"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Hamerkop, Shoebill, pelicans, boobies & cormorants

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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1 Hamerkop Family Scopidae

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Scopus Brisson, 1760

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Hamerkop Scopus umbretta Gmelin, JF, 1789 AF : also sw Arabian Peninsula

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S. u. umbretta Gmelin, JF, 1789 tropical Africa, Madagascar, sw Arabia

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S. u. minor Bates, 1931 coastal w Africa

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1 Shoebill Family Balaenicipitidae

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Balaeniceps Gould, 1850

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Shoebill Balaeniceps rex Gould, 1850 AF : s Sudan, Uganda and wsw Ethiopia to se DRCongo and n Zambia

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8 Pelicans Family Pelecanidae

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Pelecanus Linnaeus, 1758

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Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus Linnaeus, 1758 EU, AF : e Europe to c Asia, Africa south of the Sahara

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Pink-backed Pelican Pelecanus rufescens Gmelin, JF, 1789 AF : widespread south tof the Sahara

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Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis Gmelin, JF, 1789 OR : se India, Sri Lanka, Sumatra

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Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus Bruch, 1832 EU : se Europe to China

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Australian Pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus Temminck, 1824 AU : widespread

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American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, JF, 1789 NA : sc Canada to c USA

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Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 NA, LA : coasts, Caribbean

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P. o. californicus Ridgway, 1884 coasts of w USA and w Mexican

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P. o. carolinensis Gmelin, JF, 1789 Atlantic coasts of temperate and tropical Americas

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P. o. murphyi Wetmore, 1945 coasts of w Colombia and Ecuador

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P. o. occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 West Indies

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P. o. urinator Wetmore, 1945 Galapagos Is.

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Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus Molina, 1782 SA : coastal Peru and Chile

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ORDER SULIFORMES

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5 Frigatebirds Family Fregatidae

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Fregata Lacépède, 1799

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Ascension Frigatebird Fregata aquila (Linnaeus, 1758) AO : se

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Christmas Frigatebird Fregata andrewsi Mathews, 1914 IO : ne

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Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914 AO, PO : Cape Verde Is, Caribbean, e Pacific

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Great Frigatebird Fregata minor (Gmelin, JF, 1789) TrO : widespread

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F. m. nicolli Mathews, 1914 s Atlantic

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F. m. aldabrensis Mathews, 1914 w Indian Ocean

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F. m. minor (Gmelin, JF, 1789) c and e Indian Ocean to South China Sea

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F. m. palmerstoni (Gmelin, JF, 1789) w and c Pacific

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F. m. ridgwayi Mathews, 1914 e Pacific

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Lesser Frigatebird Fregata ariel (Gray, GR, 1845) TrO : widespread

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F. a. trinitatis Miranda-Ribeiro, 1919 s Atlantic

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F. a. iredalei Mathews, 1914 w Indian Ocean

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F. a. ariel (Gray, GR, 1845) e Indian Ocean to c Pacific

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10 Gannets, Boobies Family Sulidae

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Morus Vieillot, 1816

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Northern Gannet Morus bassanus (Linnaeus, 1758) AO : n

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Cape Gannet Morus capensis (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) AF : s coasts

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Australasian Gannet Morus serrator (Gray, GR, 1843) AU : Australia, New Zealand

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Papasula Olson & Warheit, 1988

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Abbott's Booby Papasula abbotti (Ridgway, 1893) IO : ne

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Sula Brisson, 1760

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Blue-footed Booby Sula nebouxii Milne-Edwards, 1882 PO : ec

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S. n. nebouxii Milne-Edwards, 1882 Pacific coast from s California (USA) to Peru

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S. n. excisa Todd, 1948 Galapagos Is.

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Peruvian Booby Sula variegata (Tschudi, 1843) SA : w coast

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Masked Booby Sula dactylatra Lesson, 1831 TrO : widespread

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S. d. dactylatra Lesson, 1831 Caribbean and sw Atlantic islands

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S. d. melanops Hartlaub, 1859 Red Sea, nw Indian Ocean

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S. d. tasmani van Tets, Meredith, Fullagar & Davidson, P, 1988 Tasman Sea

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S. d. personata Gould, 1846 s, e Indian Ocean and the Pacific to islands off w Mexico and w South America. SSP Includes bedouti and californica. Nelson, 2005; Pitman & Jehl, 1998.

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Nazca Booby Sula granti Rothschild, 1902 PO : ec

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Red-footed Booby Sula sula (Linnaeus, 1766) TrO : widespread

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S. s. sula (Linnaeus, 1766) Caribbean and sw Atlantic islands

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S. s. rubripes Gould, 1838 tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans

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S. s. websteri Rothschild, 1898 ec Pacific

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Brown Booby Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783) TrO : widespread

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S. l. leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783) Caribbean and Atlantic Is.

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S. l. brewsteri Goss, 1888 coasts of w USA and w Mexico

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S. l. etesiaca Thayer & Bangs, 1905 Pacific coasts of Central America and Colombia

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S. l. plotus (Forster, JR, 1844) Red Sea through the Indian Ocean to the w and c Pacific

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41 Cormorants, Shags Family Phalacrocoracidae TAX The genera of cormorants and the distinctions between "shags" and "cormorants" remain mostly unresolved due to conflicts among studies and missing taxa (Siegel-Causey 1988, Kennedy et al 2000, Christidis & Boles 2008). See Kennedy & Spencer 2014 for revised classification under IOC review.

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Microcarbo Bonaparte, 1856 TAX Microcarbo cormorants are split from Phalacrocorax (Siegel-Causey 1988, Kennedy et al 2000, Christidis &  Boles 2008)

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Little Pied Cormorant Microcarbo melanoleucos (Vieillot, 1817) AU : widespread

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M. m. melanoleucos (Vieillot, 1817) Lesser Sundas to Australia

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M. m. brevicauda (Mayr, 1931) Rennell I. (Solomon Is.)

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M. m. brevirostris (Gould, 1837) New Zealand

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Reed Cormorant Microcarbo africanus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : widespread

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M. a. africanus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Africa south of the Sahara

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M. a. pictilis (Bangs, 1918) Madagascar

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Crowned Cormorant Microcarbo coronatus (Wahlberg, 1855) AF : sw coast

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Little Cormorant Microcarbo niger (Vieillot, 1817) OR : widespread

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Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmeus (Pallas, 1773) EU : se Europe

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Phalacrocorax Brisson, 1760

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Red-legged Cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi (Lesson & Garnot, 1828) SA : w coast TAX, ENG Red-legged Cormorant likely represents a monotypic clade; default to Phalacrocorax for now (Kennedy et al 2000; Christidis and Boles 2008); Change English name from Shag to Cormorant

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Flightless Cormorant Phalacrocorax harrisi Rothschild, 1898 SA : Galápagos Islands PHY, TAX Flightless Cormorant is most closely related to Double-crested and Neotropic cormorants in Phalacrocorax (Kennedy et al 2009)

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Bank Cormorant Phalacrocorax neglectus (Wahlberg, 1855) AF : sw coast

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Spotted Shag Phalacrocorax punctatus (Sparrman, 1786) AU : New Zealand

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P. p. punctatus (Sparrman, 1786) North and South Is.

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P. p. oliveri Mathews, 1930 Stewart I.

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Pitt Shag Phalacrocorax featherstoni Buller, 1873 AU : Chatham Islands

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Pallas's Cormorant Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Pallas, 1811 EU, NA : Bering Sea islands

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Brandt's Cormorant Phalacrocorax penicillatus (von Brandt, JF, 1837) NA : w coast

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Pelagic Cormorant Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas, 1811 PO : n coasts ENG Change  English name of Phalacrocorax pelagicus to Pelagic Cormorant to follow AOU

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P. p. pelagicus Pallas, 1811 n Pacific islands and coasts

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P. p. resplendens Audubon, 1838 Pacific coast from Canada to Mexico

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Red-faced Cormorant Phalacrocorax urile (Gmelin, JF, 1789) PO : n coasts ENG Change English name of Phalacrocorax urile to Red-faced Cormorant to follow AOU

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Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) LA : widespread,also s USA

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P. b. mexicanus (von Brandt, JF, 1837) s USA to Cuba and Nicaragua

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P. b. brasilianus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Costa Rica to Tierra del Fuego

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Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson, 1831) NA, MA : widespread

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P. a. cincinatus (von Brandt, JF, 1837) s Alaska to sw Canada

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P. a. albociliatus Ridgway, 1884 sw Canada to s California

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P. a. auritus (Lesson, 1831) c and e Canada, ne USA

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P. a. floridanus (Audubon, 1835) s and se USA

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P. a. heuretus Watson, Olson & Miller, JR, 1991 Cuba, Bahamas

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European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus, 1761) EU : w coasts, also n AF

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P. a. aristotelis (Linnaeus, 1761) Iceland, w Europe

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P. a. riggenbachi Hartert, 1923 w coast of Morocco

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P. a. desmarestii (Payraudeau, 1826) Mediterranean coasts and islands

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Black-faced Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscescens (Vieillot, 1817) AU : s Australian coast

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Indian Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Stephens, 1826 OR : India, Southeast Asia

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Little Black Cormorant Phalacrocorax sulcirostris (von Brandt, JF, 1837) AU : widespread, also to Indonesia

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Australian Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax varius (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AU : Australia, New Zealand

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P. v. hypoleucos (von Brandt, JF, 1837) Australia, Tasmania

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P. v. varius (Gmelin, JF, 1789) New Zealand

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Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, AU, OR : also ne NA, n AF

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P. c. carbo (Linnaeus, 1758) ne USA and e Canada to w Europe

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P. c. sinensis (Staunton, 1796) c Europe to India and China

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P. c. hanedae Kuroda, 1925 Japan

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P. c. maroccanus Hartert, 1906 nw Africa

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P. c. novaehollandiae Stephens, 1826 Australia and New Zealand

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White-breasted Cormorant Phalacrocorax lucidus (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) AF : widespread south of the Sahara

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Japanese Cormorant Phalacrocorax capillatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1849) EU : ne Asia

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Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis (Sparrman, 1788) AF : s coasts

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Socotra Cormorant Phalacrocorax nigrogularis Ogilvie-Grant & Forbes, HO, 1899 EU : Persian Gulf

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Rock Shag Phalacrocorax magellanicus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : s coasts

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Leucocarbo Bonaparte, 1856 TAX Genus Leucocarbo includes at least 10 core species (Kennedy et al. 2000; Christidis and Boles 2008)

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Guanay Cormorant Leucocarbo bougainvillii (Lesson, 1837) SA : w coast

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Imperial Shag Leucocarbo atriceps (King, PP, 1828) SA : coasts of s South America, Falkland Is TAX Includes albiventer; sympatry of King Shag and Imperial Shag in s SA needs study to resolve status as species or color morph (Rasmussen 2004, Jaramillo 2003); best to lump as do HBW, SACC

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L. a. atriceps (King, PP, 1828) s South America

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L. a. albiventer (Lesson, 1831) Falkland Is.

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South Georgia Shag Leucocarbo georgianus (Lönnberg, 1906) SO : South Georgia,South Sandwich and South Orkney Is AS Split members of Imperial Shag complex (Orta 1992, Jaramillo 2003, HANZAB, HBW)

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Antarctic Shag Leucocarbo bransfieldensis (Murphy, 1936) SO : South Shetland Is, Antarctica Peninsula AS Split members of Imperial Shag complex (Orta 1992, Jaramillo 2003, HANZAB, HBW) SACC needs proposal

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Heard Island Shag Leucocarbo nivalis (Falla, 1937) SO : Heard Is (s Indian Ocean) AS Split members of Imperial Shag complex (Orta 1992, Jaramillo 2003, HANZAB, HBW)

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Crozet Shag Leucocarbo melanogenis (Blyth, 1860) SO : Prince Edward, Marion and Crozet Is AS Split members of Imperial Shag complex (Orta 1992, Jaramillo 2003, HANZAB, HBW)

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Macquarie Shag Leucocarbo purpurascens (von Brandt, JF, 1837) SO : Macquarie Is and nearby rocks AS Split members of Imperial Shag complex (Orta 1992, Jaramillo 2003, HANZAB, HBW)

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Kerguelen Shag Leucocarbo verrucosus (Cabanis, 1875) IO : Kerguelen Islands

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Rough-faced Shag Leucocarbo carunculatus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AU : New Zealand, South Island

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Bronze Shag Leucocarbo chalconotus (Gray, GR, 1845) AU : New Zealand, Stewart Island

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Chatham Shag Leucocarbo onslowi (Forbes, HO, 1893) AU : Chatham Islands

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Campbell Shag Leucocarbo campbelli (Filhol, 1878) AU : Campbell Island

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Auckland Shag Leucocarbo colensoi (Buller, 1888) AU : Auckland Islands

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Bounty Shag Leucocarbo ranfurlyi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1901) AU : Bounty Island

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4 Anhingas, Darters Family Anhingidae

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Anhinga Brisson, 1760

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Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster Pennant, 1769 OR : Pakistan to se Asia through Greater Sundas, Sulawesi and Philippines. ENG Change  English name of Anhinga melanogaster from Darter to Oriental Darter with split of A. rufa and A. novaehollandiae

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African Darter Anhinga rufa (Daudin, 1802) AF, EU : Subsaharan Africa, Madagascar, Near East AS Anhinga rufa is split from A. melanogaster (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Kennedy et al. 2005, Schodde et al 2012).

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A. r. rufa (Daudin, 1802) Africa south of the Sahara

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A. r. vulsini Bangs, 1918 Madagascar

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A. r. chantrei (Oustalet, 1882) (sc Turkey), se Iraq

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Australasian Darter Anhinga novaehollandiae (Gould, 1847) AU : New Guinea, Australia AS Anhinga novaehollandiae is split from A. melanogaster (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Christidis & Boles 2008, Kennedy et al. 2005, Schodde et al 2012).

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A. n. papua Rand, 1938 New Guinea

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A. n. novaehollandiae (Gould, 1847) Australia

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Anhinga Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus, 1766) NA, LA : sc and se USA to n Argentina

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A. a. leucogaster (Vieillot, 1816) se USA to Colombia, Cuba

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A. a. anhinga (Linnaeus, 1766) Trinidad, Tobago, Colombia to n Argentina