"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Grebes, flamingos & tropicbirds

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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ORDER PODICIPEDIFORMES PHY Grebes and flamingos are sister taxa (Hackett et al 2008, Mayr 2008)

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23 Grebes Family Podicipedidae

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Tachybaptus Reichenbach, 1853

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Alaotra Grebe Tachybaptus rufolavatus (Delacour, 1932) AF : Madagascar

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Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis (Pallas, 1764) EU, AF, OR : widespread

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T. r. ruficollis (Pallas, 1764) Europe to the Ural Mts. and nw Africa

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T. r. albescens (Blanford, 1877) Caucasus to Burma and Sri Lanka

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T. r. iraquensis (Ticehurst, 1923) Iraq, sw Iran

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T. r. capensis (Salvadori, 1884) Africa s of the Sahara, Madagascar

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T. r. poggei (Reichenow, 1902) ne to se Asia, Kuril Is., Japan, Taiwan

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T. r. philippensis (Bonnaterre, 1790) Philippines (except Mindanao)

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T. r. cotabato (Rand, 1948) Mindanao (Philippines)

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Tricolored Grebe Tachybaptus tricolor (Gray, GR, 1861) OR, AU : Java, Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, New Guinea, Solomon Is. AS Tricolored Grebe is split from Little Grebe, with possible additional split of red-eyed and yellow-eyed populations (Mlíkovský 2010, Fjeldsa comm)

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T. t. vulcanorum (Rensch, 1929) Sulawesi, n Moluccas to New Guinea

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T. t. tricolor (Gray, GR, 1861) Java and Timor, the Lesser Sundas

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T. t. collaris (Mayr, 1945) ne New Guinea to Bougainville I. (Solomon Is.)

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Australasian Grebe Tachybaptus novaehollandiae (Stephens, 1826) AU : widespread

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T. n. javanicus (Mayr, 1943) Java

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T. n. fumosus (Mayr, 1943) Talaud and Sangihe Is. (ne of Sulawesi)

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T. n. incola (Mayr, 1943) n New Guinea

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T. n. novaehollandiae (Stephens, 1826) s New Guinea to Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand

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T. n. leucosternos (Mayr, 1931) Vanuatu and New Caledonia

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T. n. rennellianus (Mayr, 1943) Rennell I. (Solomon Is.)

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Madagascan Grebe Tachybaptus pelzelnii (Hartlaub, 1861) AF : Madagascar

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Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766) NA, LA : s Texas to n Argentina

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T. d. brachypterus (Chapman, 1899) s Texas (USA) to wc Mexico and Panama

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T. d. bangsi (van Rossem & Hachisuka, 1937) w Mexico

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T. d. dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766) Greater Antilles

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T. d. brachyrhynchus (Chapman, 1899) n South America to n Argentina

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T. d. eisenmanni Storer & Getty, 1985 w Ecuador

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Podilymbus Lesson, 1831

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Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, LA : widespread

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P. p. podiceps (Linnaeus, 1758) n North America to Panama and Cuba

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P. p. antillarum Bangs, 1913 Greater and Lesser Antilles

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P. p. antarcticus (Lesson, 1842) n South America to s Argentina

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Atitlan Grebe Podilymbus gigas Griscom, 1929 MA : Guatemala PL Atitlan Grebe is genetically nested within Pied-billed Grebe (Fjeldså, unpubl)

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Rollandia Bonaparte, 1856

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White-tufted Grebe Rollandia rolland (Gaimard, 1823) SA : s

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R. r. chilensis (Lesson, 1828) wc Peru to s Brazil and Tierra del Fuego

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R. r. morrisoni (Simmons, 1962) c Peru (Lake Junin)

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R. r. rolland (Gaimard, 1823) Falkland Is.

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Titicaca Grebe Rollandia microptera (Gould, 1868) SA : Lake Titicaca

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Poliocephalus Selby, 1840

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Hoary-headed Grebe Poliocephalus poliocephalus (Jardine & Selby, 1827) AU : Australia

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New Zealand Grebe Poliocephalus rufopectus (Gray, GR, 1843) AU : n New Zealand

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Podiceps Latham, 1787

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Great Grebe Podiceps major (Boddaert, 1783) SA : s

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P. m. major (Boddaert, 1783) w Peru, Paraguay and se Brazil to c Chile and s Argentina

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P. m. navasi Manghi, 1984 s Chile

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Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena (Boddaert, 1783) NA, EU : widespread

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P. g. grisegena (Boddaert, 1783) n, c Eurasia

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P. g. holbollii Reinhardt, 1853 ne Asia, n North America

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Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, AF, OR, AU : widespread

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P. c. cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasia

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P. c. infuscatus Salvadori, 1884 Africa

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P. c. australis Gould, 1844 Australia, Tasmania, South I. (New Zealand)

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Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : widespread

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P. a. auritus (Linnaeus, 1758) n Eurasia

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P. a. cornutus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Canada, n USA

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Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis Brehm, CL, 1831 EU, AF, NA, MA : widespread

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P. n. nigricollis Brehm, CL, 1831 Eurasia

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P. n. gurneyi (Roberts, 1919) Africa south of the Sahara

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P. n. californicus Heermann, 1854 North America

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Colombian Grebe Podiceps andinus (Meyer de Schauensee, 1959) SA : c Colombia EXT Podiceps andinus (extinct) is genetically nested within P.nigricollis (Fjeldså, comm)

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Silvery Grebe Podiceps occipitalis Garnot, 1826 SA : w, s

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P. o. juninensis von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894 Colombia to nw Argentina and n Chile

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P. o. occipitalis Garnot, 1826 c and s Chile and Argentina, Falkland Is.

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Junin Grebe Podiceps taczanowskii von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894 SA : Peru

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Hooded Grebe Podiceps gallardoi Rumboll, 1974 SA : sw Argentina

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Aechmophorus Coues, 1862

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Western Grebe Aechmophorus occidentalis (Lawrence, 1858) NA, MA : w

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A. o. occidentalis (Lawrence, 1858) se Alaska and w Canada to nc USA

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A. o. ephemeralis Dickerman, 1986 w Mexico

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Clark's Grebe Aechmophorus clarkii (Lawrence, 1858) NA, MA : w

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A. c. clarkii (Lawrence, 1858) n and c Mexico

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A. c. transitionalis Dickerman, 1986 w Canada and w USA

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ORDER PHOENICOPTERIFORMES

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6 Flamingos Family Phoenicopteridae

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Phoenicopterus Linnaeus, 1758

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Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811 EU, AF : widespread in Africa,sw and sc Eurasia

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American Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, 1758 LA : n, Galápagos Islands, also Caribbean,

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Chilean Flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina, 1782 SA : c Peru to Tierra del Fuego, east to s Brazil, Uruguay and c Argentina

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Phoeniconaias Gray, GR, 1869

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Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, É, 1798) AF, OR : e Africa, Namibia/Botswana, Mauritania/Senegal and nw India/ se Pakistan

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Phoenicoparrus Bonaparte, 1856

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Andean Flamingo Phoenicoparrus andinus (Philippi, 1854) SA : s Peru, w Bolivia, n Chile and nw Argentina

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James's Flamingo Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Sclater, PL, 1886) SA : s Peru, w Bolivia, n Chile and nw Argentina

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ORDER PHAETHONTIFORMES PHY Not Pelecaniformes, the tropicbirds (Phaethontidae) are separated to the Order Phaethontiformes (Hackett et al. 2008, Christidis and Boles 2008)

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3 Tropicbirds Family Phaethontidae

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Phaethon Linnaeus, 1758

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Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus Linnaeus, 1758 TrO : e PO, Caribbean, c AO, nw IO

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P. a. mesonauta Peters, JL, 1930 e Pacific, Caribbean, e Atlantic

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P. a. aethereus Linnaeus, 1758 s Atlantic

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P. a. indicus Hume, 1876 Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf

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Red-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda Boddaert, 1783 TrO : IO, PO

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P. r. rubricauda Boddaert, 1783 w Indian Ocean

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P. r. westralis Mathews, 1912 e Indian Ocean

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P. r. roseotinctus (Mathews, 1926) sw Pacific

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P. r. melanorhynchos Gmelin, JF, 1789 w, c and s Pacific

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White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus Daudin, 1802 TrO : widespread

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P. l. catesbyi von Brandt, JF, 1838 West Indies, Bermuda

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P. l. ascensionis (Mathews, 1915) tropical s Atlantic

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P. l. lepturus Daudin, 1802 Indian Ocean

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P. l. europae Le Corre & Jouventin, 1999 Europa I. (Mozambique Channel)

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P. l. fulvus von Brandt, JF, 1838 Christmas I. (Indian Ocean)

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P. l. dorotheae Mathews, 1913 tropical w Pacific