"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Nuthatches, Wallcreeper, treecreepers, mockingbirds, starlings & oxpeckers

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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28 Nuthatches Family Sittidae

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Sitta Linnaeus, 1758

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Eurasian Nuthatch Sitta europaea Linnaeus, 1758 EU : widespread

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S. e. caesia Wolf, 1810 w, c and se Europe

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S. e. europaea Linnaeus, 1758 n and e Europe

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S. e. hispaniensis Witherby, 1913 Portugal, Spain and n Morocco

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S. e. cisalpina Sachtleben, 1919 Switzerland, Croatia, Italy and Sicily

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S. e. levantina Hartert, 1905 s Turkey, n Syria and n Lebanon

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S. e. persica Witherby, 1903 se Turkey, n Iraq and w Iran

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S. e. caucasica Reichenow, 1901 ne Turkey to sw Russia

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S. e. rubiginosa Tschusi & Zarudny, 1905 n Iran and Azerbaijan

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S. e. asiatica Gould, 1835 c Russia to e Siberia, Hokkaido (n Japan) and nw Manchuria (ne China)

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S. e. albifrons Taczanowski, 1882 ne Siberia and the n Kuril Is.

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S. e. amurensis Swinhoe, 1871 se Siberia, Korea, c and s Japan and Hebei to ne Manchuria (ne China)

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S. e. roseilia Bonaparte, 1850 s Kyushu (extreme s Japan)

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S. e. bedfordi Ogilvie-Grant, 1909 Cheju I. (off South Korea)

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S. e. seorsa Portenko, 1955 nw China

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S. e. sinensis Verreaux, J, 1871 nc and e China

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Siberian Nuthatch Sitta arctica Buturlin, 1907 EU : ne Siberia AS Sitta arctica is split from S. europaea (Zink et al. 2006, Red’kin & Konovalova 2006, Collar 2007)

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Chestnut-vented Nuthatch Sitta nagaensis Godwin-Austen, 1874 OR : Tibet to sc Vietnam

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S. n. montium La Touche, 1899 e Tibet, s and e China, e Burma and nw Thailand

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S. n. nagaensis Godwin-Austen, 1874 ne India and w Burma

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S. n. grisiventris Kinnear, 1920 sw Burma and s Indochina

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Kashmir Nuthatch Sitta cashmirensis Brooks, WE, 1871 OR : sc

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Indian Nuthatch Sitta castanea Lesson, 1830 OR : India ENG Change  English name of Sitta castanea from Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch to Indian Nuthatch, with split of S. cinnamoventris and S. neglecta

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S. c. castanea Lesson, 1830 n and c India

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S. c. prateri Whistler & Kinnear, 1932 e India

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Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch Sitta cinnamoventris Blyth, 1842 OR : n Pakistan to n Southeast Asia AS Sitta cinnamoventris is split from S. castanea (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005)

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S. c. almorae Kinnear & Whistler, 1930 foothills of w and c Himalayas

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S. c. cinnamoventris Blyth, 1842 foothills of e Himalayas to s China and ne Burma

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S. c. koelzi Vaurie, 1950 ne India and w Burma

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S. c. tonkinensis Kinnear, 1936 s China and n Indochina

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Burmese Nuthatch Sitta neglecta Walden, 1870 OR : Burma to s Vietnam AS Sitta neglecta is split from S. castanea (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005)

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White-tailed Nuthatch Sitta himalayensis Jardine & Selby, 1835 OR : Himalayas to nw Vietnam

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White-browed Nuthatch Sitta victoriae Rippon, 1904 OR : w Burma

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Pygmy Nuthatch Sitta pygmaea Vigors, 1839 NA, MA : sw Canada to w Mexico

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S. p. melanotis van Rossem, 1929 sw Canada and mountains of w and wc USA s to nw Mexico

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S. p. pygmaea Vigors, 1839 c coastal California (w USA)

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S. p. leuconucha Anthony, 1889 sw California (sw USA) and Baja California (nw Mexico)

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S. p. elii Phillips, AR, 1986 n Mexico

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S. p. flavinucha van Rossem, 1939 e Mexico

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S. p. brunnescens Norris, RA, 1958 sw Mexico

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Brown-headed Nuthatch Sitta pusilla Latham, 1790 NA : se USA

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S. p. pusilla Latham, 1790 se and sc USA

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S. p. insularis Bond, 1931 Grand Bahama I.

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Corsican Nuthatch Sitta whiteheadi Sharpe, 1884 EU : Corsica

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Algerian Nuthatch Sitta ledanti Vielliard, 1976 AF : Algeria

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Krüper's Nuthatch Sitta krueperi Pelzeln, 1863 EU : e Greece through Turkey

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Yunnan Nuthatch Sitta yunnanensis Ogilvie-Grant, 1900 OR : sw China

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Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta canadensis Linnaeus, 1766 NA : widespread

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Chinese Nuthatch Sitta villosa Verreaux, J, 1865 EU : e

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S. v. bangsi Stresemann, 1929 c China

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S. v. villosa Verreaux, J, 1865 se Siberia, Korea and ne China

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White-cheeked Nuthatch Sitta leucopsis Gould, 1850 OR : w Himalayas

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Przevalski's Nuthatch Sitta przewalskii Berezowski & Bianchi, 1891 EU : se Tibet, wc China AS Sitta przewalskii is split from S. leucopsis (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005)

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White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis Latham, 1790 NA : widespread, also n Mexico PS See Walstrom et al 2012 for species revisions that NACC 2013-C-2 declined in favor of full study

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S. c. carolinensis Latham, 1790 c and e Canada, c and e USA

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S. c. aculeata Cassin, 1856 Pacific slope of w USA

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S. c. alexandrae Grinnell, 1926 n Baja California (nw Mexico)

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S. c. tenuissima Grinnell, 1918 eastern slope and inland w USA

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S. c. nelsoni Mearns, 1902 wc and sc USA, n Mexico

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S. c. mexicana Nelson & Palmer, TS, 1894 w, c, e and s Mexico

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S. c. lagunae Brewster, 1891 s Baja California (nw Mexico)

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Western Rock Nuthatch Sitta neumayer Michahelles, 1830 EU : sw

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S. n. neumayer Michahelles, 1830 se Europe

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S. n. syriaca Brehm, CL, 1831 se Turkey to n Israel

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S. n. rupicola Blanford, 1873 n Turkey to the Caucasus, n Iran and n Iraq

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S. n. tschitscherini Zarudny, 1904 w Iran

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S. n. plumbea Koelz, 1950 sc Iran

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Eastern Rock Nuthatch Sitta tephronota Sharpe, 1872 EU : sc

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S. t. dresseri Zarudny & Buturlin, 1906 se Turkey to n Iraq and w Iran

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S. t. obscura Zarudny & Loudon, 1905 ne Turkey to the Caucasus and Iran

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S. t. tephronota Sharpe, 1872 e Turkmenistan to s Kazakhstan, Afghanistan and w Pakistan

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S. t. iranica (Buturlin, 1916) ne Iran and s Turkmenistan

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Velvet-fronted Nuthatch Sitta frontalis Swainson, 1820 OR : widespread

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S. f. frontalis Swainson, 1820 c Himalayas and India to Indochina

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S. f. saturatior Hartert, 1902 Malay Pen., n Sumatra and nearby islands

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S. f. corallipes (Sharpe, 1888) Borneo

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S. f. palawana Hartert, 1905 Palawan (w Philippines)

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S. f. velata Temminck, 1821 s Sumatra and Java

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Yellow-billed Nuthatch Sitta solangiae (Delacour & Jabouille, 1930) OR : Vietnam, Laos, se China

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S. s. solangiae (Delacour & Jabouille, 1930) n Vietnam

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S. s. fortior Delacour & Greenway, 1939 se Laos, c and s Vietnam

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S. s. chienfengensis Cheng, Ting & Wang, 1964 Hainan I. (off se China)

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Sulphur-billed Nuthatch Sitta oenochlamys (Sharpe, 1877) OR : Philippines

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S. o. mesoleuca (Ogilvie-Grant, 1894) nw Luzon

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S. o. isarog Rand & Rabor, 1967 Luzon except nw

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S. o. lilacea (Whitehead, J, 1897) ec Philippines

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S. o. apo (Hachisuka, 1930) Mindanao except Zamboanga Pen.

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S. o. zamboanga Rand & Rabor, 1957 Zamboanga Pen. (w Mindanao), Basilan and e Bolod I.

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S. o. oenochlamys (Sharpe, 1877) wc Philippines

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Blue Nuthatch Sitta azurea Lesson, 1830 OR : Malaysia, Sumatra, Java

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S. a. expectata (Hartert, 1914) Malay Pen. and Sumatra

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S. a. nigriventer (Robinson & Kloss, 1919) w Java

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S. a. azurea Lesson, 1830 c and e Java

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Giant Nuthatch Sitta magna Ramsay, RGW, 1876 OR : sc China to nw Thailand

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S. m. ligea Deignan, 1938 sc China

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S. m. magna Ramsay, RGW, 1876 c Burma, s China and nw Thailand

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Beautiful Nuthatch Sitta formosa Blyth, 1843 OR : Himalayas to nw Vietnam

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1 Wallcreeper Family Tichodromidae

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Tichodroma Illiger, 1811

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Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria (Linnaeus, 1766) EU : s Europe to c China

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T. m. muraria (Linnaeus, 1766) s and e Europe to the Caucasus and w Iran

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T. m. nepalensis Bonaparte, 1850 Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and e Iran to e China

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11 Treecreepers Family Certhiidae

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Certhia Linnaeus, 1758

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Eurasian Treecreeper Certhia familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 EU : widespread

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C. f. brittanica Ridgway, 1882 Ireland and Britain

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C. f. macrodactyla Brehm, CL, 1831 w and c Europe

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C. f. corsa Hartert, 1905 Corsica

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C. f. familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 n and e Europe

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C. f. daurica Domaniewski, 1922 s Siberia and n Kazakhstan to se Siberia, n Japan, Korea and ne China

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C. f. caucasica Buturlin, 1907 n Turkey through the Caucasus

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C. f. persica Zarudny & Loudon, 1905 se Azerbaijan and n Iran

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C. f. bianchii Hartert, 1905 n and c China

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C. f. tianschanica Hartert, 1905 se Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and nw China

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C. f. japonica Hartert, 1897 s Japan

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Hodgson's Treecreeper Certhia hodgsoni Brooks, WE, 1871 OR : sw China, n Pakistan, n Indian sub-continent, se Tibet and extreme ne Burma. AS Certhia hodgsoni is split from C.familiaris (Tietze et al. 2006, BLI 1.0)

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C. h. hodgsoni Brooks, WE, 1871 w Himalayas

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C. h. mandellii Brooks, WE, 1874 c Himalayas

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C. h. khamensis Bianchi, 1903 sw and s China

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Brown Creeper Certhia americana Bonaparte, 1838 NA, MA : widespread PS Middle American populations of Brown Creeper are strongly divergent from North American populations and candidate for species status (Manthey et al 2010)

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C. a. alascensis Webster, JD, 1986 sc Alaska

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C. a. occidentalis Ridgway, 1882 se Alaska, w Canada and w USA

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C. a. stewarti Webster, JD, 1986 islands off British Columbia (sw Canada)

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C. a. zelotes Osgood, 1901 mountains of s Oregon to n, e and s California (w USA)

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C. a. phillipsi Unitt & Rea, 1997 c California (w USA)

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C. a. montana Ridgway, 1882 interior sw Canada to nc and c USA

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C. a. leucosticta van Rossem, 1931 s Nevada and Utah (wc USA)

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C. a. americana Bonaparte, 1838 s and e Canada, nc and ne USA

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C. a. nigrescens Burleigh, 1935 ec USA

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C. a. albescens von Berlepsch, 1888 sw USA and nw Mexico

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C. a. guerrerensis van Rossem, 1939 sw Mexico

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C. a. jaliscensis Miller, W & Griscom, 1925 w Mexico

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C. a. alticola Miller, GS, 1895 c and se Mexico

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C. a. pernigra Griscom, 1935 s Mexico and Guatemala

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C. a. extima Miller, W & Griscom, 1925 e Guatemala to Nicaragua

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Short-toed Treecreeper Certhia brachydactyla Brehm, CL, 1820 EU : w, also nw Africa

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C. b. megarhynchos Brehm, CL, 1831 w Europe

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C. b. brachydactyla Brehm, CL, 1820 s Europe TAX Includes C. b. harterti. HBW 13, p. 183

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C. b. mauritanica Witherby, 1905 nw Africa

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C. b. dorotheae Hartert, 1904 s Greece, Crete and Cyprus

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C. b. stresemanni Kummerlöwe & Niethammer, 1934 Turkey

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C. b. rossocaucasica Stepanyan, 2000 nw Caucasus

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Bar-tailed Treecreeper Certhia himalayana Vigors, 1832 EU : Himalayas

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C. h. taeniura Severtsov, 1873 mountains of c Asia

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C. h. himalayana Vigors, 1832 e Afghanistan to c Himalayas

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C. h. yunnanensis Sharpe, 1902 e Tibet and n Burma to c China

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C. h. ripponi Kinnear, 1929 sw Burma

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Rusty-flanked Treecreeper Certhia nipalensis Blyth, 1845 OR : Himalayas to ne Burma

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Sikkim Treecreeper Certhia discolor Blyth, 1845 OR : Nepal, Tibet, ne India ENG Change English name of Certhia discolor to Sikkim Treecreeper, reserving Brown-throated Treecreeper for species complex (Rasmussen and Anderton 2012)

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Hume's Treecreeper Certhia manipurensis Hume, 1881 OR : Himalayas to sc Vietnam AS, ENG Certhia manipurensis is split from C.discolor (Tietze et al. 2006;BLI)  Change  English name of Certhia manipurensis from Manipur Treecreeper to Hume's Treecreeper (Martens & Tietze 2006, Collar 2007)

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C. m. manipurensis Hume, 1881 ne India and w Burma

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C. m. shanensis Baker, ECS, 1930 n Burma and sw China to w and n Thailand and nw Vietnam

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C. m. laotiana Delacour, 1951 nc Laos

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C. m. meridionalis Robinson & Kloss, 1919 sc Vietnam

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Sichuan Treecreeper Certhia tianquanensis Li, G, 1995 OR : sc China

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Salpornis Gray, GR, 1847

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Indian Spotted Creeper Salpornis spilonotus (Franklin, 1831) OR : w, c India ENG Revise English name to Indian Spotted Creeper with split of African Spotted Creeper

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S. s. rajputanae Meinertzhagen, R & Meinertzhagen, A, 1926 w India

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S. s. spilonotus (Franklin, 1831) c India

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African Spotted Creeper Salpornis salvadori (Barboza du Bocage, 1878) AF : Senegal and Ethiopia south to Zimbabwe, Mozambique AS African Spotted Creeper is split from [Indian] Spotted Creeper (Tietze & Mertens 2010; Rasmussen & Anderton 2012, see also HBW 13)

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S. s. emini Hartlaub, 1884 Senegal and Gambia to nw Uganda and ne DRCongo

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S. s. erlangeri Neumann, 1907 w and s Ethiopia

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S. s. salvadori (Barboza du Bocage, 1878) w Kenya, c Angola to s Tanzania and n Mozambique

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S. s. xylodromus Clancey, 1975 c Zimbabwe and w Mozambique

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34 Mockingbirds, Thrashers Family Mimidae

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Dumetella Wood, CT, 1837

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Grey Catbird Dumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : widespread

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Melanoptila Sclater, PL, 1858

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Black Catbird Melanoptila glabrirostris Sclater, PL, 1858 MA : s Mexico to Honduras

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Mimus Boie, F, 1826

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Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, MA : s Canada to s Mexico

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M. p. polyglottos (Linnaeus, 1758) s Canada through the USA to s Mexico

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M. p. orpheus (Linnaeus, 1758) Bahamas to Greater Antilles, Cayman Is. and Virgin Is.

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Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus (Vieillot, 1808) LA : S Mexico to El Salvador, n, e SA

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M. g. gracilis Cabanis, 1850 s Mexico to Honduras and El Salvador

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M. g. leucophaeus Ridgway, 1888 Yucatan Pen. (se Mexico) and Cozumel I. (off se Mexico)

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M. g. antillarum Hellmayr & Seilern, 1915 Lesser Antilles south from Antigua

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M. g. tobagensis Dalmas, 1900 Trinidad and Tobago

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M. g. rostratus Ridgway, 1884 islands off n Venezuela

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M. g. melanopterus Lawrence, 1849 n Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and n Brazil

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M. g. gilvus (Vieillot, 1808) Suriname and French Guiana

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M. g. tolimensis Ridgway, 1904 e El Salvador to c Panama, w and c Colombia to n Ecuador

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M. g. antelius Oberholser, 1919 ne and e Brazil

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M. g. magnirostris Cory, 1887 San Andrés I. (off e Nicaragua)

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Bahama Mockingbird Mimus gundlachii Cabanis, 1855 NA : Bahamas, Jamaica

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M. g. gundlachii Cabanis, 1855 Bahamas, islets off n Cuba, Turks and Caicos Is.

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M. g. hillii March, WT, 1864 s Jamaica

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Chilean Mockingbird Mimus thenca (Molina, 1782) SA : Chile

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Long-tailed Mockingbird Mimus longicaudatus Tschudi, 1844 SA : Ecuador, Peru

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M. l. platensis Chapman, 1924 La Plata I. (off w Ecuador)

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M. l. albogriseus Lesson, 1844 sw Ecuador

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M. l. longicaudatus Tschudi, 1844 w Peru

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M. l. maranonicus Carriker, 1933 nc Peru

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Chalk-browed Mockingbird Mimus saturninus (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) SA : Amazonia, se

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M. s. saturninus (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) s Suriname and n Brazil

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M. s. arenaceus Chapman, 1890 ne Brazil

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M. s. frater Hellmayr, 1903 c Bolivia to c Brazil

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M. s. modulator (Gould, 1836) e Bolivia and n Argentina to s Brazil and Uruguay

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Patagonian Mockingbird Mimus patagonicus (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) SA : Southern Cone

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White-banded Mockingbird Mimus triurus (Vieillot, 1818) SA : c, se

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Brown-backed Mockingbird Mimus dorsalis (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) SA : Bolivia, nw Argentina

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Galapagos Mockingbird Mimus parvulus (Gould, 1837) SA : Galápagos Islands TAX Merge 4 species of Galápagos mockingbirds (Nesomimus) into Mimus (Arbogast et al 2006, SACC 220)

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M. p. parvulus (Gould, 1837) Isabela, Fernandina, Daphne, Santa Cruz and nearby islets

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M. p. barringtoni (Rothschild, 1898) Santa Fe I.

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M. p. personatus (Ridgway, 1890) Pinta, Marchena, Santiago and Rabida Is.

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M. p. wenmani (Swarth, 1931) Wolf I.

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M. p. hulli (Rothschild, 1898) Darwin I.

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M. p. bauri (Ridgway, 1894) Genovesa I.

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Floreana Mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus (Gould, 1837) SA : Galápagos Islands

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Hood Mockingbird Mimus macdonaldi (Ridgway, 1890) SA : Galápagos Islands

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San Cristobal Mockingbird Mimus melanotis (Gould, 1837) SA : Galápagos Islands

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Socorro Mockingbird Mimus graysoni (Lawrence, 1871) MA : Socorro Island TAX, SEQ Move Socorro Mockingbird from monotypic genus Mimodes to Mimus (Barber et al 2004, NACC)

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Oreoscoptes Baird, SF, 1858

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Sage Thrasher Oreoscoptes montanus (Townsend, JK, 1837) NA : w, sw USA

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Toxostoma Wagler, 1831

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Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus, 1758) NA : c, e, se

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T. r. rufum (Linnaeus, 1758) se Canada to se USA

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T. r. longicauda (Baird, SF, 1858) sc Canada to s USA

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Long-billed Thrasher Toxostoma longirostre (Lafresnaye, 1838) NA, MA : s Texas, e Mexico

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T. l. sennetti (Ridgway, 1888) s Texas (s USA) and ne Mexico

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T. l. longirostre (Lafresnaye, 1838) e Mexico

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Cozumel Thrasher Toxostoma guttatum (Ridgway, 1885) MA : Cozumel Island

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Grey Thrasher Toxostoma cinereum (Xántus de Vésey, 1860) MA : Baja California

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T. c. mearnsi (Anthony, 1895) nw and c Baja California (nw Mexico)

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T. c. cinereum (Xántus de Vésey, 1860) c and s Baja California (nw Mexico)

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Bendire's Thrasher Toxostoma bendirei (Coues, 1873) NA, MA : sw USA, nw Mexico

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Ocellated Thrasher Toxostoma ocellatum (Sclater, PL, 1862) MA : Mexico

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T. o. ocellatum (Sclater, PL, 1862) sc Mexico

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T. o. villai Phillips, AR, 1986 s Mexico

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Curve-billed Thrasher Toxostoma curvirostre (Swainson, 1827) NA, MA : sw USA, Mexico

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T. c. palmeri (Coues, 1872) sw USA to c Sonora (nw Mexico)

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T. c. maculatum (Nelson, 1900) s Sonora, sw Chihuahua and n Sinaloa (nw Mexico)

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T. c. insularum van Rossem, 1930 islands off c Sonora coast (nw Mexico)

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T. c. occidentale (Ridgway, 1882) wc Mexico

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T. c. celsum Moore, RT, 1941 sc USA and nc Mexico

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T. c. oberholseri Law, 1928 s Texas (s USA) and ne Mexico

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T. c. curvirostre (Swainson, 1827) c and sc Mexico

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California Thrasher Toxostoma redivivum (Gambel, 1845) NA : California, also Baja California

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T. r. sonomae Grinnell, 1915 n California (w USA)

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T. r. redivivum (Gambel, 1845) s California (sw USA) and nw Mexico

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Crissal Thrasher Toxostoma crissale Henry, 1858 NA, MA : sw USA, n, c Mexico

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T. c. coloradense van Rossem, 1946 se California and nw Arizona (sw USA) and ne Baja California and nw Sonora (nw Mexico)

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T. c. crissale Henry, 1858 California, c Arizona to w Texas (sw USA) to nc Mexico

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T. c. dumosum Moore, RT, 1941 c Mexico

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Le Conte's Thrasher Toxostoma lecontei Lawrence, 1851 NA, MA : sw USA, nw Mexico

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T. l. lecontei Lawrence, 1851 sw USA and nw Mexico

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T. l. macmillanorum Phillips, AR, 1966 San Joaquin Valley in s California (sw USA)

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T. l. arenicola (Anthony, 1897) w Baja California (nw Mexico)

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Ramphocinclus Lafresnaye, 1843

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White-breasted Thrasher Ramphocinclus brachyurus (Vieillot, 1818) NA : Lesser Antilles

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R. b. brachyurus (Vieillot, 1818) Martinique

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R. b. sanctaeluciae Cory, 1887 St. Lucia

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Melanotis Bonaparte, 1850

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Blue Mockingbird Melanotis caerulescens (Swainson, 1827) MA : Mexico

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M. c. caerulescens (Swainson, 1827) c and s Mexico

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M. c. longirostris Nelson, 1898 Tres Marias I. (off w Mexico)

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Blue-and-white Mockingbird Melanotis hypoleucus Hartlaub, 1852 MA : s Mexico to El Salvador

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Allenia Cory, 1891

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Scaly-breasted Thrasher Allenia fusca (Statius Müller, 1776) NA : Lesser Antilles

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A. f. hypenema (Buden, 1993) n Lesser Antilles

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A. f. vincenti (Kratter, AW & Garrido, 1996) St. Vincent

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A. f. atlantica (Buden, 1993) Barbados

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A. f. schwartzi (Buden, 1993) St. Lucia

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A. f. fusca (Statius Müller, 1776) Dominica, Martinique and Grenada

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Margarops Sclater, PL, 1859

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Pearly-eyed Thrasher Margarops fuscatus (Vieillot, 1808) NA : West Indies

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M. f. fuscatus (Vieillot, 1808) Bahamas to the n Lesser Antilles

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M. f. klinikowskii Garrido & Remsen, 1996 St. Lucia (sc Lesser Antilles)

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M. f. densirostris (Vieillot, 1818) c Lesser Antilles

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M. f. bonairensis Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1948 Bonaire I. (off n Venezuela)

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Cinclocerthia Gray, GR, 1840

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Brown Trembler Cinclocerthia ruficauda (Gould, 1836) NA : Lesser Antilles

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C. r. pavida Ridgway, 1904 n Lesser Antilles

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C. r. tremula (Lafresnaye, 1843) Guadeloupe

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C. r. ruficauda (Gould, 1836) Dominica

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C. r. tenebrosa Ridgway, 1904 St. Vincent and Grenada

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Grey Trembler Cinclocerthia gutturalis (Lafresnaye, 1843) NA : Lesser Antilles

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C. g. gutturalis (Lafresnaye, 1843) Martinique

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C. g. macrorhyncha Sclater, PL, 1866 St. Lucia

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123 Starlings, Rhabdornis Family Sturnidae TAX Includes major revisions of genera by Lovette et al (2008), Zuccon et al (2008)

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Aplonis Gould, 1836

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Metallic Starling Aplonis metallica (Temminck, 1824) AU : Moluccas to ne Australia

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A. m. metallica (Temminck, 1824) Moluccas, New Guinea, ne Australia and most nearby islands

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A. m. nitida (Gray, GR, 1858) Bismarck Arch. (except nw) and Solomon Is.

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A. m. purpureiceps (Salvadori, 1878) Admiralty Is. (nw Bismarck Arch.)

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A. m. inornata (Salvadori, 1881) Numfor and Biak Is. (off nw New Guinea)

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Violet-hooded Starling Aplonis circumscripta (Meyer, AB, 1884) AU : Tanimbar Islands

.

Yellow-eyed Starling Aplonis mystacea (Ogilvie-Grant, 1911) AU : New Guinea

.

Singing Starling Aplonis cantoroides (Gray, GR, 1862) AU : New Guinea to Solomon Islands

.

Tanimbar Starling Aplonis crassa (Sclater, PL, 1883) AU : Tanimbar Islands

.

Atoll Starling Aplonis feadensis (Ramsay, EP, 1882) AU : Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands

.

A. f. heureka Meise, 1929 nw Bismarck Arch.

.

A. f. feadensis (Ramsay, EP, 1882) n Solomon Is.

.

Rennell Starling Aplonis insularis Mayr, 1931 AU : Solomon Islands

.

Long-tailed Starling Aplonis magna (Schlegel, 1871) AU : islands off nw New Guinea

.

A. m. magna (Schlegel, 1871) Biak I.

.

A. m. brevicauda (van Oort, 1908) Numfor I.

.

White-eyed Starling Aplonis brunneicapillus (Danis, 1938) AU : Solomon Islands

.

Brown-winged Starling Aplonis grandis (Salvadori, 1881) AU : Solomon Islands

.

A. g. grandis (Salvadori, 1881) n and c Solomon Is.

.

A. g. malaitae Mayr, 1931 Maliata (e Solomons)

.

A. g. macrura Mayr, 1931 Guadalcanal (se Solomons)

.

Makira Starling Aplonis dichroa (Tristram, 1895) AU : Solomon Islands

.

Rusty-winged Starling Aplonis zelandica (Quoy & Gaimard, 1832) AU : Santa Cruz Islands, Vanuatu

.

A. z. maxwellii Forbes, HO, 1900 Nendo (Santa Cruz Is.)

.

A. z. zelandica (Quoy & Gaimard, 1832) Vanikoro (Santa Cruz Is.)

.

A. z. rufipennis Layard, EL, 1881 Banks Is. (n Vanuatu), c Vanuatu

.

Striated Starling Aplonis striata (Gmelin, JF, 1788) AU : Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia

.

A. s. striata (Gmelin, JF, 1788) New Caledonia

.

A. s. atronitens Gray, GR, 1859 Loyalty Is.

.

Tasman Starling Aplonis fusca Gould, 1836 AU : Norfolk and Lord Howe Is.

.

A. f. fusca Gould, 1836 Norfolk I.

.

A. f. hulliana Mathews, 1912 Lord Howe I. (Australia)

.

Mountain Starling Aplonis santovestris Harrisson & Marshall, AJ, 1937 AU : Vanuatu ENG Change English name of Aplonis santovestris from Vanuatu Starling to Mountain Starling (Guy Dutson et al 2010)

.

Asian Glossy Starling Aplonis panayensis (Scopoli, 1786) OR : widespread

.

A. p. affinis (Blyth, 1846) ne India, Bangladesh and sw Burma

.

A. p. tytleri (Hume, 1873) Andaman and n Nicobar Is.

.

A. p. albiris Abdulali, 1967 c and s Nicobar Is.

.

A. p. strigata (Horsfield, 1821) Malay Pen., Sumatra, Java and w Borneo

.

A. p. altirostris (Salvadori, 1887) islands off nw Sumatra

.

A. p. pachistorhina (Oberholser, 1912) islands off w Sumatra

.

A. p. enganensis (Salvadori, 1892) Enggano I. (off sw Sumatra)

.

A. p. heterochlora (Oberholser, 1917) Anamba and Natuna Is. (between Malay Pen. and Borneo)

.

A. p. eustathis (Oberholser, 1926) e Borneo

.

A. p. alipodis (Oberholser, 1926) islands off e Borneo

.

A. p. gusti Stresemann, 1913 Bali

.

A. p. sanghirensis (Salvadori, 1876) islands off ne Sulawesi

.

A. p. panayensis (Scopoli, 1786) Sulawesi and the Philippines

.

Moluccan Starling Aplonis mysolensis (Gray, GR, 1862) AU : Moluccas

.

A. m. mysolensis (Gray, GR, 1862) Moluccas and west Papuan islands

.

A. m. sulaensis (Sharpe, 1890) Banggai and Sula Is. (e of Sulawesi)

.

Short-tailed Starling Aplonis minor (Bonaparte, 1850) AU : Sulawessi, lesser Sundas, also s Philippines

.

A. m. minor (Bonaparte, 1850) Sulawesi to Java and the Lesser Sundas

.

A. m. todayensis (Mearns, 1905) Mindanao (s Philippines)

.

Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca (Kittlitz, 1833) PO : Caroline Islands, Palau Islands, Mariana Islands

.

A. o. aenea Taka-Tsukasa & Yamashina, 1931 n Northern Mariana Is.

.

A. o. guami Momiyama, 1922 s Northern Mariana Is.

.

A. o. orii Taka-Tsukasa & Yamashina, 1931 Palau Is.

.

A. o. kurodai Momiyama, 1920 Yap (w Caroline Is.)

.

A. o. ponapensis Taka-Tsukasa & Yamashina, 1931 Pohnpei (ec Caroline Is.)

.

A. o. opaca (Kittlitz, 1833) Kosrae (e Caroline Is.)

.

A. o. anga Momiyama, 1922 Truk Is. (c Caroline Is.

.

Pohnpei Starling Aplonis pelzelni Finsch, 1876 PO : Caroline Islands

.

Polynesian Starling Aplonis tabuensis (Gmelin, JF, 1788) PO : s Polynesia

.

A. t. pachyrhampha Mayr, 1942 Santa Cruz Is.

.

A. t. tucopiae Mayr, 1942 Tucopia I. (se Santa Cruz Is.)

.

A. t. rotumae Mayr, 1942 Rotuma I. (n of Fiji)

.

A. t. vitiensis Layard, EL, 1876 Fiji (except e)

.

A. t. manuae Mayr, 1942 Manua I. (American Samoa)

.

A. t. tabuensis (Gmelin, JF, 1788) Lau Arch. (e Fiji) and Tonga Is.

.

A. t. fortunae Layard, EL, 1876 Horne Is. (ne of Fiji)

.

A. t. tenebrosa Mayr, 1942 n Tonga Is.

.

A. t. nesiotes Mayr, 1942 nw Tonga

.

A. t. brunnescens Sharpe, 1890 Niue I. (e of Tonga)

.

A. t. tutuilae Mayr, 1942 Tutuila I. (American Samoa)

.

A. t. brevirostris (Peale, 1848) Samoa

.

Samoan Starling Aplonis atrifusca (Peale, 1848) PO : Samoa

.

Kosrae Starling Aplonis corvina (Kittlitz, 1833) PO : Kosrae I. (Caroline Islands)

.

Mauke Starling Aplonis mavornata Buller, 1887 PO : Mauke I. (Cook Islands) Long known as "Mysterious Starling" until it's geographic origin was finally determined. Olson, 1986

.

Rarotonga Starling Aplonis cinerascens Hartlaub & Finsch, 1871 PO : Cook Islands

.

Mino Lesson, 1827

.

Yellow-faced Myna Mino dumontii Lesson, 1827 AU : New Guinea

.

Long-tailed Myna Mino kreffti (Sclater, PL, 1869) AU : Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands

.

M. k. giliau Stresemann, 1922 New Britain and Umboi (Bismarck Arch.)

.

M. k. kreffti (Sclater, PL, 1869) New Hanover, New Ireland (Bismarck Arch.), n and c Solomon Is.

.

M. k. sanfordi Hartert, 1929 Guadalcanal and Malaita (e Solomons)

.

Golden Myna Mino anais (Lesson, 1839) AU : New Guinea

.

M. a. anais (Lesson, 1839) west Papuan islands and nw New Guinea

.

M. a. orientalis (Schlegel, 1871) n and ne New Guinea

.

M. a. robertsonii D'Albertis, 1877 s New Guinea

.

Basilornis Bonaparte, 1850

.

Sulawesi Myna Basilornis celebensis Gray, GR, 1861 AU : Sulawesi

.

Helmeted Myna Basilornis galeatus Meyer, AB, 1894 AU : islands e of Sulawesi

.

Long-crested Myna Basilornis corythaix (Wagler, 1827) AU : s Moluccas

.

Apo Myna Basilornis mirandus (Hartert, 1903) OR : Philippines

.

Sarcops Walden, 1875

.

Coleto Sarcops calvus (Linnaeus, 1766) OR : Philippines

.

S. c. calvus (Linnaeus, 1766) n Philippines

.

S. c. melanonotus Ogilvie-Grant, 1906 c and s Philippines

.

S. c. lowii Sharpe, 1877 Sulu Arch. (sw Philippines)

.

Streptocitta Bonaparte, 1850

.

White-necked Myna Streptocitta albicollis (Vieillot, 1818) AU : Sulawesi

.

S. a. torquata (Temminck, 1828) n and e

.

S. a. albicollis (Vieillot, 1818) s and se

.

Bare-eyed Myna Streptocitta albertinae (Schlegel, 1865) AU : islands e of Sulawesi

.

Enodes Temminck, 1839

.

Fiery-browed Starling Enodes erythrophris (Temminck, 1824) AU : Sulawesi

.

Scissirostrum Lafresnaye, 1845

.

Grosbeak Starling Scissirostrum dubium (Latham, 1801) AU : Sulawesi

.

Saroglossa Hodgson, 1844

.

Spot-winged Starling Saroglossa spiloptera (Vigors, 1831) OR : nc India

.

Ampeliceps Blyth, 1842

.

Golden-crested Myna Ampeliceps coronatus Blyth, 1842 OR : ne India through Southeast Asia

.

Gracula Linnaeus, 1758

.

Sri Lanka Hill Myna Gracula ptilogenys Blyth, 1846 OR : Sri Lanka

.

Common Hill Myna Gracula religiosa Linnaeus, 1758 OR : widespread

.

G. r. peninsularis Whistler & Kinnear, 1933 ec India

.

G. r. intermedia Hay, 1845 n India to s China, Indochina and Thailand

.

G. r. andamanensis (Beavan, 1867) Coco, Andaman and Nicobar Is.

.

G. r. religiosa Linnaeus, 1758 Malay Pen., Sumatra, Java, Borneo and nearby islands

.

G. r. batuensis Finsch, 1899 Batu and Mentawai Is. (off w Sumatra)

.

G. r. palawanensis (Sharpe, 1890) Palawan (w Philippines)

.

G. r. venerata Bonaparte, 1850 Lombok to Alor (Lesser Sundas)

.

Southern Hill Myna Gracula indica (Cuvier, 1829) OR : sw India, Sri Lanka

.

Nias Hill Myna Gracula robusta Salvadori, 1887 AU : islands off Sumatra

.

Enggano Hill Myna Gracula enganensis Salvadori, 1892 AU : islands off Sumatra

.

Acridotheres Vieillot, 1816

.

Great Myna Acridotheres grandis Moore, F, 1858 OR : ne India through Southeast Asia

.

Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus (Linnaeus, 1758) OR : s China to Southeast Asia

.

A. c. cristatellus (Linnaeus, 1758) s and se China

.

A. c. brevipennis Hartert, 1910 Hainan I. (off se China) and Indochina

.

A. c. formosanus (Hartert, 1912) Taiwan

.

Javan Myna Acridotheres javanicus Cabanis, 1851 OR : Java ENG Change English name of  A. javanicus to Javan Myna to reduce conflicts  among the English names of mynas

.

Pale-bellied Myna Acridotheres cinereus Bonaparte, 1850 AU : Sulawesi

.

Jungle Myna Acridotheres fuscus (Wagler, 1827) OR : widespread

.

A. f. mahrattensis (Sykes, 1832) w and s India

.

A. f. fuscus (Wagler, 1827) n Pakistan and n India to Bangladesh and c and s Burma

.

A. f. fumidus Ripley, 1950 ne India

.

A. f. torquatus Davison, WR, 1892 Malay Pen.

.

Collared Myna Acridotheres albocinctus Godwin-Austen & Walden, 1875 OR : ne India to sc China

.

Bank Myna Acridotheres ginginianus (Latham, 1790) OR : Pakistan, India, Bangladesh

.

Common Myna Acridotheres tristis (Linnaeus, 1766) OR : widespread

.

A. t. tristis (Linnaeus, 1766) s Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and e Iran to s China, Indochina, Malay Pen. and s India

.

A. t. melanosternus Legge, 1879 Sri Lanka

.

Black-winged Starling Acridotheres melanopterus (Daudin, 1800) OR : Java

.

A. m. melanopterus (Daudin, 1800) Java (except se)

.

A. m. tricolor (Horsfield, 1821) se Java

.

A. m. tertius (Hartert, 1896) Bali and Lombok

.

Vinous-breasted Starling Acridotheres burmannicus (Jerdon, 1862) OR : sw China to Cambodia and Vietnam TAX,SEQ Move Vinous-breasted Starling from Sturnus to Acridotheres (Lovette et al 2008, Zuccon et al 2008)

.

A. b. burmannicus (Jerdon, 1862) Burma and sw China

.

A. b. leucocephalus Salvadori & Giglioli, 1870 Thailand to Vietnam

.

Spodiopsar Sharpe, 1889 TAX Separate Red-billed Starling and White-cheeked Starling from Sturnus to Spodiopsar (Lovette et al 2008, Zuccon et al 2008)

.

Red-billed Starling Spodiopsar sericeus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : c, s, e China

.

White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus (Temminck, 1835) EU : e

.

Gracupica Lesson, 1831 TAX Separate Black-collared Starling and Pied Myna from Sturnus to Gracupica (Lovette et al 2008, Zuccon et al 2008)

.

Black-collared Starling Gracupica nigricollis (Paykull, 1807) OR : s China to Cambodia and Vietnam

.

Pied Myna Gracupica contra (Linnaeus, 1758) OR : widespread

.

G. c. contra (Linnaeus, 1758) e Pakistan, n and c India, s Nepal and Bangladesh

.

G. c. sordidus (Ripley, 1950) e Assam (ne India)

.

G. c. superciliaris (Blyth, 1863) Manipur (ne India), n, c and se Burma and sw China

.

G. c. floweri (Sharpe, 1897) s and e Burma and s China to Thailand, Laos and Cambodia

.

G. c. jalla (Horsfield, 1821) Sumatra, Java and Bali

.

Agropsar Oates, 1889 TAX Separate Daurian Starling and Chestnut-cheeked Starling from Sturnus to Agropsar (Lovette et al 2008, Zuccon et al 2008)

.

Daurian Starling Agropsar sturninus (Pallas, 1776) EU : e

.

Chestnut-cheeked Starling Agropsar philippensis (Forster, JR, 1781) EU : e

.

Sturnia Lesson, 1837 TAX Separate five starling species ( White-shouldered, Chestnut-tailed, White-headed, Malabar, and Brahminy) from Sturnus to Sturnia (Lovette et al 2008, Zuccon et al 2008)

.

White-shouldered Starling Sturnia sinensis (Gmelin, JF, 1788) OR : s China to Cambodia and Vietnam

.

Chestnut-tailed Starling Sturnia malabarica (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : widespread

.

S. m. malabarica (Gmelin, JF, 1789) India (except sw), s Nepal and Bangladesh

.

S. m. nemoricola Jerdon, 1862 s Assam (ne India) and Burma to n and c Indochina

.

White-headed Starling Sturnia erythropygia Blyth, 1846 OR : Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands

.

S. e. andamanensis (Beavan, 1867) Andaman Is.

.

S. e. erythropygia Blyth, 1846 n Nicobar Is.

.

S. e. katchalensis Richmond, 1902 c Nicobar Is.

.

Malabar Starling Sturnia blythii (Jerdon, 1845) OR : sw India AS Sturnia blythii is split from S. erythropygia (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005)

.

Brahminy Starling Sturnia pagodarum (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : e Afghanistan to Bangladesh

.

Sturnornis Legge, 1879 TAX Separate White-faced Starling from Sturnus to Sturnornis (Lovette et al 2008, Zuccon et al 2008)

.

White-faced Starling Sturnornis albofrontatus (Layard, EL, 1854) OR : Sri Lanka

.

Leucopsar Stresemann, 1912

.

Bali Myna Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912 OR : Bali

.

Fregilupus Lesson, 1831

.

Hoopoe Starling Fregilupus varius (Boddaert, 1783) IO : La Réunion English name follows Cheke & Hume (2008)

.

Necropsar Slater, 1879

.

Rodrigues Starling Necropsar rodericanus Slater, 1879 IO : Rodrigues I.

.

Pastor Temminck, 1815 TAX Separate Rosy Starling from Sturnus to Pastor (Lovette et al 2008, Zuccon et al 2008)

.

Rosy Starling Pastor roseus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : se Europe to wc Asia

.

Sturnus Linnaeus, 1758

.

Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 EU : w, c, introduced worldwide

.

S. v. caucasicus Lorenz, T, 1887 Caucasus to s Iran

.

S. v. vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 most of Europe

.

S. v. faroensis Feilden, 1872 Faroe Is.

.

S. v. zetlandicus Hartert, 1918 Shetland Is.

.

S. v. granti Hartert, 1903 Azores

.

S. v. poltaratskyi Finsch, 1878 se European Russia to w Mongolia

.

S. v. tauricus Buturlin, 1904 Ukraine, sw Russia and Turkey

.

S. v. purpurascens Gould, 1868 e Turkey, Georgia and Armenia

.

S. v. oppenheimi Neumann, 1915 se Turkey and n Iraq

.

S. v. nobilior Hume, 1879 ne Iran, s Turkmenistan and Afghanistan

.

S. v. porphyronotus Sharpe, 1888 e Kazakhstan and nw China to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan

.

S. v. humii Brooks, WE, 1876 w Himalayas

.

S. v. minor Hume, 1873 c and s Pakistan

.

Spotless Starling Sturnus unicolor Temminck, 1820 EU : sw Europe, also n Africa

.

Creatophora Lesson, 1847

.

Wattled Starling Creatophora cinerea (Meuschen, 1787) AF : e, s

.

Notopholia Roberts, 1922 TAX, SEQ Separate Black-bellied Starling from Lamprotornis to Notopholia; resequence to precede Lampropsar (Lovette & Rubenstein 2007)

.

Black-bellied Starling Notopholia corrusca (Nordmann, 1835) AF : e, se

.

N. c. corrusca (Nordmann, 1835) s Somalia to e South Africa

.

N. c. vaughani (Bannerman, 1926) Pemba I. (off Tanzania)

.

Hylopsar von Boetticher, 1940 TAX, SEQ Separate Purple-headed Starling and Copper-tailed Starling from Lamprotornis to Hylopsar; resequence to precede Lampropsar (Lovette & Rubenstein 2007)

.

Purple-headed Starling Hylopsar purpureiceps (Verreaux, J & Verreaux, E, 1851) AF : w, c

.

Copper-tailed Starling Hylopsar cupreocauda (Hartlaub, 1857) AF : w

.

Lamprotornis Temminck, 1820

.

Cape Starling Lamprotornis nitens (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : c, s

.

L. n. nitens (Linnaeus, 1766) Gabon and w Angola

.

L. n. phoenicopterus Swainson, 1838 Namibia to Zimbabwe and n South Africa

.

L. n. culminator (Clancey & Holliday, 1951) e South Africa

.

Greater Blue-eared Starling Lamprotornis chalybaeus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828 AF : widespread

.

L. c. chalybaeus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828 Senegal and Gambia to c Sudan

.

L. c. cyaniventris (Blyth, 1855) Eritrea to nw Somalia, n Kenya and e DRCongo

.

L. c. sycobius (Hartlaub, 1859) sw Uganda and s Kenya to w Mozambique

.

L. c. nordmanni (Hartert & Neumann, 1914) s Angola and n Namibia to s Mozambique and n South Africa

.

Lesser Blue-eared Starling Lamprotornis chloropterus Swainson, 1838 AF : w, c, e, se

.

Miombo Blue-eared Starling Lamprotornis elisabeth (Stresemann, 1924) AF : e

.

Bronze-tailed Starling Lamprotornis chalcurus Nordmann, 1835 AF : w, c, ec

.

L. c. chalcurus Nordmann, 1835 Senegal and Gambia to Nigeria

.

L. c. emini (Neumann, 1920) n Cameroon to w Kenya

.

Splendid Starling Lamprotornis splendidus (Vieillot, 1822) AF : widespread

.

L. s. chrysonotis Swainson, 1837 Senegal and Gambia to Togo

.

L. s. splendidus (Vieillot, 1822) Nigeria and s Cameroon to Ethiopia, w Kenya, nw Tanzania and n Angola

.

L. s. lessoni (Pucheran, 1858) Bioko I.

.

L. s. bailundensis (Neumann, 1920) s Angola, se DRCongo and n Zambia

.

Principe Starling Lamprotornis ornatus (Daudin, 1800) AF : Príncipe

.

Emerald Starling Lamprotornis iris (Oustalet, 1879) AF : w

.

Purple Starling Lamprotornis purpureus (Statius Müller, 1776) AF : w, c

.

L. p. purpureus (Statius Müller, 1776) Senegal and Gambia to Nigeria

.

L. p. amethystinus (Heuglin, 1863) Cameroon to s Sudan and w Kenya

.

Rüppell's Starling Lamprotornis purpuroptera Rüppell, 1845 AF : ne, e

.

L. p. aeneocephalus Heuglin, 1863 e Sudan, Eritrea and n Ethiopia

.

L. p. purpuroptera Rüppell, 1845 s Sudan and s Ethiopia to w Tanzania

.

Long-tailed Glossy Starling Lamprotornis caudatus (Statius Müller, 1776) AF : w, c

.

Golden-breasted Starling Lamprotornis regius (Reichenow, 1879) AF : e

.

Meves's Starling Lamprotornis mevesii (Wahlberg, 1856) AF : s

.

L. m. benguelensis Shelley, 1906 sw Angola

.

L. m. violacior Clancey, 1973 s Angola and n Namibia

.

L. m. mevesii (Wahlberg, 1856) s Zambia and s Malawi to n Botswana and n South Africa

.

Burchell's Starling Lamprotornis australis (Smith, A, 1836) AF : sc

.

Sharp-tailed Starling Lamprotornis acuticaudus (Barboza du Bocage, 1869) AF : c

.

L. a. acuticaudus (Barboza du Bocage, 1869) c Angola to sw Tanzania

.

L. a. ecki Clancey, 1980 s Angola and n Namibia

.

Superb Starling Lamprotornis superbus Rüppell, 1845 AF : ne, e

.

Hildebrandt's Starling Lamprotornis hildebrandti (Cabanis, 1878) AF : Kenya, Tanzania

.

Shelley's Starling Lamprotornis shelleyi (Sharpe, 1890) AF : ne, e

.

Chestnut-bellied Starling Lamprotornis pulcher (Statius Müller, 1776) AF : w, c, ne

.

Ashy Starling Lamprotornis unicolor (Shelley, 1881) AF : Kenya, Tanzania

.

Fischer's Starling Lamprotornis fischeri (Reichenow, 1884) AF : e TAX, SEQ Merge three species of Spreo starlings (Fischer's, Pied, White-crowned) with Lamprotornis to follow Ashy Starling (Lovette & Rubenstein 2007)

.

Pied Starling Lamprotornis bicolor (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : s

.

White-crowned Starling Lamprotornis albicapillus (Blyth, 1855) AF : e

.

L. a. albicapillus (Blyth, 1855) Somalia and Ethiopia to extreme ne Kenya.

.

L. a. horrensis (Keith, 1964) s Ethiopia and n Kenya

.

Hartlaubius Bonaparte, 1853 TAX, SEQ Separate Madagascar Starling from Saroglossa to Hartlaubius; resequence to precede Violet-backed Starling (Lovette & Rubenstein 2007)

.

Madagascan Starling Hartlaubius auratus (Statius Müller, 1776) AF : Madagascar

.

Cinnyricinclus Lesson, 1840

.

Violet-backed Starling Cinnyricinclus leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783) AF : widespread, also sw Arabian Peninsula

.

C. l. leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783) Senegal and Gambia to Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania

.

C. l. arabicus Grant, CHB & Mackworth-Praed, 1942 e Sudan to nw Somalia and the Arabian Pen.

.

C. l. verreauxi (Barboza du Bocage, 1870) s DRCongo to w Tanzania south to Botswana, ne South Africa and Mozambique

.

Onychognathus Hartlaub, 1849

.

Red-winged Starling Onychognathus morio (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : e, se, s

.

O. m. rueppellii (Verreaux, J, 1856) s Sudan to c Ethiopia and n Kenya

.

O. m. morio (Linnaeus, 1766) Uganda and Kenya to Botswana and s South Africa

.

Slender-billed Starling Onychognathus tenuirostris (Rüppell, 1836) AF : e

.

O. t. tenuirostris (Rüppell, 1836) Eritrea and Ethiopia

.

O. t. theresae Meinertzhagen, R, 1937 e DRCongo to Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi

.

Chestnut-winged Starling Onychognathus fulgidus Hartlaub, 1849 AF : w, c

.

O. f. fulgidus Hartlaub, 1849 São Tomé I. (Gulf of Guinea)

.

O. f. hartlaubii Hartlaub, 1858 Guinea to Uganda

.

O. f. intermedius Hartert, 1895 s Cameroon to nw Angola

.

Waller's Starling Onychognathus walleri (Shelley, 1880) AF : wc, c, e

.

O. w. preussi Reichenow, 1892 se Nigeria, w Cameroon and Bioko I.

.

O. w. elgonensis (Sharpe, 1891) s Sudan and e DRCongo to w Kenya

.

O. w. walleri (Shelley, 1880) c Kenya, Tanzania and n Malawi

.

Somali Starling Onychognathus blythii (Hartlaub, 1859) AF : Somalia, Ethiopia

.

Socotra Starling Onychognathus frater (Sclater, PL & Hartlaub, 1881) EU : Socotra Island

.

Tristram's Starling Onychognathus tristramii (Sclater, PL, 1858) EU : Arabian Peninsula

.

Pale-winged Starling Onychognathus nabouroup (Daudin, 1800) AF : sw

.

Bristle-crowned Starling Onychognathus salvadorii (Sharpe, 1891) AF : e

.

White-billed Starling Onychognathus albirostris (Rüppell, 1836) AF : Ethiopia, Eritrea

.

Neumann's Starling Onychognathus neumanni (Alexander, 1908) AF : c, w

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O. n. modicus Bates, 1932 e Senegal and s Mauritania to w Mali and n Ivory Coast

.

O. n. neumanni (Alexander, 1908) e Mali to w Sudan and w Central African Republic

.

Poeoptera Bonaparte, 1854

.

Stuhlmann's Starling Poeoptera stuhlmanni (Reichenow, 1893) AF : c, ne, e

.

Kenrick's Starling Poeoptera kenricki Shelley, 1894 AF : Kenya, Tanzania

.

P. k. bensoni (van Someren, 1945) Kenya

.

P. k. kenricki Shelley, 1894 Tanzania

.

Narrow-tailed Starling Poeoptera lugubris Bonaparte, 1854 AF : w, c

.

Sharpe's Starling Poeoptera sharpii (Jackson, 1898) AF : e TAX Move Sharpe's Starling from Pholia to Poeoptera (Lovette & Rubenstein 2007)

.

Abbott's Starling Poeoptera femoralis (Richmond, 1897) AF : Kenya, Tanzania TAX, SEQ Separate Abbott's Starling from Cinnyricinclus to Poeoptera; resequence to follow Sharpe's Starling (Lovette & Rubenstein 2007)

.

Grafisia Bates, 1926

.

White-collared Starling Grafisia torquata (Reichenow, 1909) AF : w, c

.

Speculipastor Reichenow, 1879

.

Magpie Starling Speculipastor bicolor Reichenow, 1879 AF : e

.

Neocichla Sharpe, 1876

.

Babbling Starling Neocichla gutturalis (Barboza du Bocage, 1871) AF : c

.

N. g. gutturalis (Barboza du Bocage, 1871) s Angola

.

N. g. angusta Friedmann, 1930 Zambia, Tanzania and Malawi

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Rhabdornis Reichenbach, 1853 PHY Rhabdornis "Creepers" of the Philippines are related to Aplonis starlings and not separable into their own family (Lovette et al 2008; Zucco et al 2008)

.

Stripe-headed Rhabdornis Rhabdornis mystacalis (Temminck, 1825) OR : Philippines ENG Change English name of Rhabdornis species from "Creeper" to "Rhabdornis" to update to current usage

.

R. m. mystacalis (Temminck, 1825) n and wc Philippines

.

R. m. minor Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 ec and s Philippines

.

Stripe-breasted Rhabdornis Rhabdornis inornatus Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 OR : Philippines

.

R. i. inornatus Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 Samar (ec Philippines)

.

R. i. leytensis Parkes, 1973 Biliron and Leyte (ec Philippines)

.

R. i. rabori Rand, 1950 Panay and Negros (wc Philippines) PS See Collar 2011b; await supplements to numerical index

.

R. i. alaris Rand, 1948 Mindanao (s Philippines)

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Grand Rhabdornis Rhabdornis grandis Salomonsen, 1953 OR : Philippines ENG Change English name of Rhabdornis grandis to Grand Rhabdornis adopted in Kennedy (2000) and HBW

.

.

2 Oxpeckers Family Buphagidae PHY Separate the oxpeckers from the Sturnidae to the Buphagidae; they are sister to the starlings (Mimidae) and mockingbirds (Mimidae) (Lovette and Rubenstein 2007)

.

Buphagus Brisson, 1760

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Yellow-billed Oxpecker Buphagus africanus Linnaeus, 1766 AF : widespread

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B. a. africanus Linnaeus, 1766 Mauritania and Senegal to nw Ethiopia south to ne South Africa

.

B. a. langi Chapin, 1921 Gabon, Congo, DRCongo and w Angola

.

Red-billed Oxpecker Buphagus erythrorhynchus (Stanley, 1814) AF : e, s