"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Falcons

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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ORDER FALCONIFORMES PHY, SEQ The Falconidae are not members of the Accipitriformes, but a separate lineage and Order more closely related to parrots and in turn the Passeriformes (Hackett et al. 2008). Will resequence in the future.

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67 Caracaras, Falcons Family Falconidae

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Daptrius Vieillot, 1816

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Black Caracara Daptrius ater Vieillot, 1816 SA : Amazonia

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Ibycter Vieillot, 1816

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Red-throated Caracara Ibycter americanus (Boddaert, 1783) LA : s Mexico to s Brazil

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Phalcoboenus d'Orbigny, 1834

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Carunculated Caracara Phalcoboenus carunculatus Des Murs, 1853 SA : Ecuador, sw Colombia

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Mountain Caracara Phalcoboenus megalopterus (Meyen, 1834) SA : Peru to c Chile

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White-throated Caracara Phalcoboenus albogularis (Gould, 1837) SA : s Chile, s Argentina

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Striated Caracara Phalcoboenus australis (Gmelin, JF, 1788) SA : s islands

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Caracara Merrem, 1826

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Northern Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway (Jacquin, 1784) NA, LA : s USA to n SA

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Guadalupe Caracara Caracara lutosa (Ridgway, 1876) MA : Guadalupe I. (Mexico)

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Southern Crested Caracara Caracara plancus (Miller, JF, 1777) SA : n Boliva to e Brazil south to Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Is.

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Milvago von Spix, 1824

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Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816) LA : Costa Rica to n Argentina

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M. c. cordata Bangs & Penard, TE, 1918 s Costa Rica through South America north of the Amazon

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M. c. chimachima (Vieillot, 1816) Amazon south to n Argentina

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Chimango Caracara Milvago chimango (Vieillot, 1816) SA : Southern Cone

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M. c. chimango (Vieillot, 1816) s Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay to c Argentina and Chile

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M. c. temucoensis Sclater, WL, 1918 s Argentina and Chile to Tiera del Fuego

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Herpetotheres Vieillot, 1817

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Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linnaeus, 1758) LA : Mexico to n Argentina

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H. c. chapmani Bangs & Penard, TE, 1918 Mexico to Honduras

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H. c. cachinnans (Linnaeus, 1758) Nicaragua to Peru and c Brazil

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H. c. queribundus Bangs & Penard, TE, 1919 e Bolivia to e Brazil, Paraguay and n Argentina

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Micrastur Gray, GR, 1841

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Barred Forest Falcon Micrastur ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) LA : s Mexico to n Argentina

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M. r. guerilla Cassin, 1848 Mexico to Nicaragua

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M. r. interstes Bangs, 1907 Costa Rica to w Colombia and Ecuador

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M. r. zonothorax (Cabanis, 1866) e Colombia and n Venezuela south to Bolivia

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M. r. concentricus (Lesson, 1830) s Venezuela, the Guianas, Amazonia

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M. r. ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) e Brazil, Paraguay, n Argentina

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M. r. olrogi Amadon, 1964 nw Argentina

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Plumbeous Forest Falcon Micrastur plumbeus Sclater, WL, 1918 SA : sw Colombia, nw Ecuador

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Lined Forest Falcon Micrastur gilvicollis (Vieillot, 1817) SA : Amazonia

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Cryptic Forest Falcon Micrastur mintoni Whittaker, 2003 SA : e Amazonia s to Bolivia

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Slaty-backed Forest Falcon Micrastur mirandollei (Schlegel, 1862) LA : Costa Rica to e Brazil

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Collared Forest Falcon Micrastur semitorquatus (Vieillot, 1817) LA : c Mexico to n Argentina

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M. s. naso (Lesson, 1842) Mexico to nw Peru

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M. s. semitorquatus (Vieillot, 1817) e Colombia through the Guianas and Brazil to n Argentina

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Buckley's Forest Falcon Micrastur buckleyi Swann, 1919 SA : w Amazonia

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Spiziapteryx Kaup, 1852

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Spot-winged Falconet Spiziapteryx circumcincta (Kaup, 1852) SA : se Bolivia and w Paraguay to c Argentina

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Polihierax Kaup, 1847

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Pygmy Falcon Polihierax semitorquatus (Smith, A, 1836) AF : e, s

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P. s. castanonotus (Heuglin, 1860) s Sudan and Ethiopia to c Tanzania

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P. s. semitorquatus (Smith, A, 1836) s Angola to nw South Africa

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White-rumped Falcon Polihierax insignis Walden, 1872 OR : Southeast Asia

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P. i. insignis Walden, 1872 w and c Burma

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P. i. cinereiceps Baker, ECS, 1927 s Burma, nw Thailand

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P. i. harmandi (Oustalet, 1876) Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia

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Microhierax Sharpe, 1874

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Collared Falconet Microhierax caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) OR : ne India through Southeast Asia

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M. c. caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) n India, Nepal

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M. c. burmanicus Swann, 1920 Burma to Indochina

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Black-thighed Falconet Microhierax fringillarius (Drapiez, 1824) OR : Malay Peninsula, Greater Sundas

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White-fronted Falconet Microhierax latifrons Sharpe, 1879 OR : Borneo

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Philippine Falconet Microhierax erythrogenys (Vigors, 1831) OR : Philippines

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M. e. erythrogenys (Vigors, 1831) n Philippines

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M. e. meridionalis Ogilvie-Grant, 1897 s Philippines

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Pied Falconet Microhierax melanoleucos (Blyth, 1843) OR : ne India to s China and c Vietnam

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Falco Linnaeus, 1758

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Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, JG, 1818 EU : s Europe and nw Africa to n China

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Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758 EU, AF : widespread

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F. t. tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758 Europe and nw Africa to Siberia

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F. t. perpallidus (Clark, AH, 1907) ne Siberia to ne China and Korea

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F. t. interstinctus McClelland, 1840 Himalayas to Japan and Indochina

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F. t. objurgatus (Baker, ECS, 1927) s India, Sri Lanka

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F. t. canariensis (Koenig, AF, 1890) Madeira and w Canary Is.

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F. t. dacotiae Hartert, 1913 e Canary Is.

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F. t. neglectus Schlegel, 1873 n Cape Verde Is.

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F. t. alexandri Bourne, 1955 s Cape Verde Is.

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F. t. rupicolaeformis (Brehm, CL, 1855) ne Africa and Arabia

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F. t. archeri Hartert & Neumann, 1932 Socotra I., Somalia, ne Kenya

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F. t. rufescens Swainson, 1837 West Africa to Ethiopia south to n Angola and Tanzania

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Rock Kestrel Falco rupicolus Daudin, 1800 AF : Angola to s Tanzania south to South Africa AS Falco rupicolus is split from F.tinnunculus ( Hockey, Dean & Ryan, eds. 2005)

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Malagasy Kestrel Falco newtoni (Gurney, 1863) AF : Madagascar, Aldabra Island

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F. n. newtoni (Gurney, 1863) Madagascar

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F. n. aldabranus Grote, 1928 Aldabra and Anjouan Is.

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Mauritius Kestrel Falco punctatus Temminck, 1821 AF : Mauritius

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Reunion Kestrel Falco duboisi Cowles, 1994 IO : La Réunion EXT Cheke, A & Hume, J. 2008.

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Seychelles Kestrel Falco araeus (Oberholser, 1917) AF : Seychelles Islands

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Spotted Kestrel Falco moluccensis (Bonaparte, 1850) OR, AU : Moluccas, Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, Java and Bali

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F. m. moluccensis (Bonaparte, 1850) n and s Moluccas

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F. m. microbalius (Oberholser, 1917) Java to Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi and Tanimbar Is.

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Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 AU : widespread

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F. c. baru Rand, 1940 Snow Mts. (wc New Guinea)

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F. c. cenchroides Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 Australia, Tasmania, Lord Howe Is., Norfolk Is.

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American Kestrel Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758 NA, LA : widespread

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F. s. sparverius Linnaeus, 1758 Alaska and Canada through the USA to w Mexico

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F. s. paulus (Howe & King, L, 1902) se USA

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F. s. peninsularis Mearns, 1892 nw Mexico

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F. s. tropicalis (Griscom, 1930) s Mexico to n Honduras

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F. s. nicaraguensis Howell, TR, 1965 nw Honduras, Nicaragua

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F. s. sparverioides Vigors, 1827 Bahamas, Cuba

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F. s. dominicensis Gmelin, JF, 1788 Hispaniola

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F. s. caribaearum Gmelin, JF, 1788 Puerto Rico to Grenada (West Indies)

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F. s. brevipennis (von Berlepsch, 1892) Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)

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F. s. isabellinus Swainson, 1838 e Venezuela, the Guianas, n Brazil

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F. s. ochraceus (Cory, 1915) e Colombia, nw Venezuela

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F. s. caucae (Chapman, 1915) w Colombia

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F. s. aequatorialis Mearns, 1892 n Ecuador

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F. s. peruvianus (Cory, 1915) sw Ecuador, Peru, n Chile

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F. s. cinnamominus Swainson, 1838 se Peru to Paraguay and Tierra del Fuego

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F. s. fernandensis (Chapman, 1915) Alejandro Selkirk and Juan Fernandez Is. (Chile)

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F. s. cearae (Cory, 1915) s Brazil

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Greater Kestrel Falco rupicoloides Smith, A, 1829 AF : e, s

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F. r. fieldi (Elliot, DG, 1897) ne Ethiopia, n Somalia, n Kenya

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F. r. arthuri (Gurney, 1884) c and s Kenya, ne Tanzania

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F. r. rupicoloides Smith, A, 1829 s Angola to sw Zambia south to South Afirca

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Fox Kestrel Falco alopex (Heuglin, 1861) AF : Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia to Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya

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Grey Kestrel Falco ardosiaceus Vieillot, 1823 AF : Senegal and Gambia to Ethiopia south to Tanzania and west tp Angola and Namibia

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Dickinson's Kestrel Falco dickinsoni Sclater, PL, 1864 AF : Angola and Namibia to c Kenya and n Mozambique

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Banded Kestrel Falco zoniventris Peters, W, 1854 AF : Madagascar

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Red-necked Falcon Falco chicquera Daudin, 1800 AF, OR : c, w, s AF, India

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F. c. chicquera Daudin, 1800 se Iran through India to Bangladesh

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F. c. ruficollis Swainson, 1837 Senegal and Gambia to w Ethiopia south through e Africa to Zambia and n Mozambique

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F. c. horsbrughi Gunning & Roberts, 1911 Namibia and s Mozambique to South Africa

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Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus Linnaeus, 1766 EU : c Europe to c Asia

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Amur Falcon Falco amurensis Radde, 1863 EU : e Siberia, Korea and ne China

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Eleonora's Falcon Falco eleonorae Géné, 1839 EU : s Europe, also n AF

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Sooty Falcon Falco concolor Temminck, 1825 AF, EU : e Libya to sw Pakistan

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Aplomado Falcon Falco femoralis Temminck, 1822 LA : widespread

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F. f. septentrionalis Todd, 1916 sw USA to Honduras

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F. f. femoralis Temminck, 1822 Nicaragua through South America to Tierra del Fuego

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F. f. pichinchae Chapman, 1925 Andes from Colombia to n Chile and nw Argentina

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Merlin Falco columbarius Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : widespread

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F. c. subaesalon Brehm, CL, 1827 Iceland

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F. c. aesalon Tunstall, 1771 Europe to nw Siberia

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F. c. insignis (Clark, AH, 1907) nc Siberia

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F. c. pacificus (Stegmann, 1929) ne Asia

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F. c. pallidus (Sushkin, 1900) steppes of wc Asia

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F. c. lymani Bangs, 1913 mountains of ec Asia

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F. c. columbarius Linnaeus, 1758 Alaska to Newfoundland to n USA

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F. c. suckleyi Ridgway, 1874 se Alaska to n Washington (USA)

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F. c. richardsonii Ridgway, 1871 c and sc Canada to nc USA

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Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis Daudin, 1800 LA : n Mexico to ne Argentina

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F. r. petoensis Chubb, C, 1918 Mexico to w Ecuador

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F. r. rufigularis Daudin, 1800 e Colombia through the Guianas to s Brazil and ne Argentina

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F. r. ophryophanes (Salvadori, 1895) e Bolivia to s Brazil, Paraguay and nw Argentina

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Orange-breasted Falcon Falco deiroleucus Temminck, 1825 LA : s Mexico to ne Argentina

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Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo Linnaeus, 1758 EU : widespread

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F. s. subbuteo Linnaeus, 1758 Europe to Japan to n India and c China

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F. s. streichi Hartert & Neumann, 1907 Burma to s China and n Indochina

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African Hobby Falco cuvierii Smith, A, 1830 AF : Widespread south of the Sahara

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Oriental Hobby Falco severus Horsfield, 1821 OR, AU : nw India to Solomon Islands

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F. s. severus Horsfield, 1821 e Himalayas to Philippines and Greater Sundas

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F. s. papuanus Meyer, AB & Wiglesworth, 1893 Sulawesi to the Solomon Is.

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Australian Hobby Falco longipennis Swainson, 1838 AU : widespread

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F. l. hanieli Hellmayr, 1914 Lesser Sundas

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F. l. longipennis Swainson, 1838 sw and se Australia, Tasmania

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F. l. murchisonianus Mathews, 1912 Australia except sw and se

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New Zealand Falcon Falco novaeseelandiae Gmelin, JF, 1788 AU : New Zealand

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Brown Falcon Falco berigora Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 AU : widespread

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F. b. novaeguineae (Meyer, AB, 1894) c and e New Guinea, coastal n Australia

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F. b. berigora Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 n, c and e Australia

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F. b. occidentalis (Gould, 1844) sw and wc Australia

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F. b. tasmanicus (Mathews, 1916) Tasmania

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Grey Falcon Falco hypoleucos Gould, 1841 AU : Australia

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Black Falcon Falco subniger Gray, GR, 1843 AU : Australia

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Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus Temminck, 1825 EU, AF : s Europe, Arabian Peninsula, widespread AF

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F. b. feldeggii Schlegel, 1843 Italy to Turkey, Azerbaijan and nw Iran

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F. b. erlangeri Kleinschmidt, O, 1901 nw Africa

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F. b. tanypterus Schlegel, 1843 ne Africa to Arabia, Israel and Iraq

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F. b. abyssinicus Neumann, 1904 s Mauritania to Ethiopia and Somalia south to Cameroon and n Kenya

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F. b. biarmicus Temminck, 1825 DR Congo to s Kenya south to South Africa

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Laggar Falcon Falco jugger Gray, JE, 1834 OR : Pakistan to Burma, India

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Saker Falcon Falco cherrug Gray, JE, 1834 EU : c, s

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F. c. cherrug Gray, JE, 1834 c Europe to sc Siberia and n Kazakhstan

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F. c. coatsi Dementiev, 1945 c Asia to s Siberia and n China

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F. c. hendersoni Hume, 1871 w and s Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan

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F. c. milvipes Jerdon, 1871 Himalayas to Tibet

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Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : arctic Europe, Asia and North America

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Prairie Falcon Falco mexicanus Schlegel, 1850 NA, MA : sc Canada to sc USA

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Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 Worldwide : widespread

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F. p. tundrius White, CM, 1968 Alaska to Greenland

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F. p. pealei Ridgway, 1874 Aleutians to s Alaska and sw Canada

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F. p. anatum Bonaparte, 1838 North America (south of tundra) to n Mexico

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F. p. cassini Sharpe, 1873 w South America (Colombia to Tierra del Fuego), Falkland Is.

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F. p. peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 n Eurasia (s of tundra)

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F. p. calidus Latham, 1790 Lapland to ne Siberia

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F. p. japonensis Gmelin, JF, 1788 ne Siberia to Japan

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F. p. brookei Sharpe, 1873 Mediterranean region to Caucasus and n Iran

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F. p. peregrinator Sundevall, 1837 Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka to s and e China

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F. p. furuitii Momiyama, 1927 Bonin Is. (Japan) TAX Correct original spelling fruitii to proper furuitii under ICZN code Article 32.5.1. Supported by internal information.

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F. p. madens Ripley & Watson, 1963 Cape Verde Is.

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F. p. minor Bonaparte, 1850 Morocco, Mauritania, Africa south of the Sahara

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F. p. radama Hartlaub, 1861 Madagascar and the Comoro Is.

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F. p. ernesti Sharpe, 1894 Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea and Bismarck Arch.

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F. p. macropus Swainson, 1838 Australia

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F. p. nesiotes Mayr, 1941 Solomon Is, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji

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Barbary Falcon Falco pelegrinoides Temminck, 1829 EU : sw, also n AF

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F. p. babylonicus Sclater, PL, 1861 e Iran to Mongolia and Pakistan

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F. p. pelegrinoides Temminck, 1829 Canary Is., n Africa to Arabia and sw Iran

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Taita Falcon Falco fasciinucha Reichenow & Neumann, 1895 AF : s Ethiopia to n South Africa