"Wisdom begins with putting the right name on a thing"
(Old Chinese Proverb)

Coursers, noddies, gulls, terns, auks & sandgrouse

.

#,† IOC English name Scientific name Authority Breeding Range Code Comment

.

17 Coursers, Pratincoles Family Glareolidae

.

Cursorius Latham, 1790

.

Cream-colored Courser Cursorius cursor (Latham, 1787) AF : ne, c, w, also sw EU

.

C. c. cursor (Latham, 1787) Canary Is., North Africa to Iraq

.

C. c. bogolubovi Zarudny, 1885 se Turkey to nw India

.

C. c. exsul Hartert, 1920 Cape Verde Is.

.

Somali Courser Cursorius somalensis Shelley, 1885 AF : ne

.

C. s. somalensis Shelley, 1885 Eritrea, e Ethiopia, n Somalia

.

C. s. littoralis Erlanger, 1905 se Sudan, n and e Kenya, s Somalia

.

Burchell's Courser Cursorius rufus Gould, 1837 AF : Angola to South Africa

.

Temminck's Courser Cursorius temminckii Swainson, 1822 AF : widespread south of the Sahara

.

C. t. temminckii Swainson, 1822 Senegal to Ethiopia and Kenya SSP

.

C. t. ruvanensis Mádarasz, 1915 Tanzania to Angola, Mozambique and ne South Africa SSP Hockey et al, 2005

.

C. t. aridus Clancey, 1989 n Namibia to w Zimbabwe SSP Hockey et al, 2005

.

Indian Courser Cursorius coromandelicus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : Pakistan, Nepal, India and Sri Lanka

.

Rhinoptilus Strickland, 1852

.

Double-banded Courser Rhinoptilus africanus (Temminck, 1807) AF : sw, e

.

R. a. raffertyi Mearns, 1915 Eritrea, e Ethiopia, Djibouti

.

R. a. hartingi Sharpe, 1893 se Ethiopia, Somalia

.

R. a. gracilis (Fischer, GA & Reichenow, 1884) Kenya, Tanzania

.

R. a. bisignatus (Hartlaub, 1865) sw Angola

.

R. a. erlangeri Niethammer & Wolters, 1966 nw Namibia

.

R. a. traylori Irwin, 1963 ne Botswana

.

R. a. africanus (Temminck, 1807) e Namibia, c and se Botswana, n South Africa

.

R. a. granti Sclater, WL, 1921 w South Africa

.

Three-banded Courser Rhinoptilus cinctus (Heuglin, 1863) AF : e, se

.

R. c. mayaudi (Érard, Hemery & Pasquet, 1993) Ethiopia, n Somalia

.

R. c. balsaci (Érard, Hemery & Pasquet, 1993) s Somalia, ne Kenya

.

R. c. cinctus (Heuglin, 1863) se Sudan, nw Kenya

.

R. c. emini Zedlitz, 1914 s Kenya, Tanzania, n Zambia

.

R. c. seebohmi Sharpe, 1893 s Angola and n Namibia to Zimbabwe and n South Africa

.

Bronze-winged Courser Rhinoptilus chalcopterus (Temminck, 1824) AF : widespread south of the Sahara

.

Jerdon's Courser Rhinoptilus bitorquatus (Blyth, 1848) OR : ec India

.

Stiltia Gray, GR, 1855

.

Australian Pratincole Stiltia isabella (Vieillot, 1816) AU : widespread

.

Glareola Brisson, 1760

.

Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola (Linnaeus, 1766) AF, EU : widespread

.

G. p. pratincola (Linnaeus, 1766) s Europe and n Africa to Pakistan

.

G. p. fuelleborni Neumann, 1910 Subsaharan w, c, e Africa from Senegal to s Somalia south to e South Africa SSP Includes erlangeri and riparia. Hockey et al, 2005.

.

Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum Forster, JR, 1795 EU, OR : c and e Siberia, Japan, China and widespread throughout the Orient

.

Black-winged Pratincole Glareola nordmanni Fischer von Waldheim, 1842 EU : se Europe to c Asia

.

Madagascan Pratincole Glareola ocularis Verreaux, J, 1833 AF : Madagascar

.

Rock Pratincole Glareola nuchalis Gray, GR, 1849 AF : sc, wc, w

.

G. n. liberiae Schlegel, 1881 Sierra Leone to w Cameroon

.

G. n. nuchalis Gray, GR, 1849 Chad to Ethiopia south to s Angola and ne Namibia to w Zambia and Mozambique SSP Includes torrens. Hockey et al, 2005.

.

Grey Pratincole Glareola cinerea Fraser, 1843 AF : Mali and Niger to Angola and DRCongo

.

Small Pratincole Glareola lactea Temminck, 1820 OR : Afghanistan to Cambodia

.

.

102 Gulls, Terns and Skimmers Family Laridae PHY, TAX The skimmers Rynchops and terns are embedded among the gulls in a monophyletic clade; separation of the families Rynchopidae and Sternidae would render the gull family Laridae paraphyletic relative to these other two groups (Baker et al. 2008)

.

Anous Stephens, 1826

.

Brown Noddy Anous stolidus (Linnaeus, 1758) TrO : widespread

.

A. s. pileatus (Scopoli, 1786) Red Sea, Indian Ocean east through the Pacific to Hawaiian Is. and Easter I.

.

A. s. galapagensis Sharpe, 1879 Galapagos Is.

.

A. s. ridgwayi Anthony, 1898 islands off w Mexico to w Costa Rica

.

A. s. stolidus (Linnaeus, 1758) islands of the Caribbean and tropical Atlantic

.

Lesser Noddy Anous tenuirostris (Temminck, 1823) IO : w, nw ENG Change  English name of Anous tenuirostris from suggested Sooty Noddy back to established Lesser Noddy

.

A. t. tenuirostris (Temminck, 1823) islands of the w Indian Ocean

.

A. t. melanops Gould, 1846 Houtman Abrolhos Is. (w Australia)

.

Black Noddy Anous minutus Boie, F, 1844 PO, AO : tropical

.

A. m. worcesteri (McGregor, 1911) Cavilli I. and Tubbataha Reef (Sulu Sea)

.

A. m. minutus Boie, F, 1844 ne Australia and New Guinea to Tuamotu Arch.

.

A. m. marcusi (Bryan, 1903) Marcus and Wake Is. through Micronesia to Caroline Is.

.

A. m. melanogenys Gray, GR, 1846 Hawaiian Is.

.

A. m. diamesus (Heller & Snodgrass, 1901) Clipperton I. (off w Mexico) and Cocos I. (off w Costa Rica)

.

A. m. americanus (Mathews, 1912) islands in the Caribbean

.

A. m. atlanticus (Mathews, 1912) tropical s Atlantic islands

.

Procelsterna Lafresnaye, 1842

.

Blue Noddy Procelsterna cerulea (Bennett, FD, 1840) PO : w, c

.

P. c. saxatilis Fisher, WK, 1903 Marcus (Japan) and n Marshall Is. (Micronesia) to nw Hawaiian Is.

.

P. c. cerulea (Bennett, FD, 1840) Kiritimati I. and Marquesas Is. (Pacific)

.

P. c. nebouxi Mathews, 1912 Phoenix and Tuvalu Is., Fiji and Samoa

.

P. c. teretirostris (Lafresnaye, 1841) Tuamotu Arch., Cook, Austral and Society Is.

.

P. c. murphyi Mougin & Naurois, 1981 Gambier Is. (French Polynesia)

.

Grey Noddy Procelsterna albivitta Bonaparte, 1856 PO : s

.

P. a. albivitta Bonaparte, 1856 Lord Howe, Norfolk and Kermadec Is., Tonga

.

P. a. skottsbergii Lönnberg, 1921 Henderson, Easter, and Sala y Gómez Is. (west of Chile)

.

P. a. imitatrix Mathews, 1912 San Ambrosio and San Félix Is (west of Chile)

.

Gygis Wagler, 1832

.

White Tern Gygis alba (Sparrman, 1786) TrO : widespread PHY, ENG Gygis is a noddy (Baker et al 2007, Odeen et al 2010); consider English name change to "White Noddy"; see Yeung et al 2009 re taxonomy of Pacific Ocean subspecies

.

G. a. alba (Sparrman, 1786) islands of the tropical south Atlantic Ocean

.

G. a. candida (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Seychelles and Mascarene Is. to the central Pacific (except ranges of next two ssp.)

.

G. a. microrhyncha Saunders, H, 1876 Phoenix, Line and Marquesas Is.

.

G. a. leucopes Holyoak & Thibault, 1976 Pitcarin Is.

.

Rynchops Linnaeus, 1758

.

Black Skimmer Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758 NA, LA : widespread

.

R. n. niger Linnaeus, 1758 coastal USA and Mexico

.

R. n. cinerascens von Spix, 1825 n South America south to Bolivia and nw Argentina

.

R. n. intercedens Saunders, H, 1895 e Brazil to Paraguay , Uruguay and ne Argentina

.

African Skimmer Rynchops flavirostris Vieillot, 1816 AF : widespread

.

Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis Swainson, 1838 OR : e Pakistan to Burma

.

Creagrus Bonaparte, 1854

.

Swallow-tailed Gull Creagrus furcatus (Néboux, 1842) SA : Galápagos Islands

.

Rissa Stephens, 1826

.

Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, NA : n coasts

.

R. t. tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) n, e Canada and n Europe to n Russia

.

R. t. pollicaris Ridgway, 1884 e Siberia to w Alaska

.

Red-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris (Bruch, 1853) NA : Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands

.

Pagophila Kaup, 1829

.

Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea (Phipps, 1774) EU, NA : n coasts

.

Xema Leach, 1819

.

Sabine's Gull Xema sabini (Sabine, 1819) EU, NA : n coasts

.

Chroicocephalus Eyton, 1836

.

Slender-billed Gull Chroicocephalus genei (Brème, 1839) EU, AF : Iberian Pen. Through the Middle East to Pakistan and India; Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia

.

Bonaparte's Gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia (Ord, 1815) NA : sw Alaska to se Canada

.

Red-billed Gull Chroicocephalus scopulinus (Forster, JR, 1844) AU : New Zealand

.

Silver Gull Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae (Stephens, 1826) AU : Australia

.

C. n. forsteri (Mathews, 1912) n and ne Australia, New Caledonia, Loyalty Is. (sw Pacific)

.

C. n. novaehollandiae (Stephens, 1826) s Australia and Tasmania SSP Includes gunni. Higgins & Davies, 1996.

.

Black-billed Gull Chroicocephalus bulleri (Hutton, FW, 1871) AU : New Zealand

.

Andean Gull Chroicocephalus serranus (Tschudi, 1844) SA : Ecuador to sc Chile and sc Argentina

.

Brown-headed Gull Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus (Jerdon, 1840) EU : sc Asia, w China and Tibet

.

Brown-hooded Gull Chroicocephalus maculipennis (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) SA : e, s coasts

.

Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Linnaeus, 1766) EU : widespread ENG Change  English name of Chroicocephalus (Larus) ridibundus reverts to Black-headed Gull with adoption of  Pallas's Gull for Larus ichthyaetus

.

Grey-headed Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus (Vieillot, 1818) SA, AF : widespread ENG Change  English name of Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus to Grey-headed Gull, which prevails in Africa and elsewhere

.

C. c. cirrocephalus (Vieillot, 1818) coastal Ecuador and Peru, coastal c Brazil to Argentina

.

C. c. poiocephalus (Swainson, 1837) coastal Africa south of the Sahara and Madagascar

.

Hartlaub's Gull Chroicocephalus hartlaubii (Bruch, 1853) AF : coastal Namibia to South Africa

.

Saunders's Gull Chroicocephalus saundersi Swinhoe, 1871 EU : coastal e China

.

Hydrocoloeus Kaup, 1829

.

Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus (Pallas, 1776) EU : e and n Europe to w Siberia; e Siberia

.

Rhodostethia MacGillivray, W, 1842

.

Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray, W, 1824) EU, NA : n coasts

.

Leucophaeus Bruch, 1853

.

Dolphin Gull Leucophaeus scoresbii (Traill, 1823) SA : extreme s coasts, Falkland Is.

.

Lava Gull Leucophaeus fuliginosus (Gould, 1841) SA : Galapagos Is.

.

Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, LA : widespread coasts

.

L. a. megalopterus (Bruch, 1855) coastal se Canada, e and s USA to e Central America, sw USA, w Mexico

.

L. a. atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758) West Indies to n Venezuelan islands

.

Franklin's Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan (Wagler, 1831) NA : sc canada and nc USA

.

Grey Gull Leucophaeus modestus (Tschudi, 1843) SA : n Chile

.

Ichthyaetus Kaup, 1829

.

Relict Gull Ichthyaetus relictus (Lönnberg, 1931) EU : Kazahkstan to Mongolia and nc China

.

Audouin's Gull Ichthyaetus audouinii (Payraudeau, 1826) EU, AF : Mediterranean and nw AF coasts

.

Mediterranean Gull Ichthyaetus melanocephalus (Temminck, 1820) EU : widespread in Europe

.

Pallas's Gull Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Pallas, 1773) EU : sw Russia to Mongolia and n China ENG Change  English name of Larus ichthyaetus from Great Black-headed Gull to Pallas's Gull

.

White-eyed Gull Ichthyaetus leucophthalmus (Temminck, 1825) AF : Red Sea

.

Sooty Gull Ichthyaetus hemprichii (Bruch, 1853) AF, EU : east AF and Middle East coasts

.

Larus Linnaeus, 1758

.

Pacific Gull Larus pacificus Latham, 1801 AU : s, w Australian coasts

.

L. p. georgii King, PP, 1826 w, sw and sc coasts

.

L. p. pacificus Latham, 1801 se and Tasmanian coasts

.

Belcher's Gull Larus belcheri Vigors, 1829 SA : wc coast of Peru and n Chile ENG Change  English name of Larus belcheri from Band-tailed Gull to Belcher's Gull to follow changes by AOU (NACC, SACC 60)

.

Olrog's Gull Larus atlanticus Olrog, 1958 SA : ne coast of Argentina

.

Black-tailed Gull Larus crassirostris Vieillot, 1818 EU : e Siberia, Japan, Korea and e China

.

Heermann's Gull Larus heermanni Cassin, 1852 NA, MA : nw coast of Mexico and sw coast of California (USA)

.

Mew Gull Larus canus Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : w Europe to Siberia and nw NA

.

L. c. canus Linnaeus, 1758 Iceland and the British Isles to White Sea

.

L. c. heinei Homeyer, 1853 w Russia to c Siberia

.

L. c. kamtschatschensis Bonaparte, 1857 ne Siberia

.

L. c. brachyrhynchus Richardson, 1831 n Alaska, w Canada

.

Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis Ord, 1815 NA, MA : s Canada and n USA

.

California Gull Larus californicus Lawrence, 1854 NA, MA : nc, w

.

L. c. albertaensis Jehl, 1987 c Canada, nc and nw USA

.

L. c. californicus Lawrence, 1854 nw USA

.

Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : coastal e NA and w Europe

.

Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823 SA, AU, AF : s coasts

.

L. d. dominicanus Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823 South America, Falkland Is., South Georgia, Australia, New Zealand

.

L. d. vetula Bruch, 1853 southern Africa

.

L. d. judithae Jiguet, 2002 subantarctic islands of the Indian Ocean

.

L. d. melisandae Jiguet, 2002 s and sw Madagascar

.

L. d. austrinus Fleming, JH, 1924 Antarctica and Antarctic islands

.

Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens Naumann, JF, 1840 EU, NA : coastal n Pacific

.

Western Gull Larus occidentalis Audubon, 1839 NA : w coast

.

L. o. occidentalis Audubon, 1839 sw British Columbia, w USA to c California

.

L. o. wymani Dickey & van Rossem, 1925 c California (USA) to Baja California (Mexico)

.

Yellow-footed Gull Larus livens Dwight, 1919 NA, MA : coastal nw Mexico and s California

.

Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 EU, NA : widespread n coasts

.

L. h. hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 n Europe to nw Siberia

.

L. h. pallidissimus Portenko, 1939 nw Siberia to the Bering Sea

.

L. h. barrovianus Ridgway, 1886 Alaska to nw Canada

.

L. h. leuceretes Schleep, 1819 nc Canada to Greenland and Iceland

.

Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides Meyer, B, 1822 NA, EU : n AO coast

.

L. g. kumlieni Brewster, 1883 ne Canada

.

L. g. glaucoides Meyer, B, 1822 s and w Greenland, Novaya Zemlya

.

Thayer's Gull Larus thayeri Brooks, WS, 1915 NA : n Canada and w Greenland

.

European Herring Gull Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763 EU : n ENG Change  English name of Larus argentatus to European Herring Gull with split of L. smithsonianus (Sangster et al 2005)

.

L. a. argenteus Brehm, CL & Schilling, 1822 Iceland, nw Europe

.

L. a. argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763 Scandinavia to the Kola Pen. (nw Russia)

.

American Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus Coues, 1862 NA : c Alaska to Newfoundland and the Great Lakes AS Larus smithsonianus is split from L. argentatus (Sangster et al. 2005); Recognized by BOU, but not by AOU

.

Vega Gull Larus vegae Palmén, 1887 EU : ne, e TAX Vega Gull includes Mongolian Gull L. mongolicus as ssp following Collinson, J.M., Parkin, D.T., Knox, A.G., Sangster, G., and L. Svensson. 2008. Species boundaries in the Herring and Lesser Black-backed Gull complex. British Birds 101(7):340-363 and, in part, Pierre Yésou (Dutch Birding 24:271-298, 2002)

.

L. v. mongolicus Sushkin, 1925 e Kazakhstan to Mongolia

.

L. v. vegae Palmén, 1887 ne Siberia

.

Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 EU : c Eurasia to ne China ENG Change  English name of Larus cachinnans from Yellow-legged Gull to Caspian Gull with split of Larus michahellis

.

Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis Naumann, JF, 1840 EU : w AS Larus michahellis is split from L.cachinnans (Sangster et al 2005, AOU 2007); recognized by BOU, AOU. This species retains the English name Yellow-legged Gull of the former, unsplit species. .

.

L. m. atlantis Dwight, 1922 Azore, Madeira and Canary Is.

.

L. m. michahellis Naumann, JF, 1840 w and s Europe, nw Africa, Mediterranean

.

Armenian Gull Larus armenicus Buturlin, 1934 EU : Armenia to e Turkey and nw Iran

.

Slaty-backed Gull Larus schistisagus Stejneger, 1884 EU : coastal ne and e Siberia, n Japan

.

Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus Linnaeus, 1758 EU : w Europe to c Northern Siberia; also Greenland and Iceland TAX Lesser Black-backed Gull includes Heuglin's Gull L. heuglini as subspecies following Collinson, J.M., Parkin, D.T., Knox, A.G., Sangster, G., and L. Svensson. 2008. Species boundaries in the Herring and Lesser Black-backed Gull complex. British Birds 101(7):340-363.

.

L. f. graellsii Brehm, AE, 1857 Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Is., w Europe

.

L. f. intermedius Schiøler, 1922 Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, sw Sweden and w Norway

.

L. f. fuscus Linnaeus, 1758 n Norway, Sweden and Finland to the White Sea

.

L. f. heuglini Bree, 1876 n Russia to nc Siberia

.

L. f. barabensis Johansen, HC, 1960 c Asia

.

Gelochelidon Brehm, CL, 1830

.

Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Worldwide : widespread

.

G. n. nilotica (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Europe, n Africa through the Middle East and sc Asia to w China and Thailand

.

G. n. affinis (Horsfield, 1821) Japan, s and e China through se Asia to Philippines, Sumatra, Sulawesi and Borneo

.

G. n. macrotarsa (Gould, 1837) Australia

.

G. n. aranea (Wilson, A, 1814) e and s USA through Greater Antilles

.

G. n. vanrossemi Bancroft, 1929 s California (USA) to nw Mexico

.

G. n. gronvoldi (Mathews, 1912) French Guiana to ne Argentina

.

Hydroprogne Kaup, 1829

.

Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia (Pallas, 1770) Worldwide : widespread except SA

.

Thalasseus Boie, F, 1822

.

Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus (Boddaert, 1783) NA, LA, AF : coasts

.

T. m. maximus (Boddaert, 1783) s California (USA) to Peru, Florida and West Indies to Argentina

.

T. m. albididorsalis (Hartert, 1921) Mauritania to Guinea

.

Greater Crested Tern Thalasseus bergii (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) AU, OR, AF : coasts of e AF to the s Pacific ENG Change English name of Thalasseus bergii to preferred Greater Crested Tern (2.9)

.

T. b. bergii (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823) Namibia, South Africa and Mozambique SSP Includes enigma. Hockey et al, 2005.

.

T. b. thalassinus (Stresemann, 1914) Tanzania, Madagascar to Mascarenes and Chagos Arch.

.

T. b. velox (Cretzschmar, 1827) Red Sea and nw Somalia to Burma and w Sumatra

.

T. b. cristatus (Stephens, 1826) e China to w, n and e Australia, Ryukyu and Tuamotu Is.

.

Elegant Tern Thalasseus elegans (Gambel, 1849) NA, LA : coastal sw USA and nw Mexico

.

Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis (Lesson, 1831) AF, OR, AU : widespread coasts

.

T. b. bengalensis (Lesson, 1831) Red Sea and Indian Ocean

.

T. b. emigratus (Neumann, 1934) Libya and Persian Gulf

.

T. b. torresii Gould, 1843 Australasia

.

Chinese Crested Tern Thalasseus bernsteini (Schlegel, 1863) EU : islands off China's e coast

.

Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis (Latham, 1787) EU, AF : northern Europe to Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas

.

Cabot's Tern Thalasseus acuflavidus (Cabot, S, 1847) NA, LA : widespread coasts from Virginia to French Guiana, Argentina TAX New World Cabot's Tern  including Cayenne Tern  T. eurygnatha is sister to Elegant Tern, not Sandwich Tern of Europe (AOU, Efe et al. 2009); acuflavida (Cabot 1847) has priority over eurygnatha (Sanders 1876)

.

T. a. acuflavidus (Cabot, S, 1847) e North America to s Caribbean

.

T. a. eurygnathus (Saunders, H, 1876) islands off Venezuela and the Guianas, n and e South America

.

Sternula Boie, F, 1822 TAX See Bridge et al 2005 for revision of tern genera

.

Little Tern Sternula albifrons (Pallas, 1764) AF, EU, OR, AU : widespread

.

S. a. albifrons (Pallas, 1764) Europe and n Africa to c Asia,

.

S. a. guineae (Bannerman, 1931) Mauritania to Gabon

.

S. a. sinensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) India and the Indian Ocean through e and se Asia to Australia

.

Saunders's Tern Sternula saundersi (Hume, 1877) AF, EU : Middle East

.

Least Tern Sternula antillarum Lesson, 1847 NA, MA : widespread

.

S. a. athalassos (Burleigh & Lowery, 1942) c and sc North America

.

S. a. antillarum Lesson, 1847 e and s USA to Honduras, Caribbean, n South America

.

S. a. browni (Mearns, 1916) c California (USA) to w Mexico

.

Yellow-billed Tern Sternula superciliaris (Vieillot, 1819) SA : e Peru, c Colombia and n Venezuela to ne Argentina

.

Peruvian Tern Sternula lorata (Philippi & Landbeck, 1861) SA : coasts Ecuador to Chile

.

Fairy Tern Sternula nereis Gould, 1843 AU : s, sw, w coasts

.

S. n. exsul Mathews, 1912 New Caledonia

.

S. n. davisae Mathews & Iredale, 1913 n North I. (New Zealand)

.

S. n. nereis Gould, 1843 w and s Australia

.

Damara Tern Sternula balaenarum Strickland, 1853 AF : coastal Angola, Namibia and South Africa

.

Onychoprion Wagler, 1832

.

Aleutian Tern Onychoprion aleuticus (Baird, SF, 1869) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts

.

Spectacled Tern Onychoprion lunatus (Peale, 1848) PO : islands of the sw Pacific Ocean

.

Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus (Scopoli, 1786) TrO : widespread

.

O. a. melanopterus (Swainson, 1837) Caribbean Sea and w Africa

.

O. a. antarcticus (Lesson, 1831) Red Sea, Persian Gulf and w Indian Ocean

.

O. a. anaethetus (Scopoli, 1786) e Indian Ocean and w Pacific

.

O. a. nelsoni (Ridgway, 1919) w coast of Mexico and Central America

.

Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus (Linnaeus, 1766) TrO : widespread

.

O. f. fuscatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Gulf of Mexico and West Indies, Gulf of Guinea, s Atlantic

.

O. f. nubilosus (Sparrman, 1788) Red Sea and Indian Ocean to Ryukyu Is., Philippines and Greater Sundas

.

O. f. serratus (Wagler, 1830) w and n Australia and New Guinea through the s Pacific to Easter I.

.

O. f. kermadeci Mathews, 1916 Kermadec, Lord Howe and Norfolk Is.

.

O. f. oahuensis (Bloxam, A, 1827) Bonin Is. (Japan) to the Hawaiian Is. south to Kiritimati (Line Is.)

.

O. f. crissalis (Lawrence, 1872) islands off w Mexico to the Galapagos

.

O. f. luctuosus (Philippi & Landbeck, 1866) Juan Fernández Is. (Chile)

.

Sterna Linnaeus, 1758

.

River Tern Sterna aurantia Gray, JE, 1831 OR : e Pakistan through India to s Vietnam

.

Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii Montagu, 1813 Worldwide : widespread coasts

.

S. d. dougallii Montagu, 1813 e North America, West Indies, Azores, Europe, Africa

.

S. d. arideensis Mathews, 1912 Seychelles to Madagascar and Rodrigues I.

.

S. d. korustes (Hume, 1874) Sri Lanka, Andaman Is. and Mergui Arch. (sw Burma)

.

S. d. bangsi Mathews, 1912 Ryukyu Is. and e China to New Guinea, ne Australia and islands of the sw Pacific

.

S. d. gracilis Gould, 1845 Moluccas, w and n Australia

.

White-fronted Tern Sterna striata Gmelin, JF, 1789 AU : New Zealand

.

Black-naped Tern Sterna sumatrana Raffles, 1822 AF, OR, AU : coasts

.

S. s. mathewsi Stresemann, 1914 islands of the w Indian Ocean

.

S. s. sumatrana Raffles, 1822 islands of e Indian Ocean to islands of w Pacific and Australasia

.

South American Tern Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 SA : coastal Peru and se Brazil to Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Is.

.

Common Tern Sterna hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 EU, NA : widespread

.

S. h. hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 North America to n South America, n and w Africa, Europe to nw Siberia and w China

.

S. h. tibetana Saunders, H, 1876 w Himalayas to w Mongolia and Tibet

.

S. h. minussensis Sushkin, 1925 c Siberia to n Mongolia

.

S. h. longipennis Nordmann, 1835 ne Siberia to ne China

.

White-cheeked Tern Sterna repressa Hartert, 1916 AF, EU : coastal Kenya to coastal Pakistan

.

Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan, 1763 EU, NA : widespread through the north

.

Antarctic Tern Sterna vittata Gmelin, JF, 1789 SO : widespread

.

S. v. tristanensis Murphy, 1938 Tristan da Cunha and Gough Is.

.

S. v. sanctipauli Gould, 1865 St. Paul and Amsterdam Is. SSP Add: Hockey et al 2005

.

S. v. georgiae Reichenow, 1904 South Georgia, South Orkney and South Sandwich Is.

.

S. v. gaini Murphy, 1938 South Shetland Is., Antarctic Pen. and islands

.

S. v. vittata Gmelin, JF, 1789 Prince Edward, Crozet, Kerguelen, Bouvet and Heard Is.

.

S. v. bethunei Buller, 1896 Stewart, Snares, Auckland, Bounty, Antipodes, Campbell and Macquarie Is.

.

Kerguelen Tern Sterna virgata Cabanis, 1875 IO : s islands

.

S. v. mercuri Voisin, 1971 Crozet and Prince Edward Is.

.

S. v. virgata Cabanis, 1875 Kerguelen Is.

.

Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri Nuttall, 1834 NA, MA : sc Canada through the USA to ne Mexico

.

Snowy-crowned Tern Sterna trudeaui Audubon, 1838 SA : se Brazil to e Argentina, c Chile

.

Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda Gray, JE, 1831 OR : India through Southeast Asia

.

Chlidonias Rafinesque, 1822

.

Black-fronted Tern Chlidonias albostriatus (Gray, GR, 1845) AU : New Zealand

.

Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida (Pallas, 1811) AF, EU, OR, AU : widespread

.

C. h. hybrida (Pallas, 1811) n Africa and sw Europe to c Asia, se Siberia, China and se Asia TAX Includes ssps swinhoei and indicus. Dickinson, 2003.

.

C. h. delalandii (Mathews, 1912) s and e Africa, Madagascar TAX Includes C. h. sclateri. Dickinson, 2003.

.

C. h. javanicus (Horsfield, 1821) Australia TAX Synonymous with C. h. fluviatilis. Dickinson, 2003.

.

White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus (Temminck, 1815) EU : e Europe to e Siberia and ne China

.

Black Tern Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : widespread

.

C. n. niger (Linnaeus, 1758) Europe to c Asia

.

C. n. surinamensis (Gmelin, JF, 1789) Canada, n USA

.

Phaetusa Wagler, 1832

.

Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex (Gmelin, JF, 1789) SA : widespread east of Andes to nc Argentina SSP Treat species as monotypic. Clinal. Includes chloropoda. Hellmayr & Conover, 1948.

.

Larosterna Blyth, 1852

.

Inca Tern Larosterna inca (Lesson & Garnot, 1827) SA : coastal n Peru to c Chile

.

.

7 Skuas Family Stercorariidae

.

Stercorarius Brisson, 1760

.

Chilean Skua Stercorarius chilensis Bonaparte, 1857 SA : s coasts and oceans

.

South Polar Skua Stercorarius maccormicki Saunders, H, 1893 AN : coasts

.

Brown Skua Stercorarius antarcticus (Lesson, 1831) SO : oceans and islands ENG Change  English name of Stercorarius antarcticus from Subantarctic Skua to Brown Skua to follow SACC

.

S. a. antarcticus (Lesson, 1831) Falkland Is., se Argentina

.

S. a. hamiltoni (Hagen, 1952) Tristan da Cunha and Gough Is.

.

S. a. lonnbergi (Mathews, 1912) Antarctic Pen. and subantarctic Is.

.

Great Skua Stercorarius skua (Brünnich, 1764) EU : nw islands and coasts

.

Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus (Temminck, 1815) NA, EU : n PHY Stercorarius pomarinus is more closely related to the large skuas than to the traditional jaegers

.

Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n ENG Many prefer  "skua"  to German "jaeger" for Stercorarius parasiticus and S. longicaudus

.

Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot, 1819 NA, EU : n

.

S. l. longicaudus Vieillot, 1819 n Scandinavia and n Russia

.

S. l. pallescens Løppenthin, 1932 e Siberia, arctic North America, Greenland

.

.

25 Auks Family Alcidae

.

Alle Link, 1806

.

Little Auk Alle alle (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n coasts

.

A. a. alle (Linnaeus, 1758) Baffin I. (Canada) to Novaya Zemlya (nw Russia)

.

A. a. polaris Stenhouse, 1930 Frans Josef Land (Russia) to St. Lawrence I. (Alaska)

.

Uria Brisson, 1760

.

Thick-billed Murre Uria lomvia (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n coasts

.

U. l. lomvia (Linnaeus, 1758) ne Canada to Novaya Zemlya (nw Russia)

.

U. l. eleonorae Portenko, 1937 e Taymyr Pen. to New Siberia islands (nc Russia)

.

U. l. heckeri Portenko, 1944 Wrangel and Herald Is., Chukotsk Pen. (ne Russia)

.

U. l. arra (Pallas, 1811) n Japan to the Aleutian Is. and se Alaska

.

Common Murre Uria aalge (Pontoppidan, 1763) NA, EU : n coasts

.

U. a. aalge (Pontoppidan, 1763) e Canada to Iceland, Scotland, s Norway and the Baltic Sea

.

U. a. hyperborea Salomonsen, 1932 n Norway to Svalbard and nw Russia

.

U. a. albionis Witherby, 1923 British Isles to w Iberian Pen.

.

U. a. inornata Salomonsen, 1932 e Korea, Japan through the Bering Sea to w Alaska and sw Canada

.

U. a. californica (Bryant, H, 1861) n Washington to California (USA)

.

Alca Linnaeus, 1758

.

Razorbill Alca torda Linnaeus, 1758 NA, EU : n Atlantic coasts

.

A. t. torda Linnaeus, 1758 ne North America, Greenland to n Scandinavia and the White Sea

.

A. t. islandica Brehm, CL, 1831 Iceland, Faroe Is., British Isles to nw France

.

Pinguinus Bonnaterre, 1791

.

Great Auk Pinguinus impennis (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n North Atlantic

.

Cepphus Pallas, 1769

.

Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle (Linnaeus, 1758) NA, EU : n coasts

.

C. g. mandtii (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1822) ne Canada to Svalbard to n Siberia and n Alaska

.

C. g. arcticus (Brehm, CL, 1824) ne USA, se Canada and s Greenland to the British Isles, s Scandinavia and the White Sea

.

C. g. islandicus Hørring, 1937 Iceland

.

C. g. faeroeensis Brehm, CL, 1831 Faroe Is.

.

C. g. grylle (Linnaeus, 1758) Baltic Sea

.

Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba Pallas, 1811 EU, NA : n Pacific coasts

.

C. c. snowi Stejneger, 1897 n and c Kuril Is. (se Russia)

.

C. c. kaiurka Portenko, 1937 Commander Is.(se Russia) to wc Aleutian Is.

.

C. c. columba Pallas, 1811 ne Siberia through the Bering Sea.

.

C. c. adiantus Storer, 1950 c Aleutian Is. to nw USA (Washingon) SSP Add: Ewins, 1993; Nettleship, 1996

.

C. c. eureka Storer, 1950 w USA (Oregon, California) SSP Add: Ewins, 1993; Nettleship, 1996

.

Spectacled Guillemot Cepphus carbo Pallas, 1811 EU : ne coasts

.

Brachyramphus von Brandt, JF, 1837

.

Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus marmoratus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) NA : nw coasts

.

Long-billed Murrelet Brachyramphus perdix (Pallas, 1811) EU : ne coasts

.

Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris (Vigors, 1829) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts

.

Synthliboramphus von Brandt, JF, 1837

.

Guadalupe Murrelet Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xántus de Vésey, 1860) MA : nw Baja California (Mexico) ENG Change English name of S. hypoleucus from Xantus's Murrelet to Guadalupe Murrelet (NACC 2011-C-14b)

.

Scripps's Murrelet Synthliboramphus scrippsi (Green & Arnold, 1939) NA, MA : Channel Is. (California, USA) and islands off w Baja California (Mexico) AS Scripps's Murrelet is split from Guadalupe [Xantus's] Murrelet (Sibley and Monroe 1993, Nettleship 1996, Birt et al 2012, NACC 2011-14-C)

.

Craveri's Murrelet Synthliboramphus craveri (Salvadori, 1865) NA, MA : w coasts

.

Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts

.

S. a. antiquus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) ne Asia, the Aleutian Is. to s Alaska

.

S. a. microrhynchos Stepanyan, 1972 Commander Is. (se Russia)

.

Japanese Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Temminck, 1836) EU : Japan, coasts

.

Ptychoramphus von Brandt, JF, 1837

.

Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pallas, 1811) NA : nw coasts

.

P. a. aleuticus (Pallas, 1811) Aleutian Is. and s Alaska to n Baja California (Mexico)

.

P. a. australis van Rossem, 1939 s Baja California (Mexico)

.

Aethia Merrem, 1788

.

Parakeet Auklet Aethia psittacula (Pallas, 1769) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts

.

Least Auklet Aethia pusilla (Pallas, 1811) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts

.

Whiskered Auklet Aethia pygmaea (Gmelin, JF, 1789) EU, NA : nc, nw Pacific coasts

.

Crested Auklet Aethia cristatella (Pallas, 1769) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts

.

Cerorhinca Bonaparte, 1828

.

Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas, 1811) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts

.

Fratercula Brisson, 1760

.

Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica (Linnaeus, 1758) EU, NA : e Canada and ne USA, Greenland, Iceland and nw Europe to Novaya Zemlya (nw Russia) SSP Treat species as monotypic. Clinal. Includes grabae and naumanni. Sangster et al, 2005.

.

Horned Puffin Fratercula corniculata (Naumann, JF, 1821) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts

.

Tufted Puffin Fratercula cirrhata (Pallas, 1769) EU, NA : n Pacific coasts

.

.

ORDER PTEROCLIFORMES PHY,TAX The sandgrouse are treated as a separate Order Pterocliformes because their relationships to other modern birds remain uncertain.

.

16 Sandgrouse Family Pteroclidae

.

Syrrhaptes Illiger, 1811

.

Tibetan Sandgrouse Syrrhaptes tibetanus Gould, 1850 EU : Tajikistan through Tibet to wc China

.

Pallas's Sandgrouse Syrrhaptes paradoxus (Pallas, 1773) EU : w Kazahkstan to ne and ec China

.

Pterocles Temminck, 1815

.

Pin-tailed Sandgrouse Pterocles alchata (Linnaeus, 1766) EU, AF : sw EU, n AF

.

P. a. alchata (Linnaeus, 1766) Iberian Pen., se France

.

P. a. caudacutus (Gmelin, SG, 1774) n Africa through the Middle East to s Kazakhstan and Pakistan

.

Namaqua Sandgrouse Pterocles namaqua (Gmelin, JF, 1789) AF : Angola, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa

.

Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles exustus Temminck, 1825 AF, EU, OR : w AF to India

.

P. e. floweri Nicoll, 1921 Egypt

.

P. e. exustus Temminck, 1825 Mauritania, Senegal and Gambia to c Sudan

.

P. e. ellioti Bogdanov, 1881 se Sudan, Eritrea, n Ethiopia, Somalia

.

P. e. olivascens (Hartert, 1909) sw Ethiopia, Kenya, n Tanzania

.

P. e. erlangeri (Neumann, 1909) w and s Arabian Pen.

.

P. e. hindustan Meinertzhagen, R, 1923 se Iran, Pakistan, India

.

Spotted Sandgrouse Pterocles senegallus (Linnaeus, 1771) AF, EU : nw AF to nw India

.

Black-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis (Linnaeus, 1758) EU : sw, also n AF

.

P. o. orientalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Canary Is., Iberian Pen., Morocco to w Iran

.

P. o. arenarius (Pallas, 1775) Kazakhstan to s Iran and Afghanistan, east to nw China

.

Yellow-throated Sandgrouse Pterocles gutturalis Smith, A, 1836 AF : e, sc

.

P. g. saturatior Hartert, 1900 Ethiopia to n Zambia

.

P. g. gutturalis Smith, A, 1836 s Zambia to South Africa

.

Crowned Sandgrouse Pterocles coronatus Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823 AF, EU : w AF to Pakistan

.

P. c. coronatus Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823 w and c Sahara to e Egypt and n Sudan

.

P. c. vastitas Meinertzhagen, R, 1928 Sinai Pen. (ne Egypt) to Israel and Jordan

.

P. c. saturatus Kinnear, 1927 n Oman

.

P. c. atratus Hartert, 1902 Arabian Pen. to s Afghanistan

.

P. c. ladas Koelz, 1954 Pakistan

.

Black-faced Sandgrouse Pterocles decoratus Cabanis, 1868 AF : e

.

P. d. ellenbecki Erlanger, 1905 s Ethiopia and s Somalia to n Kenya and ne Uganda

.

P. d. decoratus Cabanis, 1868 se Kenya, e Tanzania

.

P. d. loveridgei (Friedmann, 1928) sw Kenya, c Tanzania

.

Madagascan Sandgrouse Pterocles personatus Gould, 1843 AF : Madagascar

.

Lichtenstein's Sandgrouse Pterocles lichtensteinii Temminck, 1825 AF, EU : nw AF to Pakistan

.

P. l. targius Geyr von Schweppenburg, 1916 Morocco and Mauritania to Chad

.

P. l. lichtensteinii Temminck, 1825 ne Chad, n Sudan to Eritrea and n Somalia, e and ne Egypt to Jordan

.

P. l. sukensis Neumann, 1909 se Sudan, s Ethiopia to c Kenya

.

P. l. arabicus Neumann, 1909 s Arabian Pen. through s Iran and Afghanistan to Pakistan

.

P. l. ingramsi Bates & Kinnear, 1937 Hadhramaut (s Yemen)

.

Painted Sandgrouse Pterocles indicus (Gmelin, JF, 1789) OR : India

.

Four-banded Sandgrouse Pterocles quadricinctus Temminck, 1815 AF : Senegal and Gambia to Eritrea, Ethiopia and w Kenya

.

Double-banded Sandgrouse Pterocles bicinctus Temminck, 1815 AF : s

.

P. b. ansorgei (Benson, 1947) sw Angola

.

P. b. bicinctus Temminck, 1815 Namibia, Botswana, nw South Africa

.

P. b. multicolor Hartert, 1908 Zambia and Malawi to w Mozambique and ne South Africa

.

Burchell's Sandgrouse Pterocles burchelli Sclater, WL, 1922 AF : s Angola and Namibia through Botswana to Zimbabwe and South Africa