"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Finches, euphonias

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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1 Przevalski's Finch Family Urocynchramidae

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Urocynchramus Przewalski, 1876

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Przevalski's Finch Urocynchramus pylzowi Przewalski, 1876 OR : Tibet to c China PHY, ENG Przevalski's Finch, previously called Pink-tailed Rosefinch, is a relict member of an ancient separate lineage that is as old as, or older than other families of finches; it belongs in its own monotypic family Urocynchramidae, with a name change (Groth 2000)

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219 Finches Family Fringillidae TAX,PHY Classification of Fringillidae revised for v3.3; see especially Zuccon et al 2012

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Fringilla Linnaeus, 1758

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Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758 EU : c, w, also n Africa and Canary Islands

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F. c. gengleri Kleinschmidt, O, 1909 British Isles

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F. c. coelebs Linnaeus, 1758 Europe (except British Isles, sw and se) to c Asia

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F. c. solomkoi Menzbier & Sushkin, 1913 Crimea and sw Caucasus

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F. c. balearica von Jordans, 1923 Iberia and Balearic Is.

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F. c. tyrrhenica Schiebel, 1910 Corsica

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F. c. sarda Rapine, 1925 Sardinia

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F. c. schiebeli Stresemann, 1925 s Greece, Crete and w Turkey

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F. c. syriaca Harrison, JM, 1945 Cyprus, se Turkey to n Iraq and Jordan

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F. c. caucasica Serebrovski, 1925 Balkans and n Greece to n Turkey, c and e Caucasus and nw Iran DIS See Tsvelykh 2011 for ranges of this ssp and C.f.solomkoi.

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F. c. alexandrovi Zarudny, 1916 n Iran

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F. c. transcaspia Zarudny, 1916 ne Iran and sw Turkmenistan

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F. c. africana Levaillant, J, 1850 Morocco to nw Tunesia, ne Libya

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F. c. spodiogenys Bonaparte, 1841 e Tunesia and nw Libya

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F. c. moreletti Pucheran, 1859 Azore Is.

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F. c. maderensis Sharpe, 1888 Madeira

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F. c. canariensis Vieillot, 1817 c Canary Is.

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F. c. ombriosa Hartert, 1913 Hierro I. (sw Canary Is.)

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F. c. palmae Tristram, 1889 La Palma I. (nw Canary I.)

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Blue Chaffinch Fringilla teydea Webb, Berthelot & Moquin-Tandon, 1836 AF : Canary Islands

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F. t. teydea Webb, Berthelot & Moquin-Tandon, 1836 Tenerife I.

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F. t. polatzeki Hartert, 1905 Gran Canaria I.

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Brambling Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus, 1758 EU : widespread, also n Africa

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Mycerobas Cabanis, 1847

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Black-and-yellow Grosbeak Mycerobas icterioides (Vigors, 1830) OR : Himalayas

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Collared Grosbeak Mycerobas affinis (Blyth, 1855) OR : Himalayas

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Spot-winged Grosbeak Mycerobas melanozanthos (Hodgson, 1836) OR : ne Pakistan to n Vietnam

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White-winged Grosbeak Mycerobas carnipes (Hodgson, 1836) EU : c, sc

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M. c. speculigerus (von Brandt, JF, 1841) n Iran and s Turkmenistan to w Pakistan

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M. c. merzbacheri Schalow, 1908 e Kazakhstan and nw China

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M. c. carnipes (Hodgson, 1836) ne Afghanistan through the Himalayas to c China and n Burma

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Hesperiphona Bonaparte, 1850

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Evening Grosbeak Hesperiphona vespertina (Cooper, W, 1825) NA, MA : Canada to sw Mexico

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H. v. vespertina (Cooper, W, 1825) c and e Canada and ne USA

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H. v. brooksi Grinnell, 1917 w Canada and nw USA

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H. v. montana Ridgway, 1874 sw USA to sw Mexico

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Hooded Grosbeak Hesperiphona abeillei (Lesson, 1839) MA : Mexico and Guatemala

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H. a. pallida Nelson, 1928 nw Mexico

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H. a. saturata Sutton & Burleigh, 1939 ne Mexico

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H. a. abeillei (Lesson, 1839) c and sc Mexico

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H. a. cobanensis Nelson, 1928 s Mexico and Guatemala

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Coccothraustes Brisson, 1760

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Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread, also n Africa

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C. c. coccothraustes (Linnaeus, 1758) Europe to c Siberia and n Mongolia

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C. c. buvryi Cabanis, 1862 nw Africa

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C. c. nigricans Buturlin, 1908 s Ukraine, the Caucasus, ne Turkey and n Iran

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C. c. humii Sharpe, 1886 s Kazakhstan and e Uzbekistan to ne Afghanistan

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C. c. schulpini Johansen, H, 1944 se Siberia, ne China and Korea

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C. c. japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1848 Kamchatka Pen., Sakhalin and Kuril Is. and Japan

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Eophona Gould, 1851

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Chinese Grosbeak Eophona migratoria Hartert, 1903 EU : e ENG Change  English name of Eophona migratoria from Yellow-billed Grosbeak to Chinese Grosbeak

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E. m. migratoria Hartert, 1903 se Siberia, ne China and Korea

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E. m. sowerbyi Riley, 1915 c and ec China

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Japanese Grosbeak Eophona personata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1848) EU : e

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E. p. personata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1848) n and c Japan

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E. p. magnirostris Hartert, 1896 se Siberia, ne China and Korea

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Pinicola Vieillot, 1808

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Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, NA : n

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P. e. enucleator (Linnaeus, 1758) Scandinavia to c Siberia

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P. e. kamtschatkensis (Dybowski, 1883) ne Siberia

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P. e. sakhalinensis Buturlin, 1915 Sakhalin and Kuril Is., n Japan

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P. e. alascensis Ridgway, 1898 inland Alaska, wc Canada and nw USA

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P. e. flammula Homeyer, 1880 coastal s Alaska and w Canada

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P. e. carlottae Brooks, AC, 1922 Queen Charlotte Is. (off w Canada)

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P. e. montana Ridgway, 1898 inland sw Canada to wc USA

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P. e. californica Price, 1897 e California

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P. e. leucura (Statius Müller, 1776) c and e Canada

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P. e. eschatosa Oberholser, 1914 se Canada and ne USA

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Pyrrhula Brisson, 1760

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Brown Bullfinch Pyrrhula nipalensis Hodgson, 1836 OR : Himalayas to se China and Taiwan, w Malaysia

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P. n. nipalensis Hodgson, 1836 Himalayas to ne India

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P. n. ricketti La Touche, 1905 ne India and n Burma to se China and nw Vietnam

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P. n. victoriae Rippon, 1906 w Burma

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P. n. waterstradti Hartert, 1902 Malay Pen.

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P. n. uchidai Kuroda, 1916 Taiwan

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Orange Bullfinch Pyrrhula aurantiaca Gould, 1858 OR : Himalayas

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Red-headed Bullfinch Pyrrhula erythrocephala Vigors, 1832 OR : Himalayas

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Grey-headed Bullfinch Pyrrhula erythaca Blyth, 1862 OR : Himalayas to c China, Taiwan

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P. e. erythaca Blyth, 1862 e Himalayas to c and ne China

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P. e. owstoni Rothschild & Hartert, 1907 Taiwan

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White-cheeked Bullfinch Pyrrhula leucogenis Ogilvie-Grant, 1895 OR : Philippines

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P. l. leucogenis Ogilvie-Grant, 1895 Luzon (n Philippines)

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P. l. steerei Mearns, 1909 Mindanao (s Philippines)

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Eurasian Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread

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P. p. pileata MacGillivray, W, 1837 British Isles

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P. p. pyrrhula (Linnaeus, 1758) n, sc and e Europe to c Siberia

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P. p. europoea Vieillot, 1816 w Europe

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P. p. iberiae Voous, 1951 sw France, n Iberian Pen.

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P. p. paphlagoniae Roselaar, 1995 nw Turkey

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P. p. rossikowi Derjugin & Bianchi, 1901 ne Turkey and the Caucasus

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P. p. cineracea Cabanis, 1872 w Siberia and ne Kazakhstan to e Siberia and ne China

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P. p. caspica Witherby, 1908 Azerbaijan and n Iran

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P. p. cassinii Baird, SF, 1869 e Siberia

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P. p. griseiventris Lafresnaye, 1841 Kuril Is. and n Japan

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P. p. rosacea Seebohm, 1882 Sakhalin I.

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Azores Bullfinch Pyrrhula murina Godman, 1866 AO : Azores AS Azores Bullfinch Pyrrhula murina is sister to ssp of Eurasian Bullfinch P. pyrrhula (Töpfer et al 2010, Sangster et al 2011)

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Rhodopechys Cabanis, 1851

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Eurasian Crimson-winged Finch Rhodopechys sanguineus (Gould, 1838) EU : sc ENG Change  English name of Rhodopechys sanguineus to Eurasian Crimson-winged Finch with split of R.alienus

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African Crimson-winged Finch Rhodopechys alienus Whitaker, 1897 AF : Morocco, Algeria AS Rhodopechys alienus is split from R.sanguineus (Kirwan et al. 2006)

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Bucanetes Cabanis, 1851

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Trumpeter Finch Bucanetes githagineus (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) EU : sc, also n Africa

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B. g. amantum (Hartert, 1903) c and e Canary Is.

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B. g. zedlitzi (Neumann, 1907) s Spain, nw and nc Africa

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B. g. githagineus (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) Egypt, nc and ne Sudan

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B. g. crassirostris (Blyth, 1847) Middle East to Pakistan and nw India

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Mongolian Finch Bucanetes mongolicus (Swinhoe, 1870) EU : sc TAX STET Mongolian Finch in Bucanetes (Zuccon et al 2012, cf Kirwan & Gregory 2005, BLI, HBW)

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Agraphospiza Zuccon, Prŷs-Jones, Rasmussen & Ericson, 2012

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Blanford's Rosefinch Agraphospiza rubescens (Blanford, 1872) OR : Himalayas to wc China TAX, PHY Previously Carpodacus Blanford's Rosefinch is assigned to the genus Agraphospiza (Zuccon et al 2012)

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Callacanthis Reichenbach, 1850

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Spectacled Finch Callacanthis burtoni (Gould, 1838) OR : Himalayas

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Pyrrhoplectes Hodgson, 1844

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Golden-naped Finch Pyrrhoplectes epauletta (Hodgson, 1836) OR : Himalayas

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Procarduelis Blyth, 1843 TAX, PHY Previously Carpodacus, Dark-breasted Rosefinch is assigned to Procarduelis (Zuccon et al 2012)

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Dark-breasted Rosefinch Procarduelis nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836) OR : Himalayas to wc China and ne Burma

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P. n. kangrae Whistler, 1939 w Himalayas

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P. n. nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836) c and e Himalayas to c China, ne Burma and nw Vietnam

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Leucosticte Swainson, 1832

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Plain Mountain Finch Leucosticte nemoricola (Hodgson, 1836) OR : c Asia

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L. n. altaica (Eversmann, 1848) ne Afghanistan to e Kazakhstan and east to s Siberia, w Mongolia, nw China and nw Himalayas

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L. n. nemoricola (Hodgson, 1836) c Tibet and c Himalayas to c China

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Brandt's Mountain Finch Leucosticte brandti Bonaparte, 1850 OR : Himalayas

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L. b. margaritacea (Madarász, 1904) ne Kazakhstan, s Siberia and nw China

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L. b. brandti Bonaparte, 1850 Kyrgyzstan, se Kazakhstan and nw China

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L. b. pamirensis Severtsov, 1883 Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, ne Afghanistan and w China

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L. b. haematopygia (Gould, 1851) n Pakistan, nw Himalayas and w Tibet

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L. b. pallidior Bianchi, 1908 wc China

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L. b. intermedia Stegmann, 1932 c China

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L. b. audreyana Stresemann, 1939 s Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan

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L. b. walteri (Hartert, 1904) e Tibet and sw China

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Sillem's Mountain Finch Leucosticte sillemi Roselaar, 1992 OR : n India, sw China

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Asian Rosy Finch Leucosticte arctoa (Pallas, 1811) EU : c, ne

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L. a. arctoa (Pallas, 1811) sc Siberia, ne Kazakhstan and nw Mongolia

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L. a. cognata (Madarász, 1909) sc Siberia and n Mongolia

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L. a. sushkini Stegmann, 1932 wc Mongolia

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L. a. gigliolii Salvadori, 1869 se Siberia

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L. a. brunneonucha (von Brandt, JF, 1842) e Siberia and ne China

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Grey-crowned Rosy Finch Leucosticte tephrocotis (Swainson, 1832) NA : e Russia and Alaska to w Canada and USA

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L. t. maxima Brooks, WS, 1915 Commander Is. (ne Siberia)

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L. t. griseonucha (von Brandt, JF, 1842) Aleutian and Kodiak Is., Alaska (except n and e)

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L. t. umbrina Murie, 1944 Hall, St. Matthew and Pribilof Is. in Bering Sea.

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L. t. irvingi Feinstein, 1958 n Alaska

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L. t. littoralis Baird, SF, 1869 e Alaska and w Canada

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L. t. tephrocotis (Swainson, 1832) wc Canada

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L. t. dawsoni Grinnell, 1913 e California

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L. t. wallowa Miller, AH, 1939 ne Oregon

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Black Rosy Finch Leucosticte atrata Ridgway, 1874 NA : wc USA

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Brown-capped Rosy Finch Leucosticte australis Ridgway, 1874 NA : wc USA

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Carpodacus Kaup, 1829 SEQ Carpodacus resequenced following Zuccon et al 2012. Erythrina erythrina retained in a more inclusive Carpodacus after Sangster (pers. comm.). Requires incorporating Haematospiza and Chaunoproctus into Carpodacus.

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Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus (Pallas, 1770) EU : widespread

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C. e. erythrinus (Pallas, 1770) n, c and e Europe to c Siberia

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C. e. grebnitskii Stejneger, 1885 e Siberia, n Mongolia, ne China and Korea

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C. e. kubanensis Laubmann, 1915 Turkey, the Caucasus, n Iran and Turkmenistan

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C. e. ferghanensis (Kozlova, 1939) e Kazakhstan to w China, w Himalayas, Pakistan and Afghanistan

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C. e. roseatus (Blyth, 1842) c and e Himalayas to c and s China

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Scarlet Finch Carpodacus sipahi (Hodgson, 1836) OR : Himalayas TAX, PHY Previously Haematospiza, Scarlet Finch is assigned to Carpodacus (Zuccon et al 2012)

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Bonin Grosbeak Carpodacus ferreorostris (Vigors, 1829) EU : Bonin I. (Japan) , TAX, PHY Previously Chaunoproctus Bonin Grosbeak is assigned to Carpodacus (Zuccon et al 2012)

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Streaked Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilloides Przewalski, 1876 OR : Himalayas and China

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C. r. rubicilloides Przewalski, 1876 e Tibet to c and s China

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C. r. lucifer Meinertzhagen, R & Meinertzhagen, A, 1926 s Tibet and the Himalayas

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Great Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilla (Güldenstädt, 1775) EU : c, e Caucasus Mts through central Asia to nw China AL, ENG Carpodacus rubicilla includes C. severtzovi (Tietze et al 2013, cf Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, IOC 3.5). Restore English name to Great Rosefinch

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C. r. rubicilla (Güldenstädt, 1775) c, e Caucasus Mts

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C. r. diabolicus (Koelz, 1939) ne Afghanistan and Tajikistan

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C. r. kobdensis (Sushkin, 1925) sc Siberia, w Mongolia and nw China

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C. r. severtzovi Sharpe, 1886 e Kazakhstan to wc China, the Himalayas and n Pakistan

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Blyth's Rosefinch Carpodacus grandis Blyth, 1849 OR : n Afghanistan to w Himalayas

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Red-mantled Rosefinch Carpodacus rhodochlamys von Brandt, JF, 1843 OR : c, nc Asia

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Himalayan Beautiful Rosefinch Carpodacus pulcherrimus (Moore, F, 1856) OR : c Himalayas to s Mongolia, wc, nc China ENG, SSP Change  English name of Carpodacus pulcherrimus from Beautiful Rosefinch to Himalayan Beautiful Rosefinch with split of C. davidianus. Includes ssp argyrophrys (Tietze et al 2013)

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C. p. pulcherrimus (Moore, F, 1856) c, e Himalayas

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C. p. argyrophrys Berlioz, 1929 s Mongolia, wc, nc China

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Chinese Beautiful Rosefinch Carpodacus davidianus Milne-Edwards, 1865 EU : ec China AS Carpodacus davidianus is split from C. pulcherrimus (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005. cf Tietze et al 2013)

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Pink-rumped Rosefinch Carpodacus waltoni (Sharpe, 1905) EU : e Himalayas to wc China

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C. w. waltoni (Sharpe, 1905) se Tibet and ne India SSP, TAX, ENG Transfer ssp waltoni to "Stresemann's" Rosefinch C. eos (Tietze et al 2013), but waltoni has priority for species name. Change English name to Pink-rumped Rosefinch (HBW, Clements, H&M 3)

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C. w. eos (Stresemann, 1930) w, wc China

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Pink-browed Rosefinch Carpodacus rodochroa (Vigors, 1831) OR : Himalayas

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Dark-rumped Rosefinch Carpodacus edwardsii Verreaux, J, 1871 OR : Himalayas

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C. e. edwardsii Verreaux, J, 1871 sc China

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C. e. rubicundus (Greenway, 1933) e Himalayas, se Tibet and n Burma

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Spot-winged Rosefinch Carpodacus rodopeplus (Vigors, 1831) OR : Himalayas from n India to s Tibet

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Sharpe's Rosefinch Carpodacus verreauxii (David & Oustalet, 1877) OR : sw, w China; n, ne Burma AS Carpodacus verreauxii is split from C. rodopeplus; is sister to C. rodochroa (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Tietze et al 2013)

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Vinaceous Rosefinch Carpodacus vinaceus Verreaux, J, 1871 OR : Nepal and n India to c and s China and n Burma

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Taiwan Rosefinch Carpodacus formosanus Ogilvie-Grant, 1911 OR : Taiwan AS Taiwan Rosefinch is split from Vinaceous Rosefinch C. vinaceus (Wu et al 2011, Tietze et al 2013; cf Collar 2004)

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Sinai Rosefinch Carpodacus synoicus (Temminck, 1825) EU : ne Egypt, Israel, Jordan and w Saudi Arabia

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Pale Rosefinch Carpodacus stoliczkae (Hume, 1874) EU : c Afghanistan to c China AS Pale Rosefinch is split from Sinai Rosefinch (Tietze et al 2013)

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C. s. salimalii (Meinertzhagen, R, 1938) c Afghanistan

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C. s. stoliczkae (Hume, 1874) w China

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C. s. beicki (Stresemann, 1930) c China

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Tibetan Rosefinch Carpodacus roborowskii (Przewalski, 1887) OR : Himalayas to wc China TAX, PHY Previously in Koslowia, Tibetan Rosefinch is assigned to Carpodacus (Zuccon et al 2012, Tietze et al 2013)

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Long-tailed Rosefinch Carpodacus sibiricus (Pallas, 1773) EU : c, e TAX, PHY Previously in Uragus, Long-tailed Rosefinch is assigned to Carpodacus (Zuccon et al 2012, Tietze et al 2013)

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C. s. sibiricus (Pallas, 1773) sw Siberia and ne Kazakhstan to Mongolia and nc China

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C. s. ussuriensis (Buturlin, 1915) e Siberia and ne China

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C. s. sanguinolentus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1848) Sakhalin and Kuril Is., n Japan

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C. s. lepidus (David & Oustalet, 1877) ne Tibet to nc and c China

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C. s. henrici (Oustalet, 1892) e Tibet and sc China

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Pallas's Rosefinch Carpodacus roseus (Pallas, 1776) EU : e

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C. r. roseus (Pallas, 1776) ne Kazakhstan, c and e Siberia

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C. r. portenkoi Browning, 1988 Sakhalin I.

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Three-banded Rosefinch Carpodacus trifasciatus Verreaux, J, 1871 EU : w China

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Himalayan White-browed Rosefinch Carpodacus thura Bonaparte & Schlegel, 1850 OR : Himalayas ENG Change  English name of Carpodacus thura to Himalayan White-browed Rosefinch with split of C. dubius

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C. t. blythi (Biddulph, 1882) ne Afghanistan and w Himalayas

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C. t. thura Bonaparte & Schlegel, 1850 c and e Himalayas, se Tibet

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Chinese White-browed Rosefinch Carpodacus dubius Przewalski, 1876 EU : e Tibet, n,w,sw China AS Carpodacus dubius is split from C. thura (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Tietze et al 2013)

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C. d. femininus Rippon, 1906 e Tibet, sw China

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C. d. dubius Przewalski, 1876 wc China

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C. d. deserticolor (Stegmann, 1931) c China

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Red-fronted Rosefinch Carpodacus puniceus (Blyth, 1845) OR : Himalayas

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C. p. kilianensis Vaurie, 1956 w China

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C. p. humii (Sharpe, 1888) se Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to nw Himalayas

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C. p. puniceus (Blyth, 1845) c Himalayas and s Tibet

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C. p. sikangensis Vaurie, 1956 sc China

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C. p. longirostris (Przewalski, 1876) c China

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Crimson-browed Finch Carpodacus subhimachalus (Hodgson, 1836) EU : Himalayas TAX, PHY Previously in Pinicola, Crimson-browed Finch is assigned to Carpodacus (Zuccon et al 2012, Tietze et al 2013)

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Melamprosops Casey & Jacobi, JD, 1974

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Poo-uli Melamprosops phaeosoma Casey & Jacobi, JD, 1974 PO : Hawaiian Islands , PHY Hawaiian Honeycreepers resequenced following Pratt 2005, Lerner et al 2011

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Paroreomyza Perkins, 1901

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Oahu Alauahio Paroreomyza maculata (Cabanis, 1850) PO : Oahu (Hawaiian Islands)

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Kakawahie Paroreomyza flammea (Wilson, SB, 1890) PO : Molokai (Hawaiian Islands)

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Maui Alauahio Paroreomyza montana (Wilson, SB, 1890) PO : Hawaiian Islands

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P. m. newtoni (Rothschild, 1893) Maui

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P. m. montana (Wilson, SB, 1890) Lanai

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Oreomystis Stejneger, 1903

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Akikiki Oreomystis bairdi (Stejneger, 1887) PO : Hawaiian Islands

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Telespiza Wilson, SB, 1890

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Laysan Finch Telespiza cantans Wilson, SB, 1890 PO : Hawaiian Islands

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Nihoa Finch Telespiza ultima Bryan, 1917 PO : Hawaiian Islands

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Loxioides Oustalet, 1877

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Palila Loxioides bailleui Oustalet, 1877 PO : Hawaiian Islands

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Rhodacanthis Rothschild, 1892

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Lesser Koa Finch Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild, 1892 PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands)

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Greater Koa Finch Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild, 1892 PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands)

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Chloridops Wilson, SB, 1888

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Kona Grosbeak Chloridops kona Wilson, SB, 1888 PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands)

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Psittirostra Temminck, 1820

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Ou Psittirostra psittacea (Gmelin, JF, 1789) PO : Hawaiian Islands

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Dysmorodrepanis Perkins, 1919

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Lanai Hookbill Dysmorodrepanis munroi Perkins, 1919 PO : Lanai (Hawaiian Islands)

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Vestiaria Jarocki, 1821

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Iiwi Vestiaria coccinea (Forster, G, 1780) PO : Hawaiian Islands

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Drepanis Temminck, 1820

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Hawaii Mamo Drepanis pacifica (Gmelin, JF, 1788) PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands)

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Black Mamo Drepanis funerea Newton, A, 1894 PO : Molokai (Hawaiian Islands)

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Ciridops Newton, A, 1892

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Ula-ai-hawane Ciridops anna (Dole, 1878) PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands)

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Palmeria Rothschild, 1893

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Akohekohe Palmeria dolei (Wilson, SB, 1891) PO : Hawaiian Islands

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Himatione Cabanis, 1850

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Apapane Himatione sanguinea (Gmelin, JF, 1788) PO : Hawaiian Islands

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Laysan Honeycreeper Himatione fraithii Rothschild, 1892 PO : Laysan I. (Hawaiian Islands) EXT Regarded as specifically distinct from Apapane Himatione sanguinea Pratt, 2005

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Viridonia Rothschild, 1892

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Greater Amakihi Viridonia sagittirostris Rothschild, 1892 PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands) TAX, PHY Previously in Hemignathus, Greater Amakihi is tentatively assigned to Viridonia. See Pratt 2005.

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Akialoa Olson & James, 1995

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Lesser Akialoa Akialoa obscura (Gmelin, JF, 1788) PO : Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands) TAX, PHY Previously in Hemignathus, Greater Akialoa is tentatively assigned to Akialoa. See Pratt 2005.

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Greater Akialoa Akialoa ellisiana (Gray, GR, 1860) PO : Hawaiian Islands TAX, PHY Previously in Hemignathus, Lesser Akialoa is tentatively assigned to Akialoa. See Pratt 2005.

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A. e. stejnegeri (Wilson, SB, 1889) Kauai

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A. e. ellisiana (Gray, GR, 1860) Oahu

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A. e. lanaiensis (Rothschild, 1893) Lanai

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Hemignathus Lichtenstein, MHK, 1839

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Nukupuu Hemignathus lucidus Lichtenstein, MHK, 1839 PO : Hawaiian Islands

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H. l. hanapepe Wilson, SB, 1889 Kauai

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H. l. lucidus Lichtenstein, MHK, 1839 Oahu

.

H. l. affinis Rothschild, 1893 Maui

.

Akiapolaau Hemignathus wilsoni (Rothschild, 1893) PO : Hawaiian Islands TAX Akiapolaau Hemignathus wilsoni. Formerly H. munroi on the IOC list which was a name created by Pratt because if  Hawaii Amakihi is also placed in Hemignathus then its subspecies wilsoni has precedence. Transfer of Hawaii Amakihi to Chlorodrepanis removes conflict and the older name for Akiapolaau returns to H. wilsoni.

.

Pseudonestor Rothschild, 1893

.

Maui Parrotbill Pseudonestor xanthophrys Rothschild, 1893 PO : Hawaiian Islands

.

Magumma Mathews, 1925

.

Anianiau Magumma parva (Stejneger, 1887) PO : Hawaiian Islands TAX Hemignathus parvus is assigned to the monotypic genus Magumma (AOU 2008)

.

Manucerthia Pratt, 2009

.

Hawaii Creeper Manucerthia mana (Wilson, SB, 1891) PO : Hawaiian Islands PHY, TAX Hawaii Creeper is genetically closer to amakihis/akepas than to Oreomystis bairdi (Pratt 2009, Reding et al 2009).

.

Loxops Cabanis, 1847

.

Akekee Loxops caeruleirostris (Wilson, SB, 1890) PO : Hawaiian Islands

.

Akepa Loxops coccineus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) PO : Hawaiian Islands

.

L. c. wolstenholmei Rothschild, 1893 Oahu

.

L. c. ochraceus Rothschild, 1893 Maui

.

L. c. coccineus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Hawaii

.

Chlorodrepanis Perkins, 1899 TAX, PHY Previously in Hemignathus, 3 species of Amakihi  (virens, flava, stejnegeri) are assigned to Chlorodrepanis based on Lerner et al (2011) phylogeny; see also Pratt 2005.

.

Hawaii Amakihi Chlorodrepanis virens (Gmelin, JF, 1788) PO : Hawaiian Islands

.

C. v. wilsoni (Rothschild, 1893) Molokai, Lanai and Maui

.

C. v. virens (Gmelin, JF, 1788) Hawaii

.

Oahu Amakihi Chlorodrepanis flava (Bloxam, A, 1827) PO : Hawaiian Islands

.

Kauai Amakihi Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri (Wilson, SB, 1890) PO : Hawaiian Islands TAX, PHY Kauai Amakihi:   H. kauaiensis was a name proposed by Doug Pratt because when Kauai Amakihi is placed in Hemignathus, its original name, stejnegeri, is preoccupied by a subspecies of Greater Akialoa. That conflict no longer exists with placement of Kauai Amakihi in Chlorodrepanis and Greater Akialoa in Akialoa, so the older name is restored.

.

Haemorhous Swainson, 1837 TAX, PHY Previously in Carpodacus, Purple Finch, Cassin's Finch & House Finch are assigned to Haemorhous (Zuccon et al 2012, AOU 2012)

.

Purple Finch Haemorhous purpureus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : n, w, also nw Mexico

.

H. p. purpureus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) sc and se Canada, ne USA

.

H. p. californicus (Baird, SF, 1858) sw Canada, w USA

.

Cassin's Finch Haemorhous cassinii (Baird, SF, 1854) NA : w, also n Mexico

.

House Finch Haemorhous mexicanus (Statius Müller, 1776) NA, MA : Canada, USA and Mexico

.

H. m. frontalis (Say, 1822) sw and se Canada, USA and nw Mexico

.

H. m. clementis (Mearns, 1898) San Clemente I. (off sw California) and Los Coronados Is. (off extreme nw Mexico)

.

H. m. mcgregori (Anthony, 1897) San Benito I. (off nw Mexico)

.

H. m. amplus (Ridgway, 1876) Guadalupe I. (off nw Mexico)

.

H. m. ruberrimus (Ridgway, 1887) s Baja California (nw Mexico)

.

H. m. rhodopnus (Moore, RT, 1936) c Sinaloa (wc Mexico)

.

H. m. coccineus (Moore, RT, 1939) sw Mexico

.

H. m. potosinus (Griscom, 1928) nc Mexico

.

H. m. centralis (Moore, RT, 1937) c Mexico

.

H. m. mexicanus (Statius Müller, 1776) sc Mexico

.

H. m. roseipectus (Sharpe, 1888) Oaxaca valley (s Mexico)

.

H. m. griscomi (Moore, RT, 1939) Guerrero (sw Mexico)

.

Chloris Cuvier, 1800 TAX Greenfinches represent a monophyletic group, genus Chloris which is not sister to the other species currently classified in Carduelis (Sangster et al 2011 and refs therein)

.

European Greenfinch Chloris chloris (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : w, sw, sc

.

C. c. harrisoni Clancey, 1940 Britain (except n Scotland) and Ireland

.

C. c. chloris (Linnaeus, 1758) n Scotland, n and c France and Norway to w Siberia

.

C. c. muehlei (Parrot, 1905) Serbia and Montenegro to Moldovia, Bulgaria and Greece

.

C. c. aurantiiventris (Cabanis, 1851) s Spain through s Europe to w Greece

.

C. c. madaraszi Tschusi, 1911 Corsica and Sardinia

.

C. c. vanmarli (Voous, 1951) nw Spain, Portugal and nw Morocco

.

C. c. voousi (Roselaar, 1993) c Morocco and n Algeria

.

C. c. chlorotica (Bonaparte, 1850) sc Turkey to ne Egypt

.

C. c. bilkevitchi Zarudny, 1911 s Ukraine, the Caucasus and ne Turkey to n Iran and sw Turkmenistan

.

C. c. turkestanica Zarudny, 1907 s Kazakhstan to Kyrgyzstan and c Tajikistan

.

Grey-capped Greenfinch Chloris sinica (Linnaeus, 1766) EU : e, also e China to Vietnam

.

C. s. ussuriensis Hartert, 1903 ne China, Korea and e Siberia

.

C. s. kawarahiba (Temminck, 1836) Kamchatka, Kuril Is., and ne Hokkaido (n Japan)

.

C. s. minor (Temminck & Schlegel, 1848) s Hokkaido (n Japan) to Kyushu (s Japan)

.

C. s. kittlitzi (Seebohm, 1890) Bonin and Iwo Is.

.

C. s. sinica (Linnaeus, 1766) c and e China to c Vietnam

.

Yellow-breasted Greenfinch Chloris spinoides (Vigors, 1831) OR : Pakistan to Burma

.

C. s. spinoides (Vigors, 1831) Pakistan, the Himalayas, ne India and s Tibet

.

C. s. heinrichi (Stresemann, 1940) ne India and w Burma

.

Vietnamese Greenfinch Chloris monguilloti (Delacour, 1926) OR : Vietnam

.

Black-headed Greenfinch Chloris ambigua (Oustalet, 1896) OR : Himalayas to n Thailand

.

C. a. taylori (Kinnear, 1939) se Tibet

.

C. a. ambigua (Oustalet, 1896) e and ne Burma, s China and n Indochina

.

Rhodospiza Sharpe, 1888

.

Desert Finch Rhodospiza obsoleta (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) EU : sc

.

Rhynchostruthus Sclater, PL & Hartlaub, 1881

.

Socotra Golden-winged Grosbeak Rhynchostruthus socotranus Sclater, PL & Hartlaub, 1881 EU : Socotra Is

.

Arabian Golden-winged Grosbeak Rhynchostruthus percivali Ogilvie-Grant, 1900 EU : sw Arabian Peninsula AS Rhynchostruthus percivali is split from R.socotranus (Kirwan & Grieve 2007, BLI 1.0)

.

Somali Golden-winged Grosbeak Rhynchostruthus louisae Lort Phillips, 1897 AF : Somalia

.

Linurgus Reichenbach, 1850

.

Oriole Finch Linurgus olivaceus (Fraser, 1843) AF : wc, c, e

.

L. o. olivaceus (Fraser, 1843) se Nigeria, w Cameroon and Bioko I.

.

L. o. prigoginei Schouteden, 1950 e DR Congo, sw Uganda, w Rwanda and w Burundi

.

L. o. elgonensis van Someren, 1918 se Sudan, e Uganda and w and c Kenya

.

L. o. kilimensis (Reichenow & Neumann, 1895) s Kenya, Tanzania and n Malawi

.

Crithagra Swainson, 1827

.

Principe Seedeater Crithagra rufobrunnea (Gray, GR, 1862) AF : Príncipe, São Tomé

.

C. r. rufobrunnea (Gray, GR, 1862) Principe I.

.

C. r. fradei (Naurois, 1975) Ilhéu Caroco off s Príncipe

.

C. r. thomensis (Barboza du Bocage, 1888) São Tomé

.

Sao Tome Grosbeak Crithagra concolor (Barboza du Bocage, 1888) AF : São Tomé TAX, PHY Previously separated as Neospiza, Sao Tome Grosbeak is assigned to Crithagra (Zuccon et al 2012, Melo & Jones MS)

.

African Citril Crithagra citrinelloides (Rüppell, 1840) AF : s Sudan; w,c Ethiopia, w Kenya

.

C. c. citrinelloides (Rüppell, 1840) Eritrea and Ethiopia

.

C. c. kikuyensis (Neumann, 1905) w Kenya

.

Western Citril Crithagra frontalis (Reichenow, 1904) AF : ce

.

Southern Citril Crithagra hyposticta (Reichenow, 1904) AF : e, se

.

C. h. brittoni (Traylor, 1970) s Sudan to w Kenya

.

C. h. hyposticta (Reichenow, 1904) se Kenya to ne Zambia and Malawi

.

Black-faced Canary Crithagra capistrata Finsch, 1870 AF : c

.

C. c. capistrata Finsch, 1870 Gabon and Congo to e DR Congo and Burundi, n Angola, s DR Congo and n Zambia

.

C. c. hildegardae (Rand & Traylor, 1959) c Angola

.

Papyrus Canary Crithagra koliensis (Grant, CHB & Mackworth-Praed, 1952) AF : ec

.

Forest Canary Crithagra scotops Sundevall, 1850 AF : South Africa

.

C. s. kirbyi Dowsett, 2012 ne South Africa

.

C. s. umbrosa (Clancey, 1964) inland e and s South Africa

.

C. s. scotops Sundevall, 1850 lowland e and s South Africa

.

White-rumped Seedeater Crithagra leucopygia Sundevall, 1850 AF : w, c, e

.

C. l. riggenbachi (Neumann, 1908) Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia to w Sudan and Central African Republic

.

C. l. pallens (Vaurie, 1956) Niger

.

C. l. leucopygia Sundevall, 1850 e Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and nw Uganda

.

Black-throated Canary Crithagra atrogularis (Smith, A, 1836) AF : e, s

.

C. a. somereni (Hartert, 1912) ne DR Congo, Uganda and w Kenya to nw Tanzania

.

C. a. lwenarum (White, CMN, 1944) Gabon and Congo to sw Tanzania, c Zambbia and c Angola

.

C. a. atrogularis (Smith, A, 1836) se Botswana, Zimbabwe (except w) and n South Africa

.

C. a. impiger (Clancey, 1959) c South Africa and Lesotho

.

C. a. semideserti (Roberts, 1932) s Angola and ne Namibia to w Zimbabwe

.

C. a. deserti (Reichenow, 1918) sw Angola to w South Africa

.

Yellow-rumped Seedeater Crithagra xanthopygia (Rüppell, 1840) AF : Ethiopia, Eritrea

.

Reichenow's Seedeater Crithagra reichenowi (Salvadori, 1888) AF : e

.

Arabian Serin Crithagra rothschildi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1902) EU : w, sw Arabian Peninsula

.

Yellow-throated Seedeater Crithagra flavigula (Salvadori, 1888) AF : Ethiopia

.

Salvadori's Seedeater Crithagra xantholaema (Salvadori, 1896) AF : Ethiopia

.

Lemon-breasted Canary Crithagra citrinipectus (Clancey & Lawson, 1960) AF : se TAX Correct gender of species name of Lemon-breasted Canary from citrinipecta to citrinipectus (BBOC 122:34)

.

Yellow-fronted Canary Crithagra mozambica (Statius Müller, 1776) AF : w, c, e, s

.

C. m. caniceps (d'Orbigny, 1839) s Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia to N Cameroon

.

C. m. punctigula (Reichenow, 1898) c and s Cameroon

.

C. m. grotei (Sclater, WL & Mackworth-Praed, 1931) e Sudan, w and sw Ethiopia

.

C. m. gommaensis (Grant, CHB & Mackworth-Praed, 1945) Eritrea, nw and c Ethiopia

.

C. m. barbata Heuglin, 1864 s Chad and Central African Republic to sw Kenya and c Tanzania

.

C. m. tando (Sclater, WL & Mackworth-Praed, 1918) Gabon to Angola

.

C. m. samaliyae (White, CMN, 1947) se DR Congo, sw Tanzania and ne Zambia

.

C. m. vansoni (Roberts, 1932) se Angola, ne Namibia and sw Zambia

.

C. m. mozambica (Statius Müller, 1776) Kenya to e Botswana, Zimbabwe, ne South Africa and sc Mozambique

.

C. m. granti (Clancey, 1957) s Mozambique and e South Africa

.

White-bellied Canary Crithagra dorsostriata Reichenow, 1887 AF : e

.

C. d. maculicollis (Sharpe, 1895) Ethiopia and Somalia through c and e Kenya to ne Tanzania

.

C. d. dorsostriata Reichenow, 1887 se Uganda, w Kenya and nw Tanzania

.

Ankober Serin Crithagra ankoberensis (Ash, 1979) AF : Ethiopia

.

Yemen Serin Crithagra menachensis (Ogilvie-Grant, 1913) EU : sw Arabian Peninsula

.

Cape Siskin Crithagra totta (Sparrman, 1786) AF : South Africa

.

Drakensberg Siskin Crithagra symonsi (Roberts, 1916) AF : South Africa

.

Northern Grosbeak-Canary Crithagra donaldsoni (Sharpe, 1895) AF : ne

.

Southern Grosbeak-Canary Crithagra buchanani (Hartert, 1919) AF : e

.

Yellow Canary Crithagra flaviventris (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : s

.

C. f. damarensis (Roberts, 1922) sw Angola, Namibia, Botswana and nc South Africa

.

C. f. flaviventris (Gmelin, JF, 1789) extreme s Namibia, w and sw Sout Africa

.

C. f. guillarmodi (Roberts, 1936) highlands of Lesotho

.

C. f. marshalli (Shelley, 1902) se Botswana, c and ne South Africa, lowlands of Lesotho

.

Brimstone Canary Crithagra sulphurata (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : e, se, s

.

C. s. sharpii (Neumann, 1900) Angola to ne DR Congo, Kenya, Tanzania and n Mozambique

.

C. s. wilsoni Roberts, 1936 Zimbabwe, s Mozambique, Swaziland and e South Africa

.

C. s. sulphurata (Linnaeus, 1766) s South Africa

.

Reichard's Seedeater Crithagra reichardi (Reichenow, 1882) AF : e

.

C. r. striatipecta (Sharpe, 1891) s Sudan, s Ethiopia and n Kenya

.

C. r. reichardi (Reichenow, 1882) s DR Congo to c Tanzania and n Mozambique

.

Streaky-headed Seedeater Crithagra gularis (Smith, A, 1836) AF : sc, s

.

C. g. benguellensis (Reichenow, 1904) Guinea, Sierra Leone and s Mali to n Cameroon

.

C. g. elgonensis (Ogilvie-Grant, 1912) s Chad to s Sudan, w Kenya and n DR Congo

.

C. g. endemion (Clancey, 1952) s Mozambique and e South Africa

.

C. g. gularis (Smith, A, 1836) se Botswana and n South Africa

.

C. g. humilis (Bonaparte, 1850) s South Africa

.

C. g. mendosa (Clancey, 1966) ne Botswana, Zimbabwe and nw Mozambique

.

C. g. montanorum (Bannerman, 1923) e Nigeria to c Cameroon

.

West African Seedeater Crithagra canicapilla (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1855) AF : wc, c

.

Black-eared Seedeater Crithagra mennelli (Chubb, EC, 1908) AF : sc

.

Brown-rumped Seedeater Crithagra tristriata (Rüppell, 1840) AF : ne

.

White-throated Canary Crithagra albogularis Smith, A, 1833 AF : sw, s

.

C. a. crocopygia (Sharpe, 1871) sw Angola and n Namibia

.

C. a. sordahlae (Friedmann, 1932) s Namibia and nw South Africa

.

C. a. orangensis Roberts, 1937 n South Africa

.

C. a. albogularis Smith, A, 1833 w South Africa

.

C. a. hewitti Roberts, 1937 c and se South Africa

.

Thick-billed Seedeater Crithagra burtoni (Gray, GR, 1862) AF : c, ec

.

C. b. burtoni (Gray, GR, 1862) se Nigeria, sw Cameroon and Bioko I.

.

C. b. tanganjicae (Granvik, 1923) wc Angola, e DR Congo to w Uganda, w Rwanda and w Burundi

.

C. b. kilimensis Richmond, 1897 e Uganda, sw Kenya and w Tanzania

.

C. b. albifrons Sharpe, 1891 e Kenya

.

Streaky Seedeater Crithagra striolata (Rüppell, 1840) AF : e

.

C. s. graueri (Hartert, 1907) e DR Congo, sw Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi

.

C. s. striolata (Rüppell, 1840) Eritrea, Ethiopia and se Sudan to Tanzania and n Malawi

.

Yellow-browed Seedeater Crithagra whytii (Shelley, 1897) AF : e

.

Kipengere Seedeater Crithagra melanochroa (Reichenow, 1900) AF : Tanzania

.

Protea Canary Crithagra leucoptera Sharpe, 1871 AF : South Africa

.

Linaria Bechstein, 1802 TAX, PHY Previously in Carduelis, Twite and Linnets are assigned to Linaria (Arnaiz-Villena et al. 1999, Nguembock et al. 2009, Zuccon et al 2012)

.

Twite Linaria flavirostris (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread

.

L. f. bensonorum (Meinertzhagen, R, 1934) Outer Hebrides (w Scotland)

.

L. f. pipilans (Latham, 1787) n Ireland and n Britain

.

L. f. flavirostris (Linnaeus, 1758) n Scandinavia and nw Russia

.

L. f. brevirostris (Bonaparte, 1855) Turkey, the Caucasus and n Iran

.

L. f. kirghizorum (Sushkin, 1925) n and c Kazakhstan

.

L. f. korejevi (Zarudny & Harms, 1914) ne Kazakhstan to nw China

.

L. f. altaica (Sushkin, 1925) sw Siberia, n and w Mongolia

.

L. f. montanella (Hume, 1873) Kyrgyzstan to w China

.

L. f. pamirensis (Zarudny & Harms, 1914) Tajikistan, n Afghanistan and nw Pakistan

.

L. f. miniakensis (Jacobi, A, 1923) e Tibet and w China

.

L. f. rufostrigata (Walton, 1905) w and s Tibet, n India and n Nepal

.

Common Linnet Linaria cannabina (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread, also nw Africa and Canary Islands

.

L. c. autochthona (Clancey, 1946) Scotland

.

L. c. cannabina (Linnaeus, 1758) w, c and n Europe, w and sc Siberia

.

L. c. bella (Brehm, CL, 1845) Middle East to Mongolia and nw China

.

L. c. mediterranea (Tschusi, 1903) Iberian Pen., Italy, Greece, nw Africa and Mediterranean islands

.

L. c. nana (Tschusi, 1901) Madeira I. SSP L. c. nana (Tschusi, 1901) replaces C. c. guentheri (Wolters, 1953) when Linaria is split from Carduelis

.

L. c. meadewaldoi (Hartert, 1901) w and c Canary Is.

.

L. c. harterti (Bannerman, 1913) e Canary Is.

.

Yemen Linnet Linaria yemenensis (Ogilvie-Grant, 1913) EU : sw Arabian Peninsula

.

Warsangli Linnet Linaria johannis (Clarke, S, 1919) AF : ne Somalia

.

Acanthis von Borkhausen, 1797 TAX, PHY Previously in Carduelis, redpolls are returned to Acanthis (Arnaiz-Villena et al. 1999, Nguembock et al. 2009, Zuccon et al 2012, NACC)

.

Common Redpoll Acanthis flammea (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, NA : n TAX Species taxonomy of redpolls is unsettled, including Lesser Redpoll Acanthis (flammea) cabaret recognized by BOU (Ottvall et al. 2002, Marthinsen et al 2008)

.

A. f. cabaret (Statius Müller, 1776) Britain to c Europe

.

A. f. flammea (Linnaeus, 1758) n Europe, Siberia, Alaska and Canada

.

A. f. rostrata (Coues, 1861) ne Canada, Greenland and Iceland

.

Arctic Redpoll Acanthis hornemanni (Holböll, 1843) EU, NA : n

.

A. h. exilipes (Coues, 1862) n Eurasia, Alaska and nw Canada

.

A. h. hornemanni (Holböll, 1843) ne Canada and Greenland

.

Loxia Linnaeus, 1758

.

Parrot Crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus von Borkhausen, 1793 EU : nw, nc

.

Scottish Crossbill Loxia scotica Hartert, 1904 EU : Scotland

.

Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758 EU, OR, NA, MA : widespread

.

L. c. curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758 n, w and c Europe to ne Siberia and n Mongolia

.

L. c. balearica (Homeyer, 1862) c and s Spain, Balearic Is.

.

L. c. corsicana Tschusi, 1912 Corsica

.

L. c. poliogyna Whitaker, 1898 s Italy, nw Africa

.

L. c. guillemardi Madarász, 1903 e Balkans and Turkey to the Caucasus and s Ukraine

.

L. c. altaiensis Sushkin, 1925 ne Kazakhstan, sw Siberia and w Mongolia

.

L. c. tianschanica Laubmann, 1927 se Kazakhstan to Tajikistan and nw China

.

L. c. himalayensis Blyth, 1845 Himalayas to s China

.

L. c. meridionalis Robinson & Kloss, 1919 s Vietnam

.

L. c. japonica Ridgway, 1884 se Siberia, ne China, Korea, Sakhalin and Kuril Is. and Japan

.

L. c. luzoniensis Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 Luzon (n Philippines)

.

L. c. minor (Brehm, CL, 1846) se Canada and ne USA

.

L. c. percna Bent, 1912 Newfoundland

.

L. c. sitkensis Grinnell, 1909 coastal s Alaska to coastal w USA

.

L. c. bendirei Ridgway, 1884 inland sw Canada and inland nw USA

.

L. c. benti Griscom, 1937 c Rocky Mts. (wc USA)

.

L. c. sinesciuris Benkman, 2009 South Hills and Albion Mts. (Idaho in nw USA)

.

L. c. grinnelli Griscom, 1937 wc to sw USA

.

L. c. stricklandi Ridgway, 1885 sw USA to s Mexico

.

L. c. mesamericana Griscom, 1937 Guatemala and Belize to Nicaragua

.

Two-barred Crossbill Loxia leucoptera Gmelin, JF, 1789 EU, NA : n

.

L. l. bifasciata (Brehm, CL, 1827) n Europe to e Siberia and ne China

.

L. l. leucoptera Gmelin, JF, 1789 Alaska, Canada and n USA

.

Hispaniolan Crossbill Loxia megaplaga Riley, 1916 NA : Hispaniola

.

Chrysocorythus Wolters, 1967

.

Mountain Serin Chrysocorythus estherae (Finsch, 1902) OR : Sumatra, Java, Philippines, also Sulawesi TAX, PHY Previously in Serinus, Mountain Serin is assigned to Chrysocorythus (Zuccon et al 2012)

.

C. e. vanderbilti (Meyer de Schauensee, 1939) n Sumatra

.

C. e. estherae (Finsch, 1902) w Java

.

C. e. chaseni (Kinzelbach, Dickinson & Somadikarta, 2009) e Java

.

C. e. renatae (Schuchmann & Wolters, 1982) Sulawesi

.

C. e. mindanensis (Ripley & Rabor, 1961) Mindanao (s Philippines)

.

Carduelis Brisson, 1760 TAX AOU (2009) changes back to component genera (Spinus, Acanthis, Chloris) for their species

.

European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : w, c, s

.

C. c. britannica (Hartert, 1903) British Isles, nw France and w Netherlands

.

C. c. carduelis (Linnaeus, 1758) s Scandinavia to c France and Italy and east to c European Russia

.

C. c. parva Tschusi, 1901 sw Europe, nw Africa, Madeira, Balearic and Canary Is.

.

C. c. tschusii Arrigoni degli Oddi, 1902 Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily

.

C. c. balcanica Sachtleben, 1919 Balkans, Greece, Crete and nw Turkey

.

C. c. niediecki Reichenow, 1907 Middle East

.

C. c. brevirostris Zarudny, 1889 e Turkey, s Caucasus and n Iran TAX C. c. brevirostris Zarudny, 1889 replaces C. c. loudoni Zarudny, 1906 when Acanthis is split from Carduelis

.

C. c. colchica Koudashev, 1915 n Caucasus and Crimea (s Ukraine)

.

C. c. volgensis Buturlin, 1906 s Ukraine, s European Russia and nw Kazakhstan

.

C. c. major Taczanowski, 1880 sw and sc Siberia TAX C. c. major Taczanowski, 1879 replaces C. c. frigoris Wolters, 1953 when Acanthis is split from Carduelis

.

C. c. paropanisi Kollibay, 1910 w Turkmenistan and e Iran to nw China

.

C. c. subulata (Gloger, 1833) ne Kazakhstan, sc Siberia and w Mongolia

.

C. c. caniceps Vigors, 1831 w Pakistan to nw Himalayas, sw Tibet and c Nepal

.

C. c. ultima Koelz, 1949 s Iran

.

Citril Finch Carduelis citrinella (Pallas, 1764) EU : s, c Europe

.

Corsican Finch Carduelis corsicana (Koenig, AF, 1899) EU : Sardinia, Corsica

.

Serinus Koch, 1816

.

Red-fronted Serin Serinus pusillus (Pallas, 1811) EU : c, sc

.

European Serin Serinus serinus (Linnaeus, 1766) EU : w, sw, also n Africa

.

Syrian Serin Serinus syriacus Bonaparte, 1850 EU, AF : Syria and Iraq to Egypt

.

Atlantic Canary Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) AF : Canary Islands, Azores, Madeira

.

Cape Canary Serinus canicollis (Swainson, 1838) AF : s

.

S. c. griseitergum Clancey, 1967 e Zimbabwe and w Mozambique

.

S. c. canicollis (Swainson, 1838) South Africa

.

Yellow-crowned Canary Serinus flavivertex (Blanford, 1869) AF : ne, e Africa, c Angola

.

S. f. flavivertex (Blanford, 1869) Eritrea and Ethiopia to n Tanzania

.

S. f. sassii Neumann, 1922 e DR Congo and sw Uganda to ne Zambia and n Malawi

.

S. f. huillensis Sousa, 1889 c Angola

.

Ethiopian Siskin Serinus nigriceps Rüppell, 1840 AF : Ethiopia TAX Ethiopian Siskin tentatively assigned to Serinus following Wolters xxxx, Ryan et al 2004; genetic data needed

.

Black-headed Canary Serinus alario (Linnaeus, 1758) AF : South Africa TAX, PHY Previously in Crithagra, Black-headed Canary is assigned to Serinus (Zuccon et al 2012, also Arnaiz-Villena et al. 1999, Nguembock et al. 2009, Ryan et al 2004)

.

S. a. leucolaemus (Sharpe, 1903) s Namibia, nw and wc South Africa PS Taxonomic status of "Damara Canary" uncertain

.

S. a. alario (Linnaeus, 1758) w and c South Africa, Lesotho

.

Spinus Koch, 1816 TAX, PHY Previously in Carduelis, New World goldfinches and siskins are restored to Spinus (NACC 2008-A-9B) or Sporagra (SACC 488); sequence of Spinus based on Arnaiz-Villena et al (2012)

.

Tibetan Serin Spinus thibetana (Hume, 1872) OR : Nepal to sw China and n Burma TAX, PHY Previously in Serinus, Tibetan Serin is assigned to Spinus (Zuccon et al 2012)

.

Lawrence's Goldfinch Spinus lawrencei (Cassin, 1850) NA, MA : sw USA, nw Mexico

.

American Goldfinch Spinus tristis (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, MA : Canada to Mexico

.

S. t. pallida Mearns, 1890 sc Canada, c and wc USA

.

S. t. jewetti van Rossem, 1943 sw Canada and nw USA

.

S. t. salicamans Grinnell, 1897 sw USA, nw Mexico

.

S. t. tristis (Linnaeus, 1758) se Canada, c and e USA

.

Lesser Goldfinch Spinus psaltria (Say, 1822) NA, LA : w USA to Peru

.

S. p. hesperophila (Oberholser, 1903) w USA and nw Mexico

.

S. p. witti Grant, PR, 1964 Tres Marias Is. (off w Mexico)

.

S. p. psaltria (Say, 1822) wc USA to sc Mexico

.

S. p. jouyi (Ridgway, 1898) se Mexico and nw Belize

.

S. p. colombiana (Lafresnaye, 1843) s Mexico to Peru and Venezuela

.

Eurasian Siskin Spinus spinus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread, also n Africa

.

Antillean Siskin Spinus dominicensis (Bryant, H, 1867) NA : Hispaniola

.

Pine Siskin Spinus pinus (Wilson, A, 1810) NA, MA : Canada to Guatemala

.

S. p. pinus (Wilson, A, 1810) Alaska, Canada and w and ne USA

.

S. p. macroptera (Bonaparte, 1850) nw and c Mexico

.

S. p. perplexa van Rossem, 1938 s Mexico to Guatemala

.

Black-capped Siskin Spinus atriceps (Salvin, 1863) MA : s Mexico, Guatemala

.

Black-headed Siskin Spinus notata (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1847) MA : Mexico to Nicaragua

.

S. n. notata (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1847) e and c Mexico, n Guatemala

.

S. n. forreri (Salvin & Godman, 1886) w Mexico

.

S. n. oleacea Griscom, 1932 Belize to n Nicaragua

.

Black-chinned Siskin Spinus barbata (Molina, 1782) SA : s Chile, w Argentina

.

Yellow-bellied Siskin Spinus xanthogastra (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1855) LA : Costa Rico to Bolivia

.

S. x. xanthogastra (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1855) Costa Rica to Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela

.

S. x. stejnegeri (Sharpe, 1888) se Peru to c Bolivia

.

Olivaceous Siskin Spinus olivacea von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894 SA : e Ecuador to n Bolivia

.

Hooded Siskin Spinus magellanica (Vieillot, 1805) SA : widespread

.

S. m. capitalis (Cabanis, 1866) c Colombia to c Ecuador and nw Peru

.

S. m. paula Todd, 1926 s Ecuador to sw Peru

.

S. m. peruana von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1896 c Peru

.

S. m. urubambensis Todd, 1926 s Peru and n Chile

.

S. m. santaecrucis Todd, 1926 c Bolivia

.

S. m. boliviana (Sharpe, 1888) s Bolivia

.

S. m. hoyi (König, C, 1981) c Andes of nw Argentina

.

S. m. tucumana Todd, 1926 w Andes of nw Argentina

.

S. m. alleni Ridgway, 1899 se Bolivia, w Paraguay and ne Argentina

.

S. m. icterica (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) e and s Paraguay and se Brazil

.

S. m. magellanica (Vieillot, 1805) Uruguay and e Argentina

.

S. m. longirostris (Sharpe, 1888) s Venezuela, w Guyana and n Brazil

.

Saffron Siskin Spinus siemiradzkii (von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884) SA : sw Ecuador, nw Peru

.

Yellow-faced Siskin Spinus yarrellii (Audubon, 1839) SA : n Venezuela, ne Brazil

.

Red Siskin Spinus cucullata (Swainson, 1820) SA : n

.

Black Siskin Spinus atrata (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) SA : s Peru to n Chile and w Argentina

.

Yellow-rumped Siskin Spinus uropygialis (Sclater, PL, 1862) SA : s Peru to Chile and w Argentina

.

Thick-billed Siskin Spinus crassirostris (Landbeck, 1877) SA : s

.

S. c. amadoni George, WG, 1964 se Peru

.

S. c. crassirostris (Landbeck, 1877) s Bolivia, c Chile and nw Argentina

.

Andean Siskin Spinus spinescens (Bonaparte, 1850) SA : Colombia, Venezuela

.

S. s. spinescens (Bonaparte, 1850) ne Colombia, w and n Venezuela

.

S. s. capitanea Bangs, 1898 Santa Marta Mts. (n Colombia)

.

S. s. nigricauda Chapman, 1912 w Colombia to n Ecuador

.

Euphonia Desmarest, 1806

.

Jamaican Euphonia Euphonia jamaica (Linnaeus, 1766) NA : Jamaica

.

Plumbeous Euphonia Euphonia plumbea Du Bus de Gisignies, 1855 SA : n

.

Scrub Euphonia Euphonia affinis (Lesson, 1842) MA : Mexico to Costa Rica

.

E. a. godmani Brewster, 1889 w Mexico

.

E. a. olmecorum Dickerman, 1981 e Mexicoi

.

E. a. affinis (Lesson, 1842) s Mexico to Costa Rica

.

Yellow-crowned Euphonia Euphonia luteicapilla (Cabanis, 1861) MA : Nicaragua to Panama

.

Purple-throated Euphonia Euphonia chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766) SA : n, Amazonia, sc

.

E. c. cynophora (Oberholser, 1918) e Colombia, s Venezuela and n Brazil

.

E. c. chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766) the Guianas, ne and e Brazil

.

E. c. amazonica Parkes, 1969 nc and c Brazil

.

E. c. taczanowskii Sclater, PL, 1886 Peru and n Bolivia

.

E. c. serrirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 se Boliva and s Brazil to c Argentina

.

Trinidad Euphonia Euphonia trinitatis Strickland, 1851 SA : n

.

Velvet-fronted Euphonia Euphonia concinna Sclater, PL, 1855 SA : Colombia

.

Orange-crowned Euphonia Euphonia saturata (Cabanis, 1861) SA : Colombia to Peru

.

Finsch's Euphonia Euphonia finschi Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1877 SA : Venezuela, Guianas

.

Violaceous Euphonia Euphonia violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) SA : n, sc

.

E. v. rodwayi (Penard, TE, 1919) Venezuela and Trinidad

.

E. v. violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) the Guianas and n Brazil

.

E. v. aurantiicollis Bertoni, W, 1901 e Brazil to n Paraguay and ne Argentina

.

Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 LA : Costa Rica to Amazonia

.

E. l. crassirostris Sclater, PL, 1857 Costa Rica to w Venezuela

.

E. l. melanura Sclater, PL, 1851 e Colombia to e Peru and nc Brazil

.

E. l. hypoxantha von Berlepsch & Taczanowski, 1884 w Ecuador and nw Peru

.

E. l. zopholega (Oberholser, 1918) ec Peru

.

E. l. laniirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 se Peru and n Bolivia to c Brazil

.

Yellow-throated Euphonia Euphonia hirundinacea Bonaparte, 1838 MA : e Mexico to Panama

.

E. h. suttoni Phillips, AR, 1966 e Mexico

.

E. h. caribbaea Phillips, AR, 1966 sc Mexico

.

E. h. hirundinacea Bonaparte, 1838 se Mexico to e Nicaragua

.

E. h. gnatho (Cabanis, 1861) nw Nicaragua to w Panama

.

Green-chinned Euphonia Euphonia chalybea (Mikan, 1825) SA : se

.

Elegant Euphonia Euphonia elegantissima (Bonaparte, 1838) MA : Mexico to Honduras

.

E. e. rileyi (van Rossem, 1942) nw Mexico

.

E. e. elegantissima (Bonaparte, 1838) c Mexico to Honduras

.

Golden-rumped Euphonia Euphonia cyanocephala (Vieillot, 1819) SA : n Colombia to Trinidad and the Guianas, south to n Argentina, se Brazil, e Paraguay.

.

E. c. pelzelni Sclater, PL, 1886 s Colombia and w Ecuador

.

E. c. insignis Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1877 c Ecuador

.

E. c. cyanocephala (Vieillot, 1819) e Columbia through n Venezuela to Trinidad; the Guianas; eastern slope of Andes from Peru to Bolivia; discontinously in se Brazil, nw Argentina and e Paraguay

.

Antillean Euphonia Euphonia musica (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : West Indies

.

E. m. musica (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Hispaniola

.

E. m. sclateri (Sclater, PL, 1854) Puerto Rico

.

E. m. flavifrons (Sparrman, 1789) Lesser Antilles

.

Fulvous-vented Euphonia Euphonia fulvicrissa Sclater, PL, 1857 LA : Panama to Ecuador

.

E. f. fulvicrissa Sclater, PL, 1857 c Panama to w Colombia

.

E. f. omissa Hartert, 1913 c Colombia

.

E. f. purpurascens Hartert, 1901 sw Colombia and nw Ecuador

.

Spot-crowned Euphonia Euphonia imitans (Hellmayr, 1936) MA : Costa Rica, Panama

.

Olive-backed Euphonia Euphonia gouldi Sclater, PL, 1857 MA : se Mexico to Panama

.

E. g. gouldi Sclater, PL, 1857 se Mexico to Honduras

.

E. g. praetermissa (Peters, JL, 1929) se Honduras to Panama

.

White-lored Euphonia Euphonia chrysopasta Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1869 SA : w, n Amazonia

.

E. c. chrysopasta Sclater, PL & Salvin, 1869 w Amazonia

.

E. c. nitida (Penard, TE, 1923) e Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and n Brazil

.

Bronze-green Euphonia Euphonia mesochrysa Salvadori, 1873 SA : Colombia to Bolivia

.

E. m. mesochrysa Salvadori, 1873 c Colombia to e Ecuador

.

E. m. media (Zimmer, JT, 1943) n and c Peru

.

E. m. tavarae (Chapman, 1925) se Peru to c Bolivia

.

White-vented Euphonia Euphonia minuta Cabanis, 1849 LA : Mexico to Ecuador, Guianas to c Bolivia

.

E. m. humilis (Cabanis, 1861) s Mexico to nw Ecuador

.

E. m. minuta Cabanis, 1849 Amazonia

.

Tawny-capped Euphonia Euphonia anneae Cassin, 1865 LA : Costa Rica to Colombia

.

E. a. anneae Cassin, 1865 Costa Rica to w Panama

.

E. a. rufivertex Salvin, 1866 w Panama to nw Colombia

.

Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster Sundevall, 1834 LA : Panama to Bolivia and e Brazil

.

E. x. oressinoma Olson, 1981 w Panama to nw Colombia

.

E. x. chocoensis Hellmayr, 1911 e Panama to nw Ecuador

.

E. x. badissima Olson, 1981 n Colombia and nw Venezuela

.

E. x. quitensis (Nelson, 1912) w Ecuador and nw Peru

.

E. x. dilutior (Zimmer, JT, 1943) se Colombia and ne Peru

.

E. x. cyanonota Parkes, 1969 w and c Brazil

.

E. x. brunneifrons Chapman, 1901 se Peru

.

E. x. ruficeps d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 w Bolivia

.

E. x. brevirostris Bonaparte, 1851 e Colombia, e Ecuador and e Peru

.

E. x. exsul von Berlepsch, 1912 ne Colombia and n Venezuela

.

E. x. xanthogaster Sundevall, 1834 e Brazil

.

Rufous-bellied Euphonia Euphonia rufiventris (Vieillot, 1819) SA : w, n Amazonia

.

E. r. rufiventris (Vieillot, 1819) w Amazonia

.

E. r. carnegiei Dickerman, 1988 s Venezuela

.

Chestnut-bellied Euphonia Euphonia pectoralis (Latham, 1801) SA : se

.

Golden-sided Euphonia Euphonia cayennensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : n Amazonia

.

Chlorophonia Bonaparte, 1851

.

Yellow-collared Chlorophonia Chlorophonia flavirostris Sclater, PL, 1861 SA : Colombia, Ecuador

.

Blue-naped Chlorophonia Chlorophonia cyanea (Thunberg, 1822) SA : n, w, se

.

C. c. psittacina Bangs, 1902 n Colombia

.

C. c. frontalis (Sclater, PL, 1851) n Venezuela

.

C. c. minuscula Hellmayr, 1922 ne Venezuela

.

C. c. roraimae Salvin & Godman, 1884 s Venezuela, nw Brazil and Guyana

.

C. c. intensa Zimmer, JT, 1943 w Colombia

.

C. c. longipennis (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1855) w Venezuela to c Bolivia

.

C. c. cyanea (Thunberg, 1822) se Brazil, e Paraguay and ne Argentina

.

Chestnut-breasted Chlorophonia Chlorophonia pyrrhophrys (Sclater, PL, 1851) SA : Venezuela to Peru

.

Blue-crowned Chlorophonia Chlorophonia occipitalis (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1847) MA : Mexico to Nicaragua

.

Golden-browed Chlorophonia Chlorophonia callophrys (Cabanis, 1861) MA : Costa Rica, Panama