake Laterallus ruber (Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1860) MA : e Mexico to Costa Rica

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White-throated Crake Laterallus albigularis (Lawrence, 1861) LA : Nicaragua to Ecuador

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L. a. cinereiceps (Lawrence, 1875) se Honduras to nw Panama

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L. a. albigularis (Lawrence, 1861) sw Costa Rica to w Ecuador

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L. a. cerdaleus Wetmore, 1958 e Colombia

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Grey-breasted Crake Laterallus exilis (Temminck, 1831) LA : Guatemala through Amazonia, se SA

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Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA, LA : USA, Greater Antilles to w SA TAX Laterallus jamaicensis includes subspecies salinasi, which may deserve recognition (Jaramillo 2003); SACC needs proposal to split

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L. j. coturniculus (Ridgway, 1874) wc California (USA) to Baja California (Mexico)

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L. j. jamaicensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) e USA, e Central America

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L. j. murivagans (Riley, 1916) w Peru

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L. j. salinasi (Philippi, 1857) c Chile, w Argentina

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L. j. tuerosi Fjeldså, 1983 Peru AL Junin Crake L. tuerosi best treated as a subspecies of Black Rail (SACC 536)

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Galapagos Crake Laterallus spilonota (Gould, 1841) SA : Galápagos Islands

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Red-and-white Crake Laterallus leucopyrrhus (Vieillot, 1819) SA : se

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Rufous-faced Crake Laterallus xenopterus Conover, 1934 SA : sc Brazil, c Paraguay

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Nesoclopeus Peters, JL, 1932

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Bar-winged Rail Nesoclopeus poecilopterus (Hartlaub, 1866) PO : Fiji Islands

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Woodford's Rail Nesoclopeus woodfordi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1889) AU : Solomon Islands

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N. w. tertius Mayr, 1949 Bougainville I.

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N. w. woodfordi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1889) Guadalcanal I.

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N. w. immaculatus Mayr, 1949 Santa Isabel (c Solomon Is.) SSP Add: Dutson, 2011

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Gallirallus Lafresnaye, 1841

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Weka Gallirallus australis (Sparrman, 1786) AU : New Zealand

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G. a. greyi (Buller, 1888) North I.

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G. a. australis (Sparrman, 1786) n and w South I.

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G. a. hectori (Hutton, FW, 1874) e South I., Chatham Is.

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G. a. scotti (Ogilvie-Grant, 1905) Stewart, Solander and Codfish Is.

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Calayan Rail Gallirallus calayanensis Allen, D, Oliveros, Espanola, Broad & Gonzalez, 2004 OR : Philippines

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New Caledonian Rail Gallirallus lafresnayanus Verreaux, J & Des Murs, 1860 AU : New Caledonia

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Lord Howe Woodhen Gallirallus sylvestris (Sclater, PL, 1870) AU : Lord Howe Island

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Okinawa Rail Gallirallus okinawae (Yamashina & Mano, 1981) EU : Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands

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Barred Rail Gallirallus torquatus (Linnaeus, 1766) AU : w New Guinea, Sulawesi, also Philippines

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G. t. torquatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Philippines

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G. t. celebensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1832) Sulawesi and nearby se islands

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G. t. sulcirostris (Wallace, 1863) Peleng and Sula Is. (e of Sulawesi)

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G. t. kuehni (Rothschild, 1902) Tukangbesi Is. (e of Sulawesi)

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G. t. limarius (Peters, JL, 1934) Salawati I (w of New Guinea)., nw New Guinea SSP Subspecies name limarius (Peters, JL, 1934) replaced saturatus (Sclater, PL, 1880) when both taxa were in Rallus. Name saturatus now permanently invalid under ICZN Art. 59.3. H&M 4:154.

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Pink-legged Rail Gallirallus insignis (Sclater, PL, 1880) AU : New Britain

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Tahiti Rail Gallirallus pacificus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) PO : Tahiti, Mehetia (e Society Islands)

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Buff-banded Rail Gallirallus philippensis (Linnaeus, 1766) AU : widespread, also Philippines

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G. p. andrewsi (Mathews, 1911) Cocos Keeling Is. (Indian O.)

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G. p. xerophilus (van Bemmel & Hoogerwerf, 1940) Gunungapi Wetar (Banda Sea)

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G. p. wilkinsoni (Mathews, 1911) Flores I. (Lesser Sundas)

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G. p. philippensis (Linnaeus, 1766) Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumba to Timor

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G. p. pelewensis (Mayr, 1933) Palau Is. (w Caroline Is.)

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G. p. anachoretae (Mayr, 1949) Kaniet Is. (Admiralty Is.)

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G. p. admiralitatis (Stresemann, 1929) Admiralty Is.

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G. p. praedo (Mayr, 1949) Skokie I. (Admiralty Is.)

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G. p. lesouefi (Mathews, 1911) New Hanover, New Ireland, Tabar, Tanga (Bismarck Arch.)

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G. p. meyeri (Hartert, 1930) Witu, New Britain (Bismarck Arch.)

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G. p. christophori (Mayr, 1938) Solomon Is.

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G. p. sethsmithi (Mathews, 1911) Vanuatu, Fiji Is.

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G. p. swindellsi (Mathews, 1911) New Caledonia, Loyalty Is.

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G. p. goodsoni (Mathews, 1911) Samoa, Niue Is.

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G. p. ecaudatus (Miller, JF, 1783) Tonga

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G. p. assimilis (Gray, GR, 1843) New Zealand

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G. p. macquariensis (Hutton, FW, 1879) Macquarie I.

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G. p. lacustris (Mayr, 1938) n New Guinea

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G. p. reductus (Mayr, 1938) ne, e and c New Guinea, Long I. SSP Includes wahgiensis. Taylor, 1996, Taylor, 1998.

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G. p. randi (Mayr & Gilliard, 1951) w New Guinea

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G. p. tounelieri Schodde & Naurois, 1982 Coral Sea Is. (se New Guinea to n New Caledonia)

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G. p. mellori (Mathews, 1912) s and w New Guinea, Australia, Norfolk I.

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Guam Rail Gallirallus owstoni (Rothschild, 1895) AU : Guam

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Wake Island Rail Gallirallus wakensis (Rothschild, 1903) PO : Wake I.

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Roviana Rail Gallirallus rovianae Diamond, 1991 AU : Solomon Islands

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Dieffenbach's Rail Gallirallus dieffenbachii (Gray, GR, 1843) AU : Chatham Is.

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Chatham Rail Gallirallus modestus (Hutton, FW, 1872) AU : Chatham Is.

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Slaty-breasted Rail Gallirallus striatus (Linnaeus, 1766) OR : widespread

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G. s. albiventer (Swainson, 1838) India and Sri Lanka to s China and Thailand

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G. s. obscurior (Hume, 1874) Andaman and Nicobar Is.

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G. s. jouyi (Stejneger, 1887) se China, Hainan I.

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G. s. taiwanus (Yamashina, 1932) Taiwan

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G. s. gularis (Horsfield, 1821) Malaysia to Indochina, Sumatra, Java and s Borneo

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G. s. striatus (Linnaeus, 1766) n Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi

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Diaphorapteryx Forbes, HO, 1893

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Hawkins's Rail Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi (Forbes, HO, 1892) AU : Chatham Is. EXT Evidence suggests the species survived well into the 19th Century. Cooper & Tennyson 2004

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Rallus Linnaeus, 1758

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Mangrove Rail Rallus longirostris Boddaert, 1783 SA: coasts of n SA s to nw Peru ENG Rename and restrict R. longirostris to SA ssp longirostris, dillonripleyi, phelpsi, margaritae, pelodramus, cypereti and crassirostris; Assign previous English name Clapper Rail to Rallus crepitans of eastern North America (Maley & Brumfield 2013, NACC 2014-A-5).

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R. l. phelpsi Wetmore, 1941 ne Colombia, nw Venezuela

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R. l. dillonripleyi Phelps & Aveledo, 1987 ne Venezuela SSP Add: Restall et al, 2006; Hilty, 2003

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R. l. margaritae Zimmer, JT & Phelps, 1944 Margarita I. (Venezuela)

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R. l. pelodramus Oberholser, 1937 Trinidad

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R. l. longirostris Boddaert, 1783 coast of the Guianas

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R. l. crassirostris Lawrence, 1871 coast of Brazil

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R. l. cypereti Taczanowski, 1878 coastal sw Colombia to nw Peru

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Clapper Rail Rallus crepitans Gmelin, JF, 1789 NA, MA: e coast of US to Caribbean and coastal Belize

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R. c. crepitans Gmelin, JF, 1789 coastal Connecticut to ne North Carolina (USA)

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R. c. waynei Brewster, 1899 coastal se USA

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R. c. saturatus Ridgway, 1880 Gulf Coast from sw Alabama to ne Mexico

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R. c. scottii Sennett, 1888 coastal Florida (USA)

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R. c. insularum Brooks, WS, 1920 Florida Keys (USA)

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R. c. coryi Maynard, 1887 Bahama Is.

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R. c. caribaeus Ridgway, 1880 Cuba to Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles to Antigua and Guadeloupe SSP Inclues leucophaeus. Rush et al, 2012.

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R. c. pallidus Nelson, 1905 n Yucatán Pen., islands off Quintana Roo (se Mexico), Ycacos Lagoon (Belize) SSP Includes grossi and belizensis. Rush et al, 2012.

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Ridgway's Rail Rallus obsoletus Ridgway, 1874 NA, MA: sw US to Baja California AS Ridgway's Rail is split from Mangrove [Clapper] Rail, R. longirostris (Maley & Brumfield 2013, NACC 2014-A-5)

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R. o. obsoletus Ridgway, 1874 wc California (USA)

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R. o. levipes Bangs, 1899 sw California (USA) to n Baja California (Mexico)

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R. o. yumanensis Dickey, 1923 se California and s Arizona (USA), nw Mexico SSP Includes rhizophorae, nayaritensis

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R. o. beldingi Ridgway, 1882 s Baja California (Mexico)

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King Rail Rallus elegans Audubon, 1834 NA, MA : e, c

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R. e. elegans Audubon, 1834 e Canada, ne USA

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R. e. ramsdeni Riley, 1913 Cuba and the Isle of Pines

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Aztec Rail Rallus tenuirostris Ridgway, 1874 MA: c Mexico AS Aztec Rail is split from King Rail (Maley & Brumfield 2013, NACC 2014-A-5)

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Plain-flanked Rail Rallus wetmorei Zimmer, JT & Phelps, 1944 SA : Venezuela

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Virginia Rail Rallus limicola Vieillot, 1819 NA : widespread

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R. l. limicola Vieillot, 1819 s Canada, USA

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R. l. friedmanni Dickerman, 1966 sc and se Mexico

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Ecuadorian Rail Rallus aequatorialis Sharpe, 1894 SA : sw Colombia to sw Peru AS Ecuadorian Rail (R. aequatorialis) is split from Virginia Rail (R. limicola) (Ridgely et al. 2001); SACC needs proposal

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R. a. aequatorialis Sharpe, 1894 sw Colombia, Ecuador

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R. a. meyerdeschauenseei Fjeldså, 1990 coastal Peru

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Bogota Rail Rallus semiplumbeus Sclater, PL, 1856 SA : Colombia

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R. s. semiplumbeus Sclater, PL, 1856 e Colombia

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R. s. peruvianus Taczanowski, 1886 Peru

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Austral Rail Rallus antarcticus King, PP, 1828 SA : s Chile and s Argentina

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Water Rail Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus, 1758 EU : w Europe to c Asia

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R. a. hibernans Salomonsen, 1931 Iceland

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R. a. aquaticus Linnaeus, 1758 Europe, n Africa, w Asia

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R. a. korejewi Zarudny, 1905 Aral Sea and Iran to nw China and Kashmir

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Brown-cheeked Rail Rallus indicus Blyth, 1849 EU : e Siberia to Japan AS Rallus indicus is split from R. aquaticus (Livezey 1998; Rasmussen & Anderton 2005;Tavares, de Kroon & Baker 2010)

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African Rail Rallus caerulescens Gmelin, JF, 1789 AF : e, sc, se, s

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Madagascan Rail Rallus madagascariensis Verreaux, J, 1833 AF : Madagascar

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Lewinia Gray, GR, 1855

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Brown-banded Rail Lewinia mirifica (Parkes & Amadon, 1959) OR : Philippines

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Lewin's Rail Lewinia pectoralis (Temminck, 1831) AU : Lesser Sundas, New Guinea, e Australia

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L. p. exsul (Hartert, 1898) Flores I. (Lesser Sundas)

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L. p. mayri (Hartert, 1930) nw New Guinea

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L. p. capta (Mayr & Gilliard, 1951) c New Guinea

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L. p. insulsa (Greenway, 1935) se New Guinea (Herzog Mts) SSP Add: Taylor, 1996; Taylor 1998.

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L. p. alberti (Rothschild & Hartert, 1907) se New Guinea (Wharton to Owen Stanley Ranges)

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L. p. clelandi (Mathews, 1911) sw Australia

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L. p. pectoralis (Temminck, 1831) e and se Australia

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L. p. brachipus (Swainson, 1838) Tasmania

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Auckland Rail Lewinia muelleri (Rothschild, 1893) AU : Auckland Islands

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Dryolimnas Sharpe, 1893

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White-throated Rail Dryolimnas cuvieri (Pucheran, 1845) AF : Madagascar, Aldabra Island

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D. c. cuvieri (Pucheran, 1845) Madagascar, Mauritius

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D. c. aldabranus (Günther, 1879) Aldabra I.

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D. c. abbotti (Ridgway, 1894) Assumption I. (Seychelles)

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Reunion Rail Dryolimnas augusti Mourer-Chauviré, Bour, Ribes & Moutou, 1999 IO : La Réunion EXT Cheke & Hume, 2008

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Aphanapteryx von Frauenfeld, 1868

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Red Rail Aphanapteryx bonasia (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1848) IO : Mauritius I. EXT Fuller, 2001, 2002. Cheke & Hume, 2008.

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Erythromachus Milne-Edwards, 1873

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Rodrigues Rail Erythromachus leguati Milne-Edwards, 1873 IO : Rodrigues I. EXT Fuller, 2001, 2002. Cheke & Hume, 2008.

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Crex Bechstein, 1803

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African Crake Crex egregia (Peters, W, 1854) AF : widespread

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Corn Crake Crex crex (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : Europe to c Siberia and nw China

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Rougetius Bonaparte, 1856

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Rouget's Rail Rougetius rougetii (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) AF : Ethiopia, Eritrea

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Aramidopsis Sharpe, 1893

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Snoring Rail Aramidopsis plateni (Blasius, W, 1886) AU : Sulawesi

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Mundia Bourne, Ashmole & Simmons, 2003

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Ascension Crake Mundia elpenor (Olson, 1973) AO : Ascension I. EXT Fuller, 2002. Bourne, Ashmole & Simmons, 2003

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Aphanocrex Wetmore, 1963

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St. Helena Rail Aphanocrex podarces Wetmore, 1963 AO : St. Helena I. EXT BirdLife International (2012) IUCN Red List for birds

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Atlantisia Lowe, 1923

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Inaccessible Island Rail Atlantisia rogersi Lowe, 1923 AO : Inaccessible Island

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Aramides Pucheran, 1845

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Little Wood Rail Aramides mangle (von Spix, 1825) SA : e Brazil

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Rufous-necked Wood Rail Aramides axillaris Lawrence, 1863 LA : Mexico to Ecuador, Belize, n SA

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Grey-necked Wood Rail Aramides cajaneus (Statius Müller, 1776) LA : s Mexico to n Argentina

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A. c. mexicanus Bangs, 1907 s Mexico

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A. c. vanrossemi Dickey, 1929 s Mexico to sw Guatemala and w El Salvador

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A. c. albiventris Lawrence, 1868 Yucatán Pen., Belize, n Guatemala

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A. c. pacificus Miller, W & Griscom, 1921 Honduras, Nicaragua

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A. c. plumbeicollis Zeledon, 1888 ne Costa Rica

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A. c. latens Bangs & Penard, TE, 1918 San Miguel and Viveros (Pearl Is., Panama)

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A. c. morrisoni Wetmore, 1946 San José and Pedro González Is. (Pearl Is, Panama)

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A. c. cajaneus (Statius Müller, 1776) Costa Rica to the Guianas, Paraguay and n Argentina

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A. c. avicenniae Stotz, 1992 coastal se Brazil

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Brown Wood Rail Aramides wolfi von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884 SA : Colombia to Peru

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Giant Wood Rail Aramides ypecaha (Vieillot, 1819) SA : e Paraguay to se Brazil, Uruguay and ne Argentina

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Slaty-breasted Wood Rail Aramides saracura (von Spix, 1825) SA : se Brazil to e Paraguay and ne Argentina

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Red-winged Wood Rail Aramides calopterus Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1878 SA : w Amazonia

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Amaurolimnas Sharpe, 1893

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Uniform Crake Amaurolimnas concolor (Gosse, 1847) LA : widespread

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A. c. concolor (Gosse, 1847) Jamaica

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A. c. guatemalensis (Lawrence, 1863) s Mexico to Ecuador

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A. c. castaneus (Pucheran, 1851) Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, e Peru, e Bolivia

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Gymnocrex Salvadori, 1875

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Blue-faced Rail Gymnocrex rosenbergii (Schlegel, 1866) AU : Sulawesi

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Talaud Rail Gymnocrex talaudensis Lambert, 1998 AU : Karakelong Island

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Bare-eyed Rail Gymnocrex plumbeiventris (Gray, GR, 1862) AU : New Guineas, Moluccas

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G. p. plumbeiventris (Gray, GR, 1862) n Moluccas, Misool I., n New Guinea, Karkar, New Ireland

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G. p. hoeveni (Rosenberg, HKB, 1866) s New Guinea, Aru Is.

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G. p. intactus (Sclater, PL, 1869) ? Solomon Islands TAX G. plumbeiventris intactus is recognized based on Knox & Walters 1994. Often synonymized with nominate, but morphologically distinct.

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Amaurornis Reichenbach, 1853

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Brown Crake Amaurornis akool (Sykes, 1832) OR : India to se China ENG Change  English name of Amaurornis akool to widely adopted Brown Crake

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A. a. akool (Sykes, 1832) India, Bangladesh, w Burma

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A. a. coccineipes (Slater, 1891) se China to ne Vietnam

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Isabelline Bush-hen Amaurornis isabellina (Schlegel, 1865) AU : Sulawesi

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Plain Bush-hen Amaurornis olivacea (Meyen, 1834) OR : Philippines

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Pale-vented Bush-hen Amaurornis moluccana (Wallace, 1865) AU : Lesser Sundas to Australia AS Amaurornis moluccana is split from A. olivacea (Livezey 1998, Christidis & Boles 2008, BLI 1.0)

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A. m. moluccana (Wallace, 1865) Sangihe I., Moluccas, Misool I., w and n New Guinea

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A. m. nigrifrons (Hartert, 1926) Bismarck Arch., w Solomon Is.

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A. m. ultima Mayr, 1949 e Solomon Is.

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A. m. ruficrissa (Gould, 1869) s and e New Guinea, n and ne Australia

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Talaud Bush-hen Amaurornis magnirostris Lambert, 1998 AU : Karakelong Island

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White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769) OR : widespread

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A. p. phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769) s Asia, Malay Arch. and Philippines

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A. p. insularis Sharpe, 1894 Andaman and Nicobar Is.

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A. p. leucomelana (Müller, S, 1842) Sulawesi, w Moluccas, Lesser Sundas

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Black Crake Amaurornis flavirostra (Swainson, 1837) AF : widespread

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Sakalava Rail Amaurornis olivieri (Grandidier, G & Berlioz, 1929) AF : Madagascar

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Porzana Vieillot, 1816

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St. Helena Crake Porzana astrictocarpus Olson, 1973 AO : St. Helena I. EXT BirdLife International (2012) IUCN Red List for birds

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Black-tailed Crake Porzana bicolor Walden, 1872 OR : ne India to sc China

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Little Crake Porzana parva (Scopoli, 1769) EU : s and c Europe to nw China

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Baillon's Crake Porzana pusilla (Pallas, 1776) EU, AF, OR, AU : widespread

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P. p. intermedia (Hermann, 1804) Europe to Asia Minor; n, e, s Africa, Madagascar. SSP Includes obscura. Taylor, 1996, Taylor, 1998, Hockey et al, 2005.

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P. p. pusilla (Pallas, 1776) c and e Asia

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P. p. mira Riley, 1938 Borneo

.

P. p. mayri Junge, 1952 New Guinea

.

P. p. palustris Gould, 1843 e New Guinea, Australia

.

P. p. affinis (Gray, GR, 1845) New Zealand, Chatham Is.

.

Spotted Crake Porzana porzana (Linnaeus, 1766) EU : w Europe to c Asia

.

Australian Crake Porzana fluminea Gould, 1843 AU : Australia

.

Sora Porzana carolina (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : widespread

.

Dot-winged Crake Porzana spiloptera Durnford, 1877 SA : s Uruguay and ne Argentina

.

Ash-throated Crake Porzana albicollis (Vieillot, 1819) SA : n, sc, se

.

P. a. typhoeca Peters, JL, 1932 Colombia to the Guianas and n Brazil SSP P. a. typhoeca Peters JL, 1932 replaces P. a. olivacea (Vieillot, 1819) which not likely attributable to this form. H&M 4:158, Hellmayr & Conover, 1942.

.

P. a. albicollis (Vieillot, 1819) e Brazil to e Bolivia, Paraguay, n Argentina

.

Ruddy-breasted Crake Porzana fusca (Linnaeus, 1766) OR : widespread, also e Asia

.

P. f. fusca (Linnaeus, 1766) Pakistan and n India to Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines

.

P. f. zeylonica (Baker, ECS, 1927) w and sw India, Sri Lanka

.

P. f. phaeopyga Stejneger, 1887 Ryukyu Is. (Japan)

.

P. f. erythrothorax (Temminck & Schlegel, 1849) se Siberia to ne China, Korea and Japan, Taiwan

.

Band-bellied Crake Porzana paykullii (Ljungh, 1813) EU : e Siberia, Korea and ne China

.

Spotless Crake Porzana tabuensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AU : widespread

.

P. t. tabuensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Philippines, Australasian region and Oceania except mountains of New Guinea

.

P. t. richardsoni Rand, 1940 mountains in the Vogelkop (nw New Guinea)

.

P. t. edwardi Gyldenstolpe, 1955 Snow Mts. ( wc New Guinea)

.

Tahiti Crake Porzana nigra (Miller, JF, 1784) PO : Tahiti

.

Kosrae Crake Porzana monasa (Kittlitz, 1858) PO : Kosrea I. (Micronesia) EXT Walters, 1988

.

Henderson Crake Porzana atra North, 1908 PO : Henderson I. ENG Change English name of Porzana atra from Red-eyed Crake to established Henderson Crake.

.

Hawaiian Rail Porzana sandwichensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands)

.

Laysan Rail Porzana palmeri (Frohawk, 1892) PO : Laysan I.

.

Yellow-breasted Crake Porzana flaviventer (Boddaert, 1783) NA, LA : Caribbean and s Mexico to se SA

.

P. f. gossii (Bonaparte, 1856) Cuba, Jamaica

.

P. f. hendersoni Bartsch, 1917 Hispaniola, Puerto Rico

.

P. f. woodi van Rossem, 1934 c Mexico to nw Costa Rica

.

P. f. bangsi Darlington, 1931 n Colombia

.

P. f. flaviventer (Boddaert, 1783) Panama to the Guianas south through Brazil to n Argentina

.

White-browed Crake Porzana cinerea (Vieillot, 1819) OR, AU : Malay Peninsula and Philippines to n Australia

.

Aenigmatolimnas Peters, JL, 1932

.

Striped Crake Aenigmatolimnas marginalis (Hartlaub, 1857) AF : Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon to c DRCongo and Gabon

.

Cyanolimnas Barbour & Peters, JL, 1927

.

Zapata Rail Cyanolimnas cerverai Barbour & Peters, JL, 1927 NA : Cuba

.

Neocrex Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1869

.

Colombian Crake Neocrex colombiana Bangs, 1898 LA : Panama to Ecuador

.

N. c. ripleyi Wetmore, 1967 c Panama to nw Colombia

.

N. c. colombiana Bangs, 1898 n and w Colombia, w Ecuador

.

Paint-billed Crake Neocrex erythrops (Sclater, PL, 1867) SA : widespread

.

N. e. olivascens Chubb, C, 1918 Panama to the Guianas south through Brazil to n Argentina

.

N. e. erythrops (Sclater, PL, 1867) Galapagos Is., coastal Peru

.

Pardirallus Bonaparte, 1856

.

Spotted Rail Pardirallus maculatus (Boddaert, 1783) LA : widespread, also Caribbean

.

P. m. insolitus (Bangs & Peck, 1908) Mexico to Costa Rica

.

P. m. maculatus (Boddaert, 1783) Colombia to e Brazil south to Peru and Argentina, Caribbean islands

.

Blackish Rail Pardirallus nigricans (Vieillot, 1819) SA : w Amazonia, e, se

.

P. n. caucae (Conover, 1949) sw Colombia

.

P. n. nigricans (Vieillot, 1819) e Ecuador and Peru to e Brazil and ne Argentina

.

Plumbeous Rail Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Swainson, 1838) SA : s, w

.

P. s. simonsi Chubb, C, 1918 s Ecuador, w Peru, n Chile

.

P. s. tschudii Chubb, C, 1919 Peru, c and se Bolivia

.

P. s. zelebori (Pelzeln, 1865) se Brazil

.

P. s. sanguinolentus (Swainson, 1838) se Brazil to Paraguay, n Argentina and Uruguay

.

P. s. landbecki (Hellmayr, 1932) c Chile sw Argentina

.

P. s. luridus (Peale, 1848) s Chile, s Argentina

.

Eulabeornis Gould, 1844

.

Chestnut Rail Eulabeornis castaneoventris Gould, 1844 AU : n Australia, Aru Islands

.

E. c. sharpei Rothschild, 1906 Aru Is.

.

E. c. castaneoventris Gould, 1844 coastal n Australia

.

Habroptila Gray, GR, 1861

.

Invisible Rail Habroptila wallacii Gray, GR, 1861 AU : n Moluccas

.

Megacrex D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879

.

New Guinea Flightless Rail Megacrex inepta D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879 AU : New Guinea ENG Change  English name of Megacrex inepta to New Guinea Flightless Rail (Gregory 2009)

.

M. i. pallida Rand, 1938 nc New Guinea

.

M. i. inepta D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879 sc New Guinea

.

Gallicrex Blyth, 1852

.

Watercock Gallicrex cinerea (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : widespread

.

Porphyrio Brisson, 1760

.

Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio (Linnaeus, 1758) AF, EU, OR, AU : widespread

.

P. p. porphyrio (Linnaeus, 1758) sw Europe, nw Africa

.

P. p. caspius Hartert, 1917 Turkey to the Caspian Sea and nw Iran

.

P. p. seistanicus Zarudny & Harms, 1911 Iraq to nw India

.

P. p. poliocephalus (Latham, 1801) Sri Lanka, India to s China and n Thailand, Andaman and Nicobar Is.

.

P. p. viridis Begbie, 1834 s Burma to c and s Indochina to the Malay Pen.

.

P. p. indicus Horsfield, 1821 Sumatra, Java and se Borneo

.

P. p. melanopterus Bonaparte, 1856 Sulawesi, Moluccas and Lesser Sundas

.

P. p. melanotus Temminck, 1820 widespread Australasia

.

P. p. bellus Gould, 1841 sw Australia

.

P. p. pulverulentus Temminck, 1826 Philippines, Talaud Is.?

.

P. p. pelewensis Hartlaub & Finsch, 1872 Palau Is.

.

P. p. samoensis Peale, 1848 Admiralty Is. to Samoa, New Caledonia, Solomon Is. and Fiji

.

African Swamphen Porphyrio madagascariensis (Latham, 1801) AF : widespread

.

White Swamphen Porphyrio albus (Shaw, 1790) AU : Lord Howe I. (Australia)

.

Mohoau Porphyrio mantelli (Owen, 1848) AU : North Island, New Zealand EXT Specifically distinct from P. hochstetteri. Trewick, 1996. Also known as North Island Takahe.

.

Takahe Porphyrio hochstetteri (Meyer, AB, 1883) AU : South Island, New Zealand

.

Allen's Gallinule Porphyrio alleni Thomson, 1842 AF : widespread

.

Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinicus (Linnaeus, 1766) NA, LA : se USA to n Argentina

.

Azure Gallinule Porphyrio flavirostris (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : n, Amazonia, sc

.

Gallinula Brisson, 1760

.

Samoan Woodhen Gallinula pacifica (Hartlaub & Finsch, 1871) PO : w Samoa

.

Makira Woodhen Gallinula silvestris (Mayr, 1933) AU : Solomon Islands

.

Tristan Moorhen Gallinula nesiotis Sclater, PL, 1861 AO : Tristan da Cunha

.

Gough Moorhen Gallinula comeri (Allen, JA, 1892) AO : Gough Is. AS, ENG Gallinula comeri is split from its (extinct) flightless relative G.nesiotis (Collar & Stuart 1985); BLI recognizes; Change name to traditional "moorhen" (P.Ryan)

.

Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, AF, IO, OR, PO : widespread

.

G. c. chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758) Europe and n Africa to Japan and se Asia

.

G. c. meridionalis (Brehm, CL, 1831) Africa south of the Sahara, St. Helena

.

G. c. pyrrhorrhoa Newton, A, 1861 Madagascar, Reunion, Mauritius and Comoros Is.

.

G. c. orientalis Horsfield, 1821 Seychelles, Andamans, Malay Pen., Indonesia and Philippines

.

G. c. guami Hartert, 1917 n Mariana Is.

.

Common Gallinule Gallinula galeata (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1818) NA, SA, PO : widespread AS Common Gallinule of Western Hemisphere is split from Common Moorhen on the basis of morphological, genetic, and vocal differences (Groenenberg et al 2008, SACC 416, NACC-2010-10)

.

G. g. sandvicensis Streets, 1877 Hawaiian Is.

.

G. g. cachinnans Bangs, 1915 se Canada, USA to w Panama, Bermuda, Galapagos Is.

.

G. g. cerceris Bangs, 1910 Greater and Lesser Antilles

.

G. g. barbadensis Bond, 1954 Barbados

.

G. g. pauxilla Bangs, 1915 e Panama, n and w Colombia, w Ecuador, nw Peru

.

G. g. garmani Allen, JA, 1876 Andes of Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina

.

G. g. galeata (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1818) Trinidad, the Guianas south to Uruguay and n Argentina

.

Dusky Moorhen Gallinula tenebrosa Gould, 1846 AU : widespread

.

G. t. frontata Wallace, 1863 se Borneo to Sulawesi, s Moluccas, Lesser Sundas and se New Guinea

.

G. t. neumanni Hartert, 1930 n New Guinea

.

G. t. tenebrosa Gould, 1846 Australia

.

Lesser Moorhen Gallinula angulata Sundevall, 1850 AF : widespread

.

Spot-flanked Gallinule Gallinula melanops (Vieillot, 1819) SA : e, s

.

G. m. bogotensis (Chapman, 1914) c Colombia

.

G. m. crassirostris (Gray, JE, 1829) Argentina and Chile

.

G. m. melanops (Vieillot, 1819) Peru to e Bolivia, e Brazil, Uruguary, Paraguay and ne Argentina

.

Tribonyx Du Bus de Gisignies, 1840 TAX Two species of nativehen are moved from Gallinula to Tribonyx (Livezey 1998, Christidis & Boles 2008)

.

Black-tailed Nativehen Tribonyx ventralis (Gould, 1837) AU : Australia

.

Tasmanian Nativehen Tribonyx mortierii Du Bus de Gisignies, 1840 AU : Tasmania

.

Fulica Linnaeus, 1758

.

Red-knobbed Coot Fulica cristata Gmelin, JF, 1789 EU, AF : s Spain and Morocco, Ethiopia to Angola, Namibia and South Africa, Madagascar

.

Mascarene Coot Fulica newtonii Milne-Edwards, 1867 IO : Mauritius I., La Réunion EXT Cheke & Hume, 2008

.

Eurasian Coot Fulica atra Linnaeus, 1758 EU, OR, AU : widespread

.

F. a. atra Linnaeus, 1758 Europe and n Africa to Japan, India, se Asia, Philippines and Borneo

.

F. a. lugubris Müller, S, 1847 Java, Bali, nw New Guinea

.

F. a. novaeguineae Rand, 1940 nc New Guinea SSP Add: Taylor, 1996; Taylor, 1998

.

F. a. australis Gould, 1845 Australia, New Zealand

.

Hawaiian Coot Fulica alai Peale, 1848 PO : Hawaiian Islands

.

American Coot Fulica americana Gmelin, JF, 1789 NA, MA : widespread, also Hawaiian Islands and n SA

.

F. a. americana Gmelin, JF, 1789 se Alaska and Canada to Costa Rica and the West Indies

.

F. a. columbiana Chapman, 1914 Colombia and n Ecuador

.

Caribbean Coot Fulica caribaea Ridgway, 1884 NA : Caribbean, also n SA

.

White-winged Coot Fulica leucoptera Vieillot, 1817 SA : sc, Southern Cone

.

Andean Coot Fulica ardesiaca Tschudi, 1843 SA : Colombia to nw Argentina

.

F. a. atrura Fjeldså, 1983 s Colombia to nw Peru

.

F. a. ardesiaca Tschudi, 1843 c Peru to n Chile and nw Argentina SSP Inclues peruviana as a synonym. Merely a color morph. Gill, 1964, Taylor, 1998.

.

Red-gartered Coot Fulica armillata Vieillot, 1817 SA : Southern Cone

.

Red-fronted Coot Fulica rufifrons Philippi & Landbeck, 1861 SA : Southern Cone

.

Giant Coot Fulica gigantea Eydoux & Souleyet, 1841 SA : Peru to nw Argentina

.

Horned Coot Fulica cornuta Bonaparte, 1853 SA : n Chile to nw Argentina

.

.

3 Trumpeters Family Psophiidae PS Proposed revision of trumpeter species taxonomy under review (Ribas et al 2012, SACC 607)

.

Psophia Linnaeus, 1758

.

Grey-winged Trumpeter Psophia crepitans Linnaeus, 1758 SA : n Amazonia

.

P. c. crepitans Linnaeus, 1758 Venezuela and se Colombia through the Guianas and n Brazil

.

P. c. napensis Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1873 se Colombia to ne Peru and nw Brazil

.

Pale-winged Trumpeter Psophia leucoptera von Spix, 1825 SA : w Amazonia

.

P. l. leucoptera von Spix, 1825 e Peru, ne Bolivia, wc Brazil

.

P. l. ochroptera Pelzeln, 1857 ne Brazil

.

Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis von Spix, 1825 SA : s Amazonia PS Three subspecies of Dark-winged Trumpeter may deserve species status (Oppenheimer & Silveira 2009)

.

P. v. viridis von Spix, 1825 from Rio Madeira to Rio Tapajós (c Brazil)

.

P. v. dextralis Conover, 1934 from Rio Tapajós to Rio Tocantins (ec Brazil)

.

P. v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857 from Rio Tocantins through ne Para (ne Brazil)

.

.

15 Cranes Family Gruidae

.

Balearica Brisson, 1760

.

Grey Crowned Crane Balearica regulorum (Bennett, ET, 1834) AF : e, se

.

B. r. gibbericeps Reichenow, 1892 s Uganda and Kenya to n Zimbabwe and n Mozambique

.

B. r. regulorum (Bennett, ET, 1834) s Angola and n Namibia to Zimbabwe and e South Africa

.

Black Crowned Crane Balearica pavonina (Linnaeus, 1758) AF : ne, c, w

.

B. p. ceciliae Mitchell, 1904 Senegal and Gambia to Chad

.

B. p. pavonina (Linnaeus, 1758) sw Chad to w Ethiopia to n w Kenya and n Uganda

.

Grus Brisson, 1760 TAX, SEQ Grus includes embedded genera Anthropoides and Bugeranus; resquence to follow Krajewski et al (2010)

.

Siberian Crane Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773 EU : nw and ec Siberia PHY, TAX canadensis clade of Grus cranes may deserve generic recognition (Krajewski et al 2010; Fjeldså comm)

.

Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : widespread

.

G. c. canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) ne Siberia through Alaska and n Canada to Baffin I.

.

G. c. tabida (Peters, JL, 1925) s Canada, w and c USA SSP Includes rowani. Clinal. Insignificant genetic differentiation. Rhymer et al, 2001

.

G. c. pratensis Meyer, FAA, 1794 Georgia and Florida (USA)

.

G. c. pulla Aldrich, 1972 Mississippi (USA)

.

G. c. nesiotes Bangs & Zappey, 1905 Cuba, Isle of Pines

.

White-naped Crane Grus vipio Pallas, 1811 EU : se Siberia, ne Mongolia and ne China

.

Sarus Crane Grus antigone (Linnaeus, 1758) OR, AU : n India, Southeast Asia, n Australia

.

G. a. antigone (Linnaeus, 1758) n India, Nepal, Bangladesh

.

G. a. sharpii Blanford, 1895 Cambodia, s Laos

.

G. a. gillae Schodde, Blackman & Haffenden, 1989 ne Australia

.

Brolga Grus rubicunda (Perry, 1810) AU : s New Guinea, Australia

.

Demoiselle Crane Grus virgo (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : nw Africa, e Turkey, sw Russia to n China

.

Blue Crane Grus paradisea (Lichtenstein, AAH, 1793) AF : South Africa

.

Wattled Crane Grus carunculata (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : DRCongo and Tanzania to Botswana; Zimbabwe and South Africa

.

Red-crowned Crane Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776) EU : se Siberia, ne China and Japan

.

Whooping Crane Grus americana (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : c Canada, c USA

.

Common Crane Grus grus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread SSP Treated as monotypic following Archibald & Meine, 1996. Includes lilfordi and archibaldi.

.

Hooded Crane Grus monacha Temminck, 1835 EU : se Siberia and n China

.

Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis Przewalski, 1876 EU : Tibet and wc China

.

.

1 Limpkin Family Aramidae

.

Aramus Vieillot, 1816

.

Limpkin Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766) NA, LA : se USA to Argentina

.

A. g. pictus (Meyer, FAA, 1794) Florida (USA), Cuba, Jamaica

.

A. g. elucus Peters, JL, 1925 Hispaniola, Puerto Rico

.

A. g. dolosus Peters, JL, 1925 se Mexico to Panama

.

A. g. guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766) n South America to Paraguay and Argentina