"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Dippers, leafbirds, flowerpeckers & sunbirds

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#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

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5 Dippers Family Cinclidae

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Cinclus von Borkhausen, 1797

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White-throated Dipper Cinclus cinclus (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : widespread, also nw Africa

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C. c. hibernicus Hartert, 1910 Ireland and w Scotland

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C. c. gularis (Latham, 1801) Scotland (except w), n, c and w England and Wales

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C. c. cinclus (Linnaeus, 1758) n Europe, w and c France and n Spain, Corsica and Sardinia

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C. c. aquaticus (Bechstein, 1797) c and s Europe

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C. c. olympicus Madarász, 1903 Cyprus

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C. c. minor Tristram, 1870 nw Africa

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C. c. rufiventris Tristram, 1885 w Syria and Lebanon

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C. c. uralensis Serebrovski, 1927 Ural Mts. (w Russia)

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C. c. caucasicus Madarász, 1903 Turkey to the Caucasus, n Iran and n Iraq

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C. c. persicus Witherby, 1906 sw Iran

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C. c. leucogaster Bonaparte, 1850 sc Russia, nw China south to Afghanistan and n Pakistan

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C. c. baicalensis Dresser, 1892 sc and se Siberia

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C. c. cashmeriensis Gould, 1860 w and c Himalayas

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C. c. przewalskii Bianchi, 1905 e Himalayas, s Tibet and w China

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Brown Dipper Cinclus pallasii Temminck, 1820 EU : c, e

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C. p. tenuirostris Bonaparte, 1850 n Afghanistan and the mountains of c Asia to c Himalayas

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C. p. dorjei Kinnear, 1937 e Himalayas to Burma and nw Thailand

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C. p. pallasii Temminck, 1820 e Siberia to c China east to Sakhalin, Kuril Is., Japan and Taiwan, south to s China, n Indochina

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American Dipper Cinclus mexicanus Swainson, 1827 NA, MA : w Canada to Panama

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C. m. unicolor Bonaparte, 1827 Alaska, w Canada and w USA

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C. m. mexicanus Swainson, 1827 n and c Mexico

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C. m. anthonyi Griscom, 1930 se Mexico, sw Guatemala, e Honduras and nw Nicaragua

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C. m. dickermani Phillips, AR, 1966 s Mexico

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C. m. ardesiacus Salvin, 1867 Costa Rica and w Panama

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White-capped Dipper Cinclus leucocephalus Tschudi, 1844 SA : Colombia to Bolivia

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C. l. rivularis Bangs, 1899 n Colombia

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C. l. leuconotus Sclater, PL, 1858 w Venezuela to Ecuador

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C. l. leucocephalus Tschudi, 1844 Peru and Bolivia

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Rufous-throated Dipper Cinclus schulzii Cabanis, 1882 SA : nw Argentina, se Bolivia

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11 Leafbirds Family Chloropseidae

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Chloropsis Jardine & Selby, 1827

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Philippine Leafbird Chloropsis flavipennis (Tweeddale, 1878) OR : Philippines

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Yellow-throated Leafbird Chloropsis palawanensis (Sharpe, 1876) OR : Philippines

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Greater Green Leafbird Chloropsis sonnerati Jardine & Selby, 1827 OR : Thailand to Sumatra and Borneo

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C. s. zosterops Vigors, 1830 s Burma and the Malay Pen. to Sumatra and Borneo

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C. s. sonnerati Jardine & Selby, 1827 Java

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Lesser Green Leafbird Chloropsis cyanopogon (Temminck, 1830) OR : Burma to Sumatra and Borneo

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C. c. septentrionalis Robinson & Kloss, 1919 n and c Malay Pen.

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C. c. cyanopogon (Temminck, 1830) s Malay Pen., Sumatra and Borneo

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Blue-winged Leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : widespread

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C. c. chlorocephala (Walden, 1871) e Bangladesh and ne India to Burma and w Thailand

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C. c. kinneari Hall, BP & Deignan, 1956 ne Thailand to s China and n Indochina TAX Subspecies epithet C.c. kinneari replaces C. c. cochinchinensis for this taxon. C. c. cochinchinensis is more properly assigned to the Javan subspecies (Wells et al 2003).

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C. c. auropectus Wells, DR, Dickinson & Dekker, 2003 se Thailand and s Indochina

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C. c. serithai Deignan, 1946 peninsular Thailand

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C. c. moluccensis Gray, JE, 1831 s Maly Pen., Sumatra and nearby islands TAX Includes icterocephala, natunensis and billitonis. HBW 10, p. 264

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C. c. viridinucha (Sharpe, 1877) Borneo

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C. c. cochinchinensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Java TAX C. c. nigricollis formerly used for this subspecies has no taxonomic standing. HBW 10, p. 264

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Bornean Leafbird Chloropsis kinabaluensis Sharpe, 1887 OR : Borneo AS Chloropsis kinabaluensis is split from C.cochinchinensis (Wells et al. 2003); recognized by BLI

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Jerdon's Leafbird Chloropsis jerdoni (Blyth, 1844) OR : India, Sri Lanka AS Chloropsis jerdoni is split from C.cochinchinensis (Wells et al. 2003); recognized by BLI

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Golden-fronted Leafbird Chloropsis aurifrons (Temminck, 1829) OR : widespread

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C. a. aurifrons (Temminck, 1829) e Himalayas to Burma

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C. a. frontalis (Pelzeln, 1856) peninsular India (except extreme sw)

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C. a. insularis Whistler & Kinnear, 1932 sw India and Sri Lanka

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C. a. pridii Deignan, 1946 sw China and e Burma to nw Thailand and n and c Laos

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C. a. inornata Kloss, 1918 w, c, ne and se Thailand, Cambodia, s Vietnam

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C. a. incompta Deignan, 1948 sw Thailand, s Laos, c and s Vietnam

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Sumatran Leafbird Chloropsis media (Bonaparte, 1850) OR : Sumatra AS Chloropsis media is split from C.aurifrons (Wells et al. 2003); recognized by BLI

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Orange-bellied Leafbird Chloropsis hardwickii Jardine & Selby, 1830 OR : Himalayas to se China and w Malaysia

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C. h. hardwickii Jardine & Selby, 1830 e Himalayas to Burma, nw Thailand and n Laos

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C. h. melliana Stresemann, 1923 se China, n and c Vietnam

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C. h. lazulina (Swinhoe, 1870) Hainan I. (off se China)

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C. h. malayana Robinson & Kloss, 1923 Malay Pen.

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Blue-masked Leafbird Chloropsis venusta (Bonaparte, 1850) OR : Sumatra

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48 Flowerpeckers Family Dicaeidae

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Prionochilus Strickland, 1841

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Olive-backed Flowerpecker Prionochilus olivaceus Tweeddale, 1877 OR : Philippines

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P. o. parsonsi McGregor, 1927 n Philippines

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P. o. olivaceus Tweeddale, 1877 ec Philippines

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P. o. samarensis Steere, 1890 s Philippines

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Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus maculatus (Temminck, 1836) OR : Malay Peninsula, Borneo

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P. m. septentrionalis Robinson & Kloss, 1921 n and c Malay Pen.

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P. m. oblitus (Mayr, 1938) s Malay Pen.

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P. m. maculatus (Temminck, 1836) Sumatra and Borneo

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P. m. natunensis (Chasen, 1935) Natuna Is.

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Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus percussus (Temminck, 1826) OR : Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo

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P. p. ignicapilla (Eyton, 1839) Malay Pen., Sumatra and Borneo

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P. p. percussus (Temminck, 1826) Java

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P. p. regulus (Meyer de Schauensee, 1940) Batu Is. (off w Sumatra)

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Palawan Flowerpecker Prionochilus plateni Blasius, W, 1888 OR : Philippines

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P. p. plateni Blasius, W, 1888 Palawan and Balabac (w Philippines)

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P. p. culionensis (Rand, 1948) Calamian Group (w Philippines)

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Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker Prionochilus xanthopygius Salvadori, 1868 OR : Borneo

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Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus thoracicus (Temminck, 1836) OR : Malay Peninsula, Borneo

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Dicaeum Cuvier, 1816

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Golden-rumped Flowerpecker Dicaeum annae (Büttikofer, 1894) AU : Lesser Sundas

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Thick-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum agile (Tickell, 1833) OR : widespread, also Lesser Sundas

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D. a. agile (Tickell, 1833) ne Pakistan to w Bangladesh and s India

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D. a. zeylonicum (Whistler, 1944) Sri Lanka

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D. a. modestum (Hume, 1875) Bhutan, ne India and e Bangladesh to n Malay Pen. and c and s Indochina

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D. a. remotum (Robinson & Kloss, 1915) s Malay Pen. and Borneo

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D. a. atjehense Delacour, 1946 Sumatra

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D. a. finschi (Bartels, MEG, 1914) w Java

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D. a. tinctum (Mayr, 1944) c Lesser Sundas

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D. a. obsoletum (Müller, S, 1843) Timor (e Lesser Sundas)

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Striped Flowerpecker Dicaeum aeruginosum (Bourns & Worcester, 1894) OR : Philippines

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D. a. striatissimum Parkes, 1962 n Philippines

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D. a. aeruginosum (Bourns & Worcester, 1894) s Philippines

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D. a. affine (Zimmer, JT, 1918) Palawan (w Philippines)

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Brown-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum everetti (Sharpe, 1877) OR : Malaysia, Borneo

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D. e. sordidum (Robinson & Kloss, 1918) Malay Pen. and Riau Arch.

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D. e. everetti (Sharpe, 1877) Borneo

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D. e. bungurense (Chasen, 1935) Natuna Is. (nw of Borneo)

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Whiskered Flowerpecker Dicaeum proprium Ripley & Rabor, 1966 OR : Philippines

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Yellow-vented Flowerpecker Dicaeum chrysorrheum Temminck, 1829 OR : Himalayas to Borneo

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D. c. chrysochlore Blyth, 1843 c Himalayas to Indochina, n Malay Pen. and Burma

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D. c. chrysorrheum Temminck, 1829 c and s Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo, Java and Bali

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Yellow-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum melanoxanthum (Blyth, 1843) OR : Himalayas to Thailand

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Legge's Flowerpecker Dicaeum vincens (Sclater, PL, 1872) OR : Sri Lanka

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Yellow-sided Flowerpecker Dicaeum aureolimbatum (Wallace, 1865) AU : Sulawesi

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D. a. aureolimbatum (Wallace, 1865) Sulawesi and nearby islands

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D. a. laterale Salomonsen, 1960 Sangihe I. (n of Sulawesi)

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Olive-capped Flowerpecker Dicaeum nigrilore Hartert, 1904 OR : s Philippines

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D. n. nigrilore Hartert, 1904 mountains of Mindanao (except ne)

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D. n. diuatae Salomonsen, 1953 mountains of ne Mindanao

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Flame-crowned Flowerpecker Dicaeum anthonyi (McGregor, 1914) OR : Philippines

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D. a. anthonyi (McGregor, 1914) Luzon (n Philippines)

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D. a. masawan Rand & Rabor, 1957 Mt. Malindang (nw Mindanao in s Philippines)

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D. a. kampalili Manuel & Gilliard, 1953 n, c and se Mindanao (s Philippines)

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Bicolored Flowerpecker Dicaeum bicolor (Bourns & Worcester, 1894) OR : Philippines

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D. b. inexpectatum (Hartert, 1895) n Philippines

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D. b. bicolor (Bourns & Worcester, 1894) ec and s Philippines

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D. b. viridissimum Parkes, 1971 wc Philippines

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Red-keeled Flowerpecker Dicaeum australe (Hermann, 1783) OR : Philippines

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Black-belted Flowerpecker Dicaeum haematostictum Sharpe, 1876 OR : Philippines

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Scarlet-collared Flowerpecker Dicaeum retrocinctum Gould, 1872 OR : Philippines

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Cebu Flowerpecker Dicaeum quadricolor (Tweeddale, 1878) OR : Philippines

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Orange-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum trigonostigma (Scopoli, 1786) OR : Bangladesh to Borneo and Philippines

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D. t. rubropygium Baker, ECS, 1921 Bangladesh though Burma to nc Malay Pen.

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D. t. trigonostigma (Scopoli, 1786) c Malay Pen., Sumatra and nearby islands

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D. t. megastoma Hartert, 1918 Natuna Is. (nw of Borneo)

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D. t. flaviclunis Hartert, 1918 Java, Bali and Krakatau

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D. t. dayakanum Chasen & Kloss, 1929 Borneo and nearby islands

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D. t. xanthopygium Tweeddale, 1877 n Philippines

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D. t. intermedium Bourns & Worcester, 1894 Romblon (nc Philippines)

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D. t. cnecolaemum Parkes, 1989 Tablas (nc Philippines)

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D. t. sibuyanicum Bourns & Worcester, 1894 Sibuyan (nc Philippines)

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D. t. dorsale Sharpe, 1876 wc Philippines

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D. t. besti Steere, 1890 Siquijor (sw of Bohol in c Philippines)

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D. t. pallidius Bourns & Worcester, 1894 Cebu (c Philippines)

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D. t. cinereigulare Tweeddale, 1878 e and s Philippines

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D. t. isidroi Rand & Rabor, 1969 Camiguin Sur (n of Mindanao in s Philippines)

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D. t. assimile Bourns & Worcester, 1894 c Sulu Arch (sw Philippines)

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D. t. sibutuense Sharpe, 1893 sw Sulu Arch. (sw Philippines)

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Buzzing Flowerpecker Dicaeum hypoleucum Sharpe, 1876 OR : Philippines

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D. h. cagayanense Rand & Rabor, 1967 ne Luzon (n Philippines)

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D. h. obscurum Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 n, c and s Luzon, Catanduanes (n Philippines)

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D. h. pontifex Mayr, 1946 ec and s Philippines

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D. h. mindanense Tweeddale, 1877 Zamboanga Pen. (w Mindanao in s Philippines)

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D. h. hypoleucum Sharpe, 1876 Sulu Arch. (sw Philippines)

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Pale-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrorhynchos (Latham, 1790) OR : Himalayas to Sri Lanka and Burma

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D. e. erythrorhynchos (Latham, 1790) India, s Himalayas, Bangladesh and Burma

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D. e. ceylonense Babault, 1920 Sri Lanka

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Nilgiri Flowerpecker Dicaeum concolor Jerdon, 1840 OR : sw India ENG Change  English name of Dicaeum concolor to Nilgiri Flowerpecker, with split of D. minullum and D. virescens

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Plain Flowerpecker Dicaeum minullum Swinhoe, 1870 OR : e Himalayas to Taiwan, w Indonesia AS Dicaeum minullum is split from D. concolor (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005)

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D. m. olivaceum Walden, 1875 e Himalayas to s China, n and c Indochina, Thailand and Burma

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D. m. minullum Swinhoe, 1870 Hainan I. (off se China)

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D. m. uchidai Kuroda, 1920 Taiwan

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D. m. borneanum Lönnberg, 1925 Malay Pen., Sumatra, Natuna Is. and Borneo

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D. m. sollicitans Hartert, 1901 Java and Bali

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Andaman Flowerpecker Dicaeum virescens Hume, 1873 OR : Andaman Is. AS Dicaeum virescens is split from D. concolor (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005); English name Plain Flowerpecker transfers to D. virescens

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Pygmy Flowerpecker Dicaeum pygmaeum (Kittlitz, 1833) OR : Philippines

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D. p. palawanorum Hachisuka, 1926 w Philippines

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D. p. fugaense Parkes, 1988 Calayan and Fuga (extreme n Philippines)

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D. p. salomonseni Parkes, 1962 nw Luzon (n Philippines)

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D. p. pygmaeum (Kittlitz, 1833) n and c Philippines

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D. p. davao Mearns, 1905 s Philippines

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Crimson-crowned Flowerpecker Dicaeum nehrkorni Blasius, W, 1886 AU : Sulawesi

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Flame-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrothorax Lesson, 1828 AU : Buru Is.

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Halmahera Flowerpecker Dicaeum schistaceiceps Gray, GR, 1861 AU : Halmahera AS Dicaeum schistaceiceps is split from D. erythrothorax (Rheindt & Hutchinson 2007)

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Ashy Flowerpecker Dicaeum vulneratum Wallace, 1863 AU : Moluccas

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Olive-crowned Flowerpecker Dicaeum pectorale Müller, S, 1843 AU : nw New Guinea

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D. p. ignotum Mees, 1964 Gebe I. (w Papuan islands)

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D. p. pectorale Müller, S, 1843 w Papuan islands (except Gebe) and nw New Guinea

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Red-capped Flowerpecker Dicaeum geelvinkianum Meyer, AB, 1874 AU : New Guinea

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D. g. maforense Salvadori, 1876 Numfor I. (off nw New Guinea)

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D. g. misoriense Salvadori, 1876 Biak I. (off nw New Guinea)

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D. g. geelvinkianum Meyer, AB, 1874 Yapen and Kurudu Is. (off nw New Guinea)

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D. g. obscurifrons Junge, 1952 wc New Guinea

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D. g. setekwa Rand, 1941 sw New Guinea

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D. g. diversum Rothschild & Hartert, 1903 n New Guinea

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D. g. centrale Rand, 1941 c New Guinea

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D. g. albopunctatum D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879 extreme s New Guinea

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D. g. rubrigulare D'Albertis & Salvadori, 1879 sc New Guinea

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D. g. rubrocoronatum Sharpe, 1876 e New Guinea

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D. g. violaceum Mayr, 1936 D'Entrecasteaux Arch. (off se New Guinea)

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Louisiade Flowerpecker Dicaeum nitidum Tristram, 1889 AU : Louisiade Archipelago

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D. n. nitidum Tristram, 1889 Tagula and Misima Is.

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D. n. rosseli Rothschild & Hartert, 1914 Rossel I.

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Red-banded Flowerpecker Dicaeum eximium Sclater, PL, 1877 AU : Bismarck Archipelago

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D. e. layardorum Salvadori, 1880 New Britain

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D. e. eximium Sclater, PL, 1877 New Hanover and New Ireland

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D. e. phaeopygium Salomonsen, 1964 Dyaul I.

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Midget Flowerpecker Dicaeum aeneum Pucheran, 1853 AU : Solomon Islands

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D. a. aeneum Pucheran, 1853 n and c Solomons

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D. a. malaitae Salomonsen, 1960 Malaita I. (ne Solomons)

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D. a. becki Hartert, 1929 Guadalcanal (se Solomons)

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Mottled Flowerpecker Dicaeum tristrami Sharpe, 1884 AU : Solomon Islands ENG Change English name of Dicaeum tristrami from White-mottled Flowerpecker to Mottled Flowerpecker (Guy Dutson et al 2010)

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Black-fronted Flowerpecker Dicaeum igniferum Wallace, 1864 AU : Lesser Sundas

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Blue-cheeked Flowerpecker Dicaeum maugei Lesson, 1830 AU : Lesser Sundas

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D. m. splendidum Büttikofer, 1893 Selayar and Tanahjampea Is. (s of Sulawesi)

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D. m. maugei Lesson, 1830 e Lesser Sundas

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D. m. salvadorii Meyer, AB, 1884 Moa and Babar (extreme e Lesser Sundas)

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D. m. neglectum Hartert, 1897 w Lesser Sundas

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Mistletoebird Dicaeum hirundinaceum (Shaw, 1792) AU : Moluccas, Australia

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D. h. hirundinaceum (Shaw, 1792) Australia

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D. h. ignicolle Gray, GR, 1858 Aru Is. (sw of New Guinea)

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D. h. keiense Salvadori, 1874 Watubela, Tayandu and Kai Is. (sw of New Guinea)

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D. h. fulgidum Sclater, PL, 1883 Tanimbar Is.

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Grey-sided Flowerpecker Dicaeum celebicum Müller, S, 1843 AU : Sulawesi

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D. c. talautense Meyer, AB & Wiglesworth, 1895 Talaud (ne of Sulawesi)

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D. c. sanghirense Salvadori, 1876 Sangihe Arch. (off ne Sulawesi)

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D. c. celebicum Müller, S, 1843 Sulawesi and nearby islands

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D. c. sulaense Sharpe, 1884 Banggai and Sula Is. (e of Sulawesi)

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D. c. kuehni Hartert, 1903 Tukangbesi Arch. (se of Sulawesi)

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Black-sided Flowerpecker Dicaeum monticolum Sharpe, 1887 OR : Borneo

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Fire-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum ignipectus (Blyth, 1843) OR : Himalayas to Sumatra and Philippines

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D. i. ignipectus (Blyth, 1843) Himalayas to e China, n and c Indochina, n Thailand and Burma

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D. i. cambodianum Delacour & Jabouille, 1928 e Thailand and Cambodia

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D. i. dolichorhynchum Deignan, 1938 Malay Pen.

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D. i. beccarii Robinson & Kloss, 1916 Sumatra

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D. i. formosum Ogilvie-Grant, 1912 Taiwan

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D. i. luzoniense Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 Luzon (n Philippines)

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D. i. bonga Hartert, 1904 Samar (ec Philippines)

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D. i. apo Hartert, 1904 s Philippines

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Blood-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum sanguinolentum Temminck, 1829 OR : Java, also Lesser Sundas

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D. s. sanguinolentum Temminck, 1829 Java, Bali

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D. s. rhodopygiale Rensch, 1928 Flores

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D. s. wilhelminae Büttikofer, 1892 Sumba

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D. s. hanieli Hellmayr, 1912 Timor

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Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum cruentatum (Linnaeus, 1758) OR : Himalayas to Sumatra and Borneo

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D. c. cruentatum (Linnaeus, 1758) e Himalayas and Bangladesh to s China, Indochina, Malay Pen. and Burma

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D. c. sumatranum Cabanis, 1877 Sumatra

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D. c. niasense Meyer de Schauensee & Ripley, 1940 Nias I. (off w Sumatra)

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D. c. batuense Richmond, 1912 Batu and Mentawai Is. (off sw Sumatra)

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D. c. simalurense Salomonsen, 1961 Simeulue I. (off nw Sumatra)

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D. c. nigrimentum Salvadori, 1874 Borneo

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Scarlet-headed Flowerpecker Dicaeum trochileum (Sparrman, 1789) OR : Java, Borneo

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D. t. trochileum (Sparrman, 1789) se Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Bali and nearby islands

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D. t. stresemanni Rensch, 1928 Lombok (w Lesser Sundas)

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143 Sunbirds Family Nectariniidae

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Chalcoparia Cabanis, 1850

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Ruby-cheeked Sunbird Chalcoparia singalensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : Nepal to Java and Borneo

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C. s. assamensis Kloss, 1930 e Himalayas and Bangladesh to s China, n Thailand and n Burma

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C. s. koratensis Kloss, 1918 e Thailand and Indochina

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C. s. internota (Deignan, 1955) n Malay Pen.

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C. s. interposita Robinson & Kloss, 1921 c Malay Pen.

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C. s. singalensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) s Malay Pen.

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C. s. sumatrana Kloss, 1921 Sumatra

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C. s. panopsia Oberholser, 1912 islands w of Sumatra

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C. s. pallida Chasen, 1935 Natuna Is. (nw of Borneo)

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C. s. borneana Kloss, 1921 Borneo

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C. s. bantenensis (Hoogerwerf, 1967) w Java

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C. s. phoenicotis (Temminck, 1822) c and e Java

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Deleornis Wolters, 1977

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Fraser's Sunbird Deleornis fraseri (Jardine & Selby, 1843) AF : w, wc

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D. f. idius (Oberholser, 1899) Sierra Leone to Togo

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D. f. cameroonensis (Bannerman, 1921) s Nigeria to w DR Congo and nw Angola

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D. f. fraseri (Jardine & Selby, 1843) Bioko I.

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Grey-headed Sunbird Deleornis axillaris (Reichenow, 1893) AF : c

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Anthreptes Swainson, 1832

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Plain-backed Sunbird Anthreptes reichenowi Gunning, 1909 AF : e, se

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A. r. yokanae Hartert, 1921 se Kenya and e Tanzania

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A. r. reichenowi Gunning, 1909 e Zimbabwe, s Mozambique and ne South Africa

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Anchieta's Sunbird Anthreptes anchietae (Barboza du Bocage, 1878) AF : sc

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Plain Sunbird Anthreptes simplex (Müller, S, 1843) OR : Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo

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Brown-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis (Scopoli, 1786) OR : Burma to Java, also Lesser Sundas and Sulawesi

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A. m. malacensis (Scopoli, 1786) s Burma to Indochina and the Malay Pen., Sumatra and nearby islands, Borneo (except n), Java and Bali

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A. m. anambae Oberholser, 1917 Anamba Is. (e of Malay Pen.)

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A. m. bornensis Riley, 1920 n Borneo

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A. m. mjobergi Bangs & Peters, JL, 1927 Maratua I. (off e Borneo)

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A. m. paraguae Riley, 1920 w Philippines

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A. m. heliolusius Oberholser, 1923 w and c Mindanao, Basilan (s Philippines)

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A. m. wiglesworthi Hartert, 1902 Sulu Arch. (sw Philippines)

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A. m. iris Parkes, 1971 sw Sulu Arch. (extreme sw Philippines)

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A. m. chlorigaster Sharpe, 1877 c Philippines

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A. m. cagayanensis Mearns, 1905 Cagayan Sulu (w Philippines)

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A. m. heliocalus Oberholser, 1923 Sangihe and Siau Is. (n of Sulawesi)

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A. m. celebensis Shelley, 1878 Sulawesi and nearby islands

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A. m. nesophilus Eck, 1976 Mantehage (off ne Sulawesi)

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A. m. extremus Mees, 1966 Banggai and Sula Is. (e of Sulawesi)

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A. m. convergens Rensch, 1929 Lesser Sundas (except Sumba)

.

A. m. rubrigena Rensch, 1931 Sumba (sw Lesser Sundas)

.

Grey-throated Sunbird Anthreptes griseigularis Tweeddale, 1878 OR : n, se Philippines AS Anthreptes griseigularis is split from Anthreptes malacensis (Cheke and Mann 2008)

.

A. g. birgitae Salomonsen, 1953 n Philippines

.

A. g. griseigularis Tweeddale, 1878 se and s Philippines

.

Red-throated Sunbird Anthreptes rhodolaemus Shelley, 1878 OR : Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo

.

Mangrove Sunbird Anthreptes gabonicus (Hartlaub, 1861) AF : w

.

Western Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes longuemarei (Lesson, 1831) AF : w, c, e, sc

.

A. l. longuemarei (Lesson, 1831) Senegal to s Sudan and w Kenya

.

A. l. angolensis Neumann, 1906 s DR Congo and Angola to Zambia, Malawi and sw Tanzania

.

A. l. nyassae Neumann, 1906 se Tanzania, n Mozambique, e Malawi and e Zimbabwe

.

Eastern Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes orientalis Hartlaub, 1880 AF : e

.

Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes neglectus Neumann, 1922 AF : e, se

.

Violet-tailed Sunbird Anthreptes aurantius Verreaux, J & Verreaux, E, 1851 AF : c

.

Little Green Sunbird Anthreptes seimundi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1908) AF : w, c

.

A. s. kruensis (Bannerman, 1911) Guinea and Sierra Leone to Togo

.

A. s. seimundi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1908) Bioko I.

.

A. s. minor Bates, 1926 Nigeria to s Sudan, Uganda, nw Tanzania and Angola

.

Grey-chinned Sunbird Anthreptes rectirostris (Shaw, 1812) AF : w, c

.

A. r. rectirostris (Shaw, 1812) Sierra Leone to Ghana

.

A. r. tephrolaemus (Jardine & Fraser, 1852) s Nigeria to s Uganda, w Kenya, nw Tanzania and nw Angola, Bioko I.

.

Banded Green Sunbird Anthreptes rubritorques Reichenow, 1905 AF : Tanzania

.

Hedydipna Cabanis, 1850

.

Collared Sunbird Hedydipna collaris (Vieillot, 1819) AF : w, c, e, s

.

H. c. subcollaris (Hartlaub, 1857) Senegal and Gambia to s Nigeria

.

H. c. hypodila (Jardine & Fraser, 1852) Bioko I.

.

H. c. somereni (Chapin, 1949) se Nigeria to sw Sudan, n DR Congo and nw Angola

.

H. c. djamdjamensis (Benson, 1942) sw Ethiopia

.

H. c. garguensis (Mearns, 1915) s Sudan and w Kenya to e Angola, Zambia and w Tanzania

.

H. c. elachior (Mearns, 1910) s Somalia, e Kenya and ne Tanzania

.

H. c. zambesiana (Shelley, 1876) se Angola to se Tanzania, n Zimbabwe and c Mozambique Range of this subspecies and zuluensis modified to follow Roberts VII, 2005.

.

H. c. zuluensis (Roberts, 1931) e Zimbabwe, s Mozambique, Swaziland and ne South Africa Includes patersonae (Irwin, 1960) and beverlyae (Irwin, 1960), but zuluensis (Roberts, 1931) has priority.

.

H. c. collaris (Vieillot, 1819) se South Africa

.

Pygmy Sunbird Hedydipna platura (Vieillot, 1819) AF : w, c, e

.

Nile Valley Sunbird Hedydipna metallica (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) AF : ne, also sw Arabian Peninsula

.

Amani Sunbird Hedydipna pallidigaster (Sclater, WL & Moreau, 1935) AF : e

.

Hypogramma Reichenbach, 1853

.

Purple-naped Sunbird Hypogramma hypogrammicum (Müller, S, 1843) OR : Burma to Sumatra and Borneo PHY Hypogramma should be subsumed into Arachnothera (Moyle et al 2011)

.

H. h. lisettae (Delacour, 1926) n Burma, sw China, n Thailand and n and c Indochina

.

H. h. mariae (Deignan, 1943) s Indochina

.

H. h. nuchale (Blyth, 1843) Malay Pen.

.

H. h. hypogrammicum (Müller, S, 1843) Sumatra and Borneo

.

H. h. natunense (Chasen, 1935) Natuna Is. (nw of Borneo)

.

Anabathmis Reichenow, 1905

.

Reichenbach's Sunbird Anabathmis reichenbachii (Hartlaub, 1857) AF : w, c

.

Principe Sunbird Anabathmis hartlaubii (Hartlaub, 1857) AF : Príncipe

.

Newton's Sunbird Anabathmis newtonii (Barboza du Bocage, 1887) AF : São Tomé

.

Dreptes Reichenow, 1914

.

Giant Sunbird Dreptes thomensis (Barboza du Bocage, 1889) AF : São Tomé

.

Anthobaphes Cabanis, 1850

.

Orange-breasted Sunbird Anthobaphes violacea (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : South Africa

.

Cyanomitra Reichenbach, 1853

.

Green-headed Sunbird Cyanomitra verticalis (Latham, 1790) AF : w, c

.

C. v. verticalis (Latham, 1790) Senegal to w and n Cameroon

.

C. v. bohndorffi (Reichenow, 1887) c and s Cameroon and Central African Republic to n Angola and c DR Congo

.

C. v. cyanocephala (Bechstein, 1811) Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, w DR Congo and nw Angola

.

C. v. viridisplendens (Reichenow, 1891) s Sudan, Uganda and Kenya to Tanzania, n Malawi and ne Zambia

.

Bannerman's Sunbird Cyanomitra bannermani Grant, CHB & Mackworth-Praed, 1943 AF : s, c

.

Blue-throated Brown Sunbird Cyanomitra cyanolaema (Jardine & Fraser, 1852) AF : w, c

.

C. c. magnirostrata (Bates, 1930) Sierra Leone to Togo

.

C. c. cyanolaema (Jardine & Fraser, 1852) Bioko I.

.

C. c. octaviae Amadon, 1953 sw Nigeria to Uganda, w Kenya, s DR Congo and n Angola, also w Tanzania.

.

Cameroon Sunbird Cyanomitra oritis (Reichenow, 1892) AF : Cameroon

.

C. o. poensis Alexander, 1903 Bioko I.

.

C. o. oritis (Reichenow, 1892) Mt. Cameroon (sw Cameroon)

.

C. o. bansoensis Bannerman, 1922 se Nigeria and w Cameroon (except Mt. Cameroon)

.

Blue-headed Sunbird Cyanomitra alinae Jackson, 1904 AF : ec

.

C. a. derooi (Prigogine, 1975) ne DR Congo

.

C. a. kaboboensis (Prigogine, 1975) Mt. Kabobo (e DR Congo)

.

C. a. alinae Jackson, 1904 Ruwenzori Mtns. and Virunga Volcanoes in e DR Congo, sw Uganda and nw Rwanda

.

C. a. tanganjicae (Reichenow, 1915) e DR Congo, sw Rwanda and w Burundi

.

C. a. marungensis (Prigogine, 1975) Marungu Mts. (se DR Congo)

.

Olive Sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea (Smith, A, 1840) AF : widespread ENG Change  English name of Cyanomitra olivacea to Olive Sunbird  with lump of C. obscura which is conspecific (Sinclair and Ryan 2003, Bowie et al. 2004)

.

C. o. guineensis Bannerman, 1921 Senegal to Togo

.

C. o. cephaelis (Bates, 1930) Ghana to Central African Republic, DR Congo and n Angola

.

C. o. obscura (Jardine, 1842) Bioko and Principé Is.

.

C. o. vincenti Grant, CHB & Mackworth-Praed, 1943 s Sudan, Uganda, w Kenya, e DR Congo and w Tanzania

.

C. o. ragazzii (Salvadori, 1888) sw Ethiopia

.

C. o. changamwensis Mearns, 1910 s Somalia to ne Tanzania

.

C. o. neglecta Neumann, 1900 sc Kenya to n Tanzania

.

C. o. granti Vincent, 1934 Pemba and Zanzibar (off e Tanzania)

.

C. o. lowei Vincent, 1934 n Zambia, se DR Congo and n Malawi

.

C. o. alfredi Vincent, 1934 s Tanzania, e Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique

.

C. o. sclateri Vincent, 1934 e Zimbabwe and w Mozambique

.

C. o. olivacina (Peters, W, 1881) se Tanzania, Mozambique and ne South Africa

.

C. o. olivacea (Smith, A, 1840) e South Africa

.

Grey Sunbird Cyanomitra veroxii (Smith, A, 1832) AF : e, se, s

.

C. v. fischeri (Reichenow, 1880) e Somalia to ne South Africa

.

C. v. zanzibarica (Grote, 1932) Zanzibar (off e Tanzania)

.

C. v. veroxii (Smith, A, 1832) e and s South Africa

.

Chalcomitra Reichenbach, 1853

.

Buff-throated Sunbird Chalcomitra adelberti (Gervais, 1834) AF : w

.

C. a. adelberti (Gervais, 1834) Guinea and Sierra Leone to Togo

.

C. a. eboensis (Jardine, 1842) Benin to se Nigeria and sw Cameroon

.

Carmelite Sunbird Chalcomitra fuliginosa (Bechstein, 1811) AF : w

.

C. f. aurea (Lesson, 1847) Sierra Leone to Gabon

.

C. f. fuliginosa (Bechstein, 1811) nw Angola and extreme w DR Congo

.

Green-throated Sunbird Chalcomitra rubescens (Vieillot, 1819) AF : w, sw

.

C. r. crossensis Serle, 1963 se Nigeria and sw Cameroon

.

C. r. stangerii (Jardine, 1842) Bioko I.

.

C. r. rubescens (Vieillot, 1819) c Cameroon to s Sudan, Uganda, w Kenya, nw Tanzania, nw Zambia and n Angola

.

Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina (Shaw, 1812) AF : e, se, s

.

C. a. kalckreuthi (Cabanis, 1878) s Somalia, e Kenya and ne Tanzania

.

C. a. doggetti (Sharpe, 1902) w Kenya, se Sudan, ne Uganda to central n Tanzania

.

C. a. kirkii (Shelley, 1876) w and c Tanzania to se DR Congo, e Zambia, Zimbabw and, e Botswana

.

C. a. deminuta Cabanis, 1880 se Gabon and s Congo to sw DR Congo, Angola, c, w Zambia, n Botswana and n Namibia

.

C. a. adjuncta (Clancey, 1975) se Botswana, s Mozambique and ne South Africa

.

C. a. amethystina (Shaw, 1812) e and s South Africa

.

Scarlet-chested Sunbird Chalcomitra senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : w, c, e, s

.

C. s. senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766) s Mauritania and Senegal to Nigeria

.

C. s. acik (Hartmann, 1866) Cameroon to sw Sudan, nw Uganda and ne DR Congo

.

C. s. proteus (Rüppell, 1840) se Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and n Kenya

.

C. s. lamperti (Reichenow, 1897) s Sudan, e DR Congo and w, c and s Uganda to c Kenya and w Tanzania

.

C. s. saturatior (Reichenow, 1891) Angola and s DR Congo to Namibia and n Botswana

.

C. s. gutturalis (Linnaeus, 1766) s Somalia to e Zimbabwe, Mozambique and ne South Africa

.

Hunter's Sunbird Chalcomitra hunteri (Shelley, 1889) AF : e

.

Socotra Sunbird Chalcomitra balfouri (Sclater, PL & Hartlaub, 1881) EU : Socotra Island

.

Leptocoma Cabanis, 1850

.

Purple-rumped Sunbird Leptocoma zeylonica (Linnaeus, 1766) OR : Indian subcontinent; records in Burma doubtful (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005)

.

L. z. flaviventris (Hermann, 1804) peninsular India and Bangladesh

.

L. z. zeylonica (Linnaeus, 1766) Sri Lanka

.

Crimson-backed Sunbird Leptocoma minima (Sykes, 1832) OR : sw India

.

Purple-throated Sunbird Leptocoma sperata (Linnaeus, 1766) OR : Philippines

.

L. s. henkei (Meyer, AB, 1884) n Luzon and islands to the n

.

L. s. sperata (Linnaeus, 1766) c and s Luzon, Polillo, Marinduque and Catanduanes (n Philippines)

.

L. s. trochilus (Salomonsen, 1953) w, c and s Philippines (except w and s Mindanao and Sulu Arch.)

.

L. s. juliae (Tweeddale, 1877) w and s Mindanao and Sulu Arch.

.

Van Hasselt's Sunbird Leptocoma brasiliana (Gmelin, JF, 1788) OR : ne India to Southeast Asia and Greater Sundas AS Leptocoma brasiliana is split from L. sperata (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005)

.

L. b. brasiliana (Gmelin, JF, 1788) ne India and e Bangladesh to the Malay Pen., Sumatra (and islands off w coast except Simeulue), w Java and Borneo

.

L. b. emmae Delacour & Jabouille, 1928 s Indochina

.

L. b. mecynorhyncha (Oberholser, 1912) Simeulue I. (w of Sumatra)

.

L. b. eumecis (Oberholser, 1917) Anamba Is. (e of Malay Pen.)

.

L. b. axantha (Oberholser, 1932) Natuna Is. (nw of Borneo)

.

Black Sunbird Leptocoma sericea (Lesson, 1827) AU : Sulawesi through Bismarck Archipelago

.

L. s. talautensis (Meyer, AB & Wiglesworth, 1894) Talaud Is. (ne of Sulawesi)

.

L. s. sangirensis (Meyer, AB, 1874) Sangihe Is. (n of Sulawesi)

.

L. s. grayi (Wallace, 1865) n Sulawsi

.

L. s. porphyrolaema (Wallace, 1865) c and s Sulawesi

.

L. s. auriceps (Gray, GR, 1861) n Moluccas to the e of Sulawesi

.

L. s. auricapilla (Mees, 1965) Kayoa (w of Halmahera)

.

L. s. aspasioides (Gray, GR, 1861) s Moluccas and Aru Is.

.

L. s. proserpina (Wallace, 1863) Buru I. (s Moluccas)

.

L. s. chlorolaema (Salvadori, 1874) Kai Is. (off sw New Guinea)

.

L. s. mariae (Ripley, 1959) Kofiau I. (w Papuan islands)

.

L. s. cochrani (Stresemann & Paludan, 1932) w Papuan islands

.

L. s. sericea (Lesson, 1827) New Guinea

.

L. s. maforensis (Meyer, AB, 1874) Numfor I. (off nw New Guinea)

.

L. s. salvadorii (Shelley, 1877) Yapen I. (off nw New Guinea)

.

L. s. nigriscapularis (Salvadori, 1876) Meos Num and Rani Is. (off nw New Guinea)

.

L. s. mysorensis (Meyer, AB, 1874) Biak I. (off nw New Guinea) and Schouten I. (off nc New Guinea)

.

L. s. veronica (Mees, 1965) Liki I. (off nw New Guinea)

.

L. s. cornelia (Salvadori, 1878) Tarawai I. (off nc New Guinea)

.

L. s. christianae (Tristram, 1889) islands off se New Guinea

.

L. s. caeruleogula (Mees, 1965) New Britain and Umboi Is. (Bismarck Arch.)

.

L. s. corinna (Salvadori, 1878) n Bismarck Arch. (except Feni I.)

.

L. s. eichhorni (Rothschild & Hartert, 1926) Feni I. (ne Bismarck Arch.)

.

Copper-throated Sunbird Leptocoma calcostetha (Jardine, 1842) OR : Burma to Philippines and Java

.

Nectarinia Illiger, 1811

.

Bocage's Sunbird Nectarinia bocagii Shelley, 1879 AF : wc

.

Purple-breasted Sunbird Nectarinia purpureiventris (Reichenow, 1893) AF : c

.

Tacazze Sunbird Nectarinia tacazze (Stanley, 1814) AF : ne, e

.

N. t. tacazze (Stanley, 1814) Ethiopia and Eritrea

.

N. t. jacksoni Neumann, 1899 se Sudan, Uganda, Kenya and n Tanzania

.

Bronzy Sunbird Nectarinia kilimensis Shelley, 1885 AF : c, e

.

N. k. kilimensis Shelley, 1885 e DR Congo and s Uganda to c Kenya and n Tanzania

.

N. k. arturi Sclater, PL, 1906 s Tanzania to e Zimbabwe

.

N. k. gadowi Barboza du Bocage, 1892 wc Angola

.

Malachite Sunbird Nectarinia famosa (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : e, se

.

N. f. cupreonitens Shelley, 1876 Eritrea and Ethiopia to e Zambia, n Malawi and n Mozambique

.

N. f. famosa (Linnaeus, 1766) e Zimbabwe, w Mozambique and South Africa

.

Scarlet-tufted Sunbird Nectarinia johnstoni Shelley, 1885 AF : e

.

N. j. johnstoni Shelley, 1885 c and w Kenya and n Tanzania

.

N. j. dartmouthi Ogilvie-Grant, 1906 e DR Congo, sw Uganda and w Rwanda

.

N. j. nyikensis Delacour, 1944 s Tanzania, ne Zambia and n Malawi

.

N. j. itombwensis Prigogine, 1977 Itombwe Mts. (e DR Congo)

.

Drepanorhynchus Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884

.

Golden-winged Sunbird Drepanorhynchus reichenowi Fischer, GA, 1884 AF : e

.

D. r. shellyae (Prigogine, 1952) e DR Congo

.

D. r. lathburyi (Williams, JG, 1956) n Kenya

.

D. r. reichenowi Fischer, GA, 1884 s Uganda to c Kenya and n Tanzania

.

Cinnyris Cuvier, 1816

.

Olive-bellied Sunbird Cinnyris chloropygius (Jardine, 1842) AF : w, c

.

C. c. kempi Ogilvie-Grant, 1910 Senegal to sw Nigeria

.

C. c. chloropygius (Jardine, 1842) se Nigeria to Central African Republic, w DR Congo and nw Angola, Bioko I.

.

C. c. orphogaster Reichenow, 1899 c and e DR Congo, s Sudan and Uganda to w Kenya, w Tanzania and ne Angola

.

Tiny Sunbird Cinnyris minullus Reichenow, 1899 AF : c, w

.

C. m. amadoni (Eisentraut, 1965) Bioko I.

.

C. m. minullus Reichenow, 1899 Sierra Leone and Liberia to Uganda, DR Congo and Gabon

.

Miombo Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris manoensis Reichenow, 1907 AF : sc, se

.

C. m. manoensis Reichenow, 1907 c Tanzania to Zimbabwe and n Mozambique

.

C. m. pintoi (Wolters, 1965) c Angola and s DR Congo to sw Tanzania and n Malawi

.

C. m. amicorum (Clancey, 1970) s Mozambique

.

Southern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris chalybeus (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : South Africa

.

C. c. subalaris Reichenow, 1899 e South Africa

.

C. c. chalybeus (Linnaeus, 1766) s Namibia, w South Africa

.

Neergaard's Sunbird Cinnyris neergaardi Grant, CHB, 1908 AF : se

.

Ruwenzori Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris stuhlmanni Reichenow, 1893 AF : sc

.

C. s. stuhlmanni Reichenow, 1893 Rwenzori Mts. (ne DR Congo and w Uganda)

.

C. s. graueri Neumann, 1908 sw Uganda, nw Rwanda and adjacent e DR Congo

.

C. s. chapini Prigogine, 1952 e DR Congo

.

C. s. schubotzi Reichenow, 1908 sw Rwanda and w Burundi

.

Prigogine's Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris prigoginei Macdonald, 1958 AF : ec

.

Ludwig's Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris ludovicensis (Barboza du Bocage, 1868) AF : sc

.

C. l. ludovicensis (Barboza du Bocage, 1868) Angola

.

C. l. whytei Benson, 1948 Zambia and Malawi

.

Northern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris reichenowi Sharpe, 1891 AF : wc, e

.

C. r. preussi Reichenow, 1892 Bioko I., se Nigeria, Cameroon and nw Central African Republic

.

C. r. reichenowi Sharpe, 1891 s Sudan, ne DR Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Kenya

.

Greater Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris afer (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : South Africa

.

C. a. saliens (Clancey, 1962) e South Africa

.

C. a. afer (Linnaeus, 1766) s South Africa

.

Regal Sunbird Cinnyris regius Reichenow, 1893 AF : ec

.

C. r. regius Reichenow, 1893 Rwenzori Mts. (ne DR Congo and w Uganda)

.

C. r. kivuensis Schouteden, 1937 e DR Congo, sw Uganda, w Rwanda and w Burundi

.

C. r. anderseni Williams, JG, 1950 w Tanzania

.

Rockefeller's Sunbird Cinnyris rockefelleri Chapin, 1932 AF : Democratic Republic of the Congo

.

Eastern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris mediocris Shelley, 1885 AF : w, c Kenya, n Tanzania

.

Usambara Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris usambaricus Grote, 1922 AF : se Kenya, ne Tanzania AS Cinnyris usambaricus is split from C. mediocris (Bowie et al. 2004b)

.

Forest Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris fuelleborni Reichenow, 1899 AF : c, s Tanzania, Malawi, ne Zambia, n Mozambique AS Cinnyris fuelleborni Is split from C. mediocris (Bowie et al. 2004b)

.

C. f. fuelleborni Reichenow, 1899 c and s Tanzania, ne Zambia and n Malawi

.

C. f. bensoni Williams, JG, 1953 s Malawi and n Mozambique

.

Moreau's Sunbird Cinnyris moreaui Sclater, WL, 1933 AF : Tanzania

.

Loveridge's Sunbird Cinnyris loveridgei Hartert, 1922 AF : Tanzania

.

Beautiful Sunbird Cinnyris pulchellus (Linnaeus, 1766) AF : w, c, e

.

C. p. pulchellus (Linnaeus, 1766) Mauritania to Sierra Leone and east to Eritrea, w Ethiopia and nw Kenya

.

C. p. melanogastrus (Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884) w, c and s Kenya, Tanzania

.

Marico Sunbird Cinnyris mariquensis Smith, A, 1836 AF : e, se, s

.

C. m. osiris (Finsch, 1870) Eritrea and Ethiopia to se Sudan, n Uganda and n Kenya

.

C. m. suahelicus Reichenow, 1891 c Uganda to c Kenya, Tanzania and ne Zambia

.

C. m. mariquensis Smith, A, 1836 Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and n South Africa

.

C. m. lucens (Clancey, 1973) se Zimbabwe, s Mozambique and e South Africa

.

C. m. ovamboensis Reichenow, 1904 s Angola, ne Namibia, sw Zambia and nw Botswana

.

Shelley's Sunbird Cinnyris shelleyi Alexander, 1899 AF : se

.

Hofmann's Sunbird Cinnyris hofmanni Reichenow, 1915 AF : e Tanzania AS Cinnyris hofmanni is split from C.shelleyi (Irwin (2005); under review by BLI

.

Congo Sunbird Cinnyris congensis (van Oort, 1910) AF : Congo region

.

Red-chested Sunbird Cinnyris erythrocercus (Hartlaub, 1857) AF : e

.

Black-bellied Sunbird Cinnyris nectarinioides Richmond, 1897 AF : e

.

C. n. erlangeri (Reichenow, 1905) se Ethiopia, s Somalia and ne Kenya

.

C. n. nectarinioides Richmond, 1897 se Kenya and ne Tanzania

.

Purple-banded Sunbird Cinnyris bifasciatus (Shaw, 1812) AF : wc, e, se

.

C. b. bifasciatus (Shaw, 1812) sw Central African Republic and Gabon to w Angola

.

C. b. microrhynchus Shelley, 1876 s DR Congo, s Uganda, s, c Kenya to ne Angola, n, c, w Zambia, n Malawi and n Mozambique

.

C. b. strophium Clancey & Williams, JG, 1957 se Zambia, s Malawi and s Mozambique to e South Africa

.

Tsavo Sunbird Cinnyris tsavoensis van Someren, 1922 AF : e

.

Violet-breasted Sunbird Cinnyris chalcomelas Reichenow, 1905 AF : e

.

Pemba Sunbird Cinnyris pembae Reichenow, 1905 IO : Pemba Island

.

Orange-tufted Sunbird Cinnyris bouvieri Shelley, 1877 AF : c

.

Palestine Sunbird Cinnyris osea Bonaparte, 1856 AF : nc, also s, w Arabian Peninsula

.

C. o. osea Bonaparte, 1856 Syria to ne Egypt and east to Yemen and Oman

.

C. o. decorsei Oustalet, 1905 Cameroon to s Sudan and nw Uganda

.

Shining Sunbird Cinnyris habessinicus (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828) AF : ne, e, also s, w Arabian Peninsula

.

C. h. kinneari Bates, 1935 w Saudi Arabia

.

C. h. hellmayri Neumann, 1904 sw Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman

.

C. h. habessinicus (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828) ne Sudan, Eritrea and n and c Ethiopia

.

C. h. alter Neumann, 1906 e Ethiopia and n Somalia

.

C. h. turkanae van Someren, 1920 se Sudan, s Ethiopia, s Somalia, n Kenya and ne Uganda

.

Splendid Sunbird Cinnyris coccinigastrus (Latham, 1801) AF : w, c

.

Johanna's Sunbird Cinnyris johannae Verreaux, J & Verreaux, E, 1851 AF : w, c

.

C. j. fasciatus (Jardine & Fraser, 1852) Sierra Leone to Benin

.

C. j. johannae Verreaux, J & Verreaux, E, 1851 s Nigeria and s Cameroon to ne DR Congo, Congo and nw Angola

.

Superb Sunbird Cinnyris superbus (Shaw, 1812) AF : w, c

.

C. s. ashantiensis Bannerman, 1922 Sierra Leone to Togo and Benin

.

C. s. nigeriae (Rand & Traylor, 1959) se Benin and s Nigeria

.

C. s. superbus (Shaw, 1812) s Cameroon to DR Congo (except ne) and w Angola

.

C. s. buvuma van Someren, 1932 ne DR Congo, Uganda, w Kenya and nw Tanzania

.

Rufous-winged Sunbird Cinnyris rufipennis (Jensen, 1983) AF : Tanzania

.

Oustalet's Sunbird Cinnyris oustaleti (Barboza du Bocage, 1878) AF : sc

.

C. o. oustaleti (Barboza du Bocage, 1878) wc Angola

.

C. o. rhodesiae Benson, 1955 ne Zambia and w Tanzania

.

White-bellied Sunbird Cinnyris talatala Smith, A, 1836 AF : sc

.

C. t. talatala Smith, A, 1836 s Tanzania to s Angola, n Botswana, n South Africa and Mozambique

.

C. t. arestus (Clancey, 1962) e South Africa

.

Variable Sunbird Cinnyris venustus (Shaw, 1799) AF : w, c, e

.

C. v. venustus (Shaw, 1799) Senegal and Gambia to Sierra Leone and east to n Cameroon and Central African Republic

.

C. v. fazoqlensis (Heuglin, 1871) e Sudan, Eritrea and n and w Ethiopia

.

C. v. albiventris (Strickland, 1852) e and s Ethiopia, Somalia and ne Kenya

.

C. v. falkensteini Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884 Gabon and w Angola to w Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique

.

C. v. igneiventris Reichenow, 1899 e DR Congo, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi

.

Dusky Sunbird Cinnyris fuscus Vieillot, 1819 AF : sw

.

C. f. fuscus Vieillot, 1819 Namibia and Botswana to South Africa

.

C. f. inclusus (Clancey, 1970) sw Angola

.

Ursula's Sunbird Cinnyris ursulae (Alexander, 1903) AF : Cameroon

.

Bates's Sunbird Cinnyris batesi Ogilvie-Grant, 1908 AF : w, c

.

Copper Sunbird Cinnyris cupreus (Shaw, 1812) AF : w, c, e, sc

.

C. c. cupreus (Shaw, 1812) sw Mauritania to Sierra Leone and east to w Ethiopia, w Kenya, w Tanzania, c DR Congo, and nw Angola

.

C. c. chalceus (Hartlaub, 1862) Angola and s DR Congo to s Tanzania, Mozambique, n Zimbabwe and n Botswana

.

Purple Sunbird Cinnyris asiaticus (Latham, 1790) EU, OR : e Arabian Peninsula to Southeast Asia

.

C. a. brevirostris (Blanford, 1873) e Arabian Pen. to w India

.

C. a. asiaticus (Latham, 1790) Nepal, n, c and s India and Sri Lanka

.

C. a. intermedius (Hume, 1870) e India and Bangladesh to Indochina

.

Olive-backed Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis (Linnaeus, 1766) OR, AU : s China to ne Australia

.

C. j. andamanicus (Hume, 1873) Andaman Is.

.

C. j. proselius Oberholser, 1923 n Nicobar Is.

.

C. j. klossi (Richmond, 1902) c and s Nicobar Is.

.

C. j. rhizophorae (Swinhoe, 1869) s and se China, Hainan I. and n Vietnam

.

C. j. flammaxillaris (Blyth, 1845) Burma, Thailand, c and s Indochina and n Malay Pen.

.

C. j. ornatus Lesson, 1827 c and s Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Bali and most Lesser Sundas

.

C. j. polyclystus Oberholser, 1912 Enggano I. (off w Sumatra)

.

C. j. aurora (Tweeddale, 1878) w Philippines

.

C. j. obscurior Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 n Luzon (n Philippines)

.

C. j. jugularis (Linnaeus, 1766) Philippines (except n Luzon and w and sw islands)

.

C. j. woodi (Mearns, 1909) Sulu Arch. (sw Philippines)

.

C. j. plateni (Blasius, W, 1885) Sulawesi and many nearby islands

.

C. j. infrenatus Hartert, 1903 Tukangbesi and other islands off se Sulawesi

.

C. j. robustirostris (Mees, 1964) Banggai and Sula Is. (off e Sulawesi)

.

C. j. teysmanni Büttikofer, 1893 islands in the Flores Sea

.

C. j. frenatus (Müller, S, 1843) n Moluccas, New Guinea (except n), Aru Is. (sw of New Guinea, islands se of New Guinea and ne Australia

.

C. j. buruensis Hartert, 1910 Buru I. (s Moluccas)

.

C. j. clementiae Lesson, 1827 s Moluccas (except Buru)

.

C. j. keiensis Stresemann, 1913 Kai Is. (sw of New Guinea)

.

C. j. idenburgi Rand, 1940 n New Guinea

.

C. j. flavigastra (Gould, 1843) Bismarck Arch. and Solomon Is.

.

Apricot-breasted Sunbird Cinnyris buettikoferi Hartert, 1896 AU : Sumba

.

Flame-breasted Sunbird Cinnyris solaris (Temminck, 1825) AU : Lesser Sundas

.

C. s. exquisitus Hartert, 1904 w and c Lesser Sundas

.

C. s. solaris (Temminck, 1825) Wetar I. (nc Lesser Sundas)

.

Souimanga Sunbird Cinnyris sovimanga (Gmelin, JF, 1788) AF : Madagascar

.

C. s. sovimanga (Gmelin, JF, 1788) Madagascar (except s), Iles Glorieuses (n of Madagascar)

.

C. s. apolis Hartert, 1920 s Madagascar

.

C. s. aldabrensis Ridgway, 1894 Aldabra Is.

.

Abbott's Sunbird Cinnyris abbotti Ridgway, 1894 AF : Aldabra Island

.

C. a. abbotti Ridgway, 1894 Assumption I.

.

C. a. buchenorum Williams, JG, 1953 Cosmoledo and Astove Is.

.

Malagasy Green Sunbird Cinnyris notatus (Statius Müller, 1776) AF : Madagascar region

.

C. n. notatus (Statius Müller, 1776) Madagascar

.

C. n. moebii Reichenow, 1887 Grand Comoro I. (w Comoros)

.

C. n. voeltzkowi Reichenow, 1905 Moheli I. (w Comoros)

.

Seychelles Sunbird Cinnyris dussumieri (Hartlaub, 1861) IO : Seychelles Islands

.

Humblot's Sunbird Cinnyris humbloti Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, 1885 AF : Comoros

.

C. h. humbloti Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, 1885 Grand Comoro I. (w Comoros)

.

C. h. mohelicus Stresemann & Grote, 1926 Moheli I. (w Comoros)

.

Anjouan Sunbird Cinnyris comorensis Peters, W, 1864 AF : Comoros

.

Mayotte Sunbird Cinnyris coquerellii (Hartlaub, 1860) AF : Comoros

.

Loten's Sunbird Cinnyris lotenius (Linnaeus, 1766) OR : India, Sri Lanka

.

C. l. hindustanicus Whistler, 1944 s India

.

C. l. lotenius (Linnaeus, 1766) Sri Lanka

.

Aethopyga Cabanis, 1850

.

Grey-hooded Sunbird Aethopyga primigenia (Hachisuka, 1941) OR : Philippines

.

A. p. diuatae Salomonsen, 1953 ne Mindanao

.

A. p. primigenia (Hachisuka, 1941) c Mindanao

.

Apo Sunbird Aethopyga boltoni Mearns, 1905 OR : Philippines

.

A. b. malindangensis Rand & Rabor, 1957 w Mindanao

.

A. b. boltoni Mearns, 1905 ec and e Mindanao

.

A. b. tibolii Kennedy, Gonzales & Miranda, 1997 s Mindanao PS More data needed to confirm split of tibolii from boltoni (Hosner et al 2013)

.

Lina's Sunbird Aethopyga linaraborae Kennedy, Gonzales & Miranda, 1997 OR : Philippines

.

Flaming Sunbird Aethopyga flagrans Oustalet, 1876 OR : Luzon, Catanduanes  (n Philippines) SSP Here treated as monotypic. Includes decolor which is weakly differentiated and may not even be separable. Cheke & Mann 2001, 2008. Hosner et al 2013.

.

Maroon-naped Sunbird Aethopyga guimarasensis (Steere, 1890) OR : Panay and Guimaras (wc Philippines), Negros (sc Philippines) AS Maroon-naped Sunbird A. guimarasensis, including daphoenonota, is split from Flaming Sunbird A. flagrans (Hosner et al 2013)

.

A. g. guimarasensis (Steere, 1890) Panay and Guimaras (wc Philippines)

.

A. g. daphoenonota Parkes, 1963 Negros (sc Philippines)

.

Metallic-winged Sunbird Aethopyga pulcherrima Sharpe, 1876 OR : c and s Philippines

.

Luzon Sunbird Aethopyga jefferyi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1894) OR : Luzon (n Philippines) AS Luzon Sunbird A. jefferyi is split from Metallic-winged Sunbird A. pulcherrima (Hosner et al 2013)

.

Bohol Sunbird Aethopyga decorosa (McGregor, 1907) OR : Bohol (sc Philippines) AS Bohol Sunbird A. decorosa is split from Metallic-winged Sunbird A. pulcherrima (Hosner et al 2013)

.

Elegant Sunbird Aethopyga duyvenbodei (Schlegel, 1871) AU : Sangihe Island

.

Lovely Sunbird Aethopyga shelleyi Sharpe, 1876 OR : Philippines

.

Handsome Sunbird Aethopyga bella Tweeddale, 1877 OR : Philippines

.

A. b. flavipectus Ogilvie-Grant, 1894 n Luzon (n Philippines)

.

A. b. minuta Bourns & Worcester, 1894 c and s Luzon, Polillo, Marinduque and Mindoro (n Philippines)

.

A. b. rubrinota McGregor, 1905 Lubang (n of Mindoro in n Philippines)

.

A. b. bella Tweeddale, 1877 e and s Philippines

.

A. b. bonita Bourns & Worcester, 1894 wc Philippines

.

A. b. arolasi Bourns & Worcester, 1894 Sulu Arch. (sw Philippines)

.

Mrs. Gould's Sunbird Aethopyga gouldiae (Vigors, 1831) OR : Himalayas to s Vietnam

.

A. g. gouldiae (Vigors, 1831) e Himalayas

.

A. g. isolata Baker, ECS, 1925 ne India, e Bangladesh and w Burma

.

A. g. dabryii (Verreaux, J, 1867) c and s China, n and e Burma and n Indochina

.

A. g. annamensis Robinson & Kloss, 1919 s Laos and s Vietnam

.

Green-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836) OR : Himalayas to s Vietnam

.

A. n. horsfieldi (Blyth, 1843) w Himalayas to w Nepal

.

A. n. nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836) c and e Nepal and n India

.

A. n. koelzi Ripley, 1948 se Tibet, Bhutan and e Bangladesh to sc China and n Vietnam

.

A. n. victoriae Rippon, 1904 w Burma

.

A. n. karenensis Ticehurst, 1939 e Burma

.

A. n. angkanensis Riley, 1929 nw Thailand

.

A. n. australis Robinson & Kloss, 1923 peninsular Thailand

.

A. n. blanci Delacour & Greenway, 1939 Laos

.

A. n. ezrai Delacour, 1926 s Vietnam

.

White-flanked Sunbird Aethopyga eximia (Horsfield, 1821) OR : Java

.

Fork-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga christinae Swinhoe, 1869 OR : c China to s Vietnam

.

A. c. latouchii Slater, 1891 c China to c Indochina

.

A. c. sokolovi Stepanyan, 1985 s Vietnam

.

A. c. christinae Swinhoe, 1869 Hainan I. (off se China)

.

Black-throated Sunbird Aethopyga saturata (Hodgson, 1836) OR : Himalayas to s Vietnam

.

A. s. saturata (Hodgson, 1836) c and e Himalayas

.

A. s. assamensis (Horsfield, 1840) ne India, n Burma into sw China

.

A. s. galenae Deignan, 1948 nw Thailand

.

A. s. petersi Deignan, 1948 e Burma to se China and n Indochina

.

A. s. sanguinipectus Walden, 1875 se Burma

.

A. s. anomala Richmond, 1900 c Malay Pen.

.

A. s. wrayi Sharpe, 1887 s Malay Pen.

.

A. s. ochra Deignan, 1948 s Laos and c Vietnam

.

A. s. johnsi Robinson & Kloss, 1919 s Vietnam

.

A. s. cambodiana Delacour, 1948 se Thailand and sw Cambodia

.

Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga siparaja (Raffles, 1822) OR : widespread, also Sulawesi PHY, PS Crimson Sunbird comprises at least 3 species groups (Hosner et al 2013)

.

A. s. seheriae (Tickell, 1833) Himalayan foothills of n India, w Bangladesh

.

A. s. labecula (Horsfield, 1840) e Himalayas and Bangladesh through Burma (except s) to nw Laos and nw Vietnam

.

A. s. owstoni Rothschild, 1910 se China

.

A. s. tonkinensis Hartert, 1917 s China and ne Vietnam

.

A. s. mangini Delacour & Jabouille, 1924 se Thailand and c and s Indochina

.

A. s. insularis Delacour & Jabouille, 1928 Dao Phu Quoc (off s Cambodia)

.

A. s. cara Hume, 1874 s Burma and n Thailand

.

A. s. trangensis Meyer de Schauensee, 1946 s Thailand, n Malay Pen.

.

A. s. siparaja (Raffles, 1822) s Malay Pen., Sumatra and Borneo

.

A. s. nicobarica Hume, 1873 Nicobar Is.

.

A. s. heliogona Oberholser, 1923 Java

.

A. s. natunae Chasen, 1935 Natuna Is. (nw of Borneo)

.

A. s. flavostriata (Wallace, 1865) n Sulawesi

.

A. s. beccarii Salvadori, 1875 c and s Sulawesi

.

Magnificent Sunbird Aethopyga magnifica Sharpe, 1876 OR : wc Philippines AS Magnificent Sunbird A. magnifica is split from Crimson Sunbird A. siparaja (Hosner et al 2013)

.

Vigors's Sunbird Aethopyga vigorsii (Sykes, 1832) OR : w Peninsular India AS Aethopyga vigorsii is split from A. siparaja (Cheke & Mann 2001, Rasmussen & Anderton 2005) 2007.

.

Javan Sunbird Aethopyga mystacalis (Temminck, 1822) OR : Java

.

Temminck's Sunbird Aethopyga temminckii (Müller, S, 1843) OR : Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo

.

Fire-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga ignicauda (Hodgson, 1836) OR : Himalayas

.

A. i. ignicauda (Hodgson, 1836) Himalayas to n Burma and sw China

.

A. i. flavescens Baker, ECS, 1921 extreme e India and w Burma

.

Arachnothera Temminck, 1826

.

Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra (Latham, 1790) OR : widespread

.

A. l. longirostra (Latham, 1790) India, c Himalayas to sw China and w Thailand

.

A. l. sordida La Touche, 1921 s China, ne Thailand and n Indochina

.

A. l. pallida Delacour, 1932 se Thailand and c and s Indochina

.

A. l. cinireicollis (Vieillot, 1819) Malay Pen. and Sumatra

.

A. l. zarhina Oberholser, 1912 Banyak Is. (off w Sumatra)

.

A. l. niasensis van Oort, 1910 Nias I. (off w Sumatra)

.

A. l. prillwitzi Hartert, 1901 Java and Bali

.

A. l. rothschildi van Oort, 1910 n Natuna Is. (nw of Borneo)

.

A. l. atita Oberholser, 1932 s Natuna Is. (nw of Borneo)

.

A. l. buettikoferi van Oort, 1910 Borneo

.

Orange-tufted Spiderhunter Arachnothera flammifera Tweeddale, 1878 OR : Philippines AS Orange-tufted Spiderhunter is split from Little Spiderhunter ( Lohman et al 2010, Rahman et al 2010)

.

A. f. flammifera Tweeddale, 1878 Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat and Mindanao (e and s Philippines)

.

A. f. randi Salomonsen, 1953 Basilan (sw Philippines)

.

Pale Spiderhunter Arachnothera dilutior Sharpe, 1876 OR : Philippines - Palawan AS Pale Spiderhunter of Palawan is split from Little Spiderhunter (Lohman et al 2010, Rahman et al 2010)

.

Thick-billed Spiderhunter Arachnothera crassirostris (Reichenbach, 1853) OR : Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo

.

Long-billed Spiderhunter Arachnothera robusta Müller, S & Schlegel, 1845 OR : Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo

.

A. r. robusta Müller, S & Schlegel, 1845 s Malay Pen., Sumatra and Borneo

.

A. r. armata Müller, S & Schlegel, 1845 Java

.

Spectacled Spiderhunter Arachnothera flavigaster (Eyton, 1839) OR : Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo

.

Yellow-eared Spiderhunter Arachnothera chrysogenys (Temminck, 1826) OR : Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo

.

A. c. chrysogenys (Temminck, 1826) Malay Pen., Sumatra, Java and w Borneo

.

A. c. harrissoni Deignan, 1957 e Borneo

.

Naked-faced Spiderhunter Arachnothera clarae Blasius, W, 1890 OR : Philippines

.

A. c. luzonensis Alcasid & Gonzales, 1968 Luzon (n Philippines)

.

A. c. philippinensis (Steere, 1890) Samar, Biliran and Leyte, (ec Philippines)

.

A. c. clarae Blasius, W, 1890 e Mindanao (s Philippines)

.

A. c. malindangensis Rand & Rabor, 1957 w Mindanao and Basilan (s Philippines)

.

Grey-breasted Spiderhunter Arachnothera modesta (Eyton, 1839) OR : s Burma to s Vietnam, Malay Penin., Borneo and Sumatra

.

A. m. caena Deignan, 1956 s Burma and sw Thailand

.

A. m. modesta (Eyton, 1839) Malay Pen. and Borneo

.

A. m. concolor Snelleman, 1882 Sumatra

.

Streaky-breasted Spiderhunter Arachnothera affinis (Horsfield, 1821) OR : Java, Bali

.

Bornean Spiderhunter Arachnothera everetti (Sharpe, 1893) OR : Borneo AS Bornean Spiderhunter Arachnothera everetti is split from Streaky-breasted Spiderhunter A. affinis (Moyle et al 2011)

.

Streaked Spiderhunter Arachnothera magna (Hodgson, 1836) OR : Himalayas to s Vietnam

.

A. m. magna (Hodgson, 1836) c Himalayas and e Bangladesh to s China and n Burma

.

A. m. aurata Blyth, 1855 c and e Burma

.

A. m. musarum Deignan, 1956 se Burma, n Thailand, Laos and n Vietnam

.

A. m. remota Riley, 1940 sc and s Vietnam

.

A. m. pagodarum Deignan, 1956 Malay Pen.

.

Whitehead's Spiderhunter Arachnothera juliae Sharpe, 1887 OR : Borneo